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DAC1 Ch 17, 18

A legacy system
is an old system that is fast approaching or beyond the end of its useful life within an organization
Conversion
is the process of transferring information from a legacy system to a new system
Software customization
modifies software to meet specific user or business requirements
Off-the-shelf application software
supports general business processes and does not require any specific software customization to meet organization’s needs
The systems development life cycle (SDLC)
is the overall process for developing information systems, from planning and analysis through implementation and maintenance
The planning phase
establishes a high-level plan of the intended project and determines project goals
A change agent
is a person or event that is the catalyst for implementing major changes for a system to meet business needs
Brainstorming
is a technique for generating ideas by encouraging participants to offer as many ideas as possible in a short period without any analysis until all the ideas have been exhausted
A project
is a temporary activity a company undertakes to create a unique product, service, or result
Project management
is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements
A project manager
is an individual who is an expert in project planning and management, defines and develops the project plan, and tracks the plan to ensure the project is completed on time and on budget
The project scope
describes the business need and the justification, requirements, and current boundaries for the project
The project plan
is a formal, approved document that manages and controls the entire project
In the analysis phase
the firm analyzes its end-user business requirements and refines project goals into defined functions and operations of the intended system
Business requirements
are the specific business requests the system must meet to be successful, so the analysis phase is critical because business requirements drive the entire systems development effort
Requirements management
is the process of managing changes to the business requirements throughout the project
A requirements definition document
prioritizes all of the business requirements by order of importance to the company
Sign-off
consists of the users’ actual signatures indicating they approve all of the business requirements
Process modeling
involves graphically representing the processes that capture, manipulate, store, and distribute information between a system and its environment
A data flow diagram (DFD)
illustrates the movement of information between external entities and the processes and data stores within the system
Computer-aided software engineering (CASE)
tools are software suites that automate systems analysis, design, and development used by Software Engineers
The design phase
establishes descriptions of the desired features and operations of the system, including screen layouts, business rules, process diagrams, pseudo code, and other documentation
The graphical user interface (GUI)
is the interface to the information system
The development phase
takes all the detailed design documents from the design phase and transforms them into the actual system
Software engineering
is a disciplined approach for constructing information systems through the use of common methods, techniques, or tools
Control objects for information and related technology (COBIT)
is a set of best practices that helps an organization to maximize the benefits of an information system, while at the same time establishing appropriate controls to ensure minimum errors
A scripting language
is a programming method that provides for interactive modules to a website
Object-oriented languages
group data and corresponding processes into objects
The testing phase
brings all the project pieces together into a special testing environment to eliminate errors and bugs and verify that the system meets all the business requirements defined in the analysis phase
In the implementation phase
the organization places the system into production so users can begin to perform actual business operations with it
User documentation
is created that highlights how to use the system and how to troubleshoot issues or problems
Online training
runs over the Internet or on a CD or DVD, and employees complete the training on their own time at their own pace
Workshop training
is held in a classroom environment and led by an instructor
In the maintenance phase
the organization performs changes, corrections, additions, and upgrades to ensure the system continues to meet business needs
Corrective maintenance
makes system changes to repair design flaws, coding errors, or implementation issues
Preventative maintenance
makes system changes to reduce the chance of future system failure
Test conditions
detail the steps the system must perform along with the expected result of each step
A methodology
is a set of policies, procedures, standards, processes, practices, tools, techniques, and tasks that people apply to technical and management challenges
Waterfall methodology
a sequence of phases in which the output of each phase becomes the input for the next
Prototyping
is a modern design approach where the designers and system users use an iterative approach to building the system
discovery prototyping
builds a small-scale representation or working model of the system to ensure it meets the user and business requirements
iterative development
consists of a series of tiny projects
An agile methodology
aims for customer satisfaction through early and continuous delivery of useful software components developed by an iterative process using the bare minimum requirements
Rapid application development (RAD) methodology
emphasizes extensive user involvement in the rapid and evolutionary construction of working prototypes of a system, to accelerate the system development process
Extreme programming (XP) methodology
breaks a project into four phases, and developers cannot continue to the next phase until the previous phase is complete
The rational unified process (RUP) methodology
owned by IBM, provides a framework for breaking down the development of software into four gates
Gate One: Inception
This phase ensures all stakeholders have a shared understanding of the proposed system and what it will do
Gate Two: Elaboration
This phase expands on the agreed-upon details of the system, including the ability to provide an architecture to support and build it
Gate Three: Construction
This phase includes building and developing the product
Gate Four: Transition
Primary questions answered in this phase address ownership of the system and training of key personnel
Scrum methodology
uses small teams to produce small pieces of software using a series of sprints, or 30-day intervals, to achieve an appointed goal

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