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Dessler Human Resource Management Chapter 14

ethics
principles of conduct governing an individual or a group
morality
society’s accepted standards of behavior
Title VII of The Civil Rights Act
gives employee right to bring legal charges against an employer if believe discriminated against due to race
unalienable rights
rights flowing from broader, unwritten beliefs that people hold (like life, liberty, pursuit of happiness)
public policy
political decisions for implementing programs to achieve societal goals (like sick leave laws)
National Labor Relations Act
public policy, established right of employees to engage in collective bargaining
Landrum Griffin Act
public policy, “Bill of Rights” for union members to protect them from mistreatment from their unions
Fair Labor Standards Act
public policy, right to minimum wage and overtime pay
Occupational Safety and Health Act
public policy, right to refuse work under unsafe conditions
fair treatment
concrete actions such as treating employees fairly and with respect
procedural justice
fair processes
distributive justice
fair outcomes/fairness of a decision’s result
social responsibility
responsibility to treat customers and employees well, extent to which companies should and do channel resources toward improving one or more segments of society than the firm’s owners/stockholders
Bullying
singling out someone to harass and mistreat; has three things (imbalance of power, intent to cause harm, repetition); can be verbal, social, physical, or cyberbullying
Bad apples, bad cases, bad barrel
When people inclined to make unethical decisions deal with ethical solutions ripe for unethical choices while working in company environments that foster or condone unethical choices, then unethical behavior may happen.
Bad apples
having certain traits (morally disengaged – not stressed when unethical, age – younger are less moral, honesty testing show some people less inclined to make wrong ethical choice), level of cognitive moral development
Bad cases
Smaller (less victims) cases leads to more bad choices
Bad barrels
Everyone for themselves environment is worse. Can make more ethical environment by clarifying range of acceptable behavior, reducing job related pressure (meeting work schedules, helping company survive are bigger reasons than personal gain), reducing pressure from boss (boss being ethical), having ethics policies and codes, ask employees to question decisions (how will it look in newspaper, does it fit with company mission), enforce rules (do ethics audit), encourage whistleblowers, have fraud controls, have good culture
Organizational culture
characteristic values (basic belief about what is wrong/right), traditions, and behaviors a company’s employees share; create right culture by clarifying expectations, using signs and symbols (model ethical behavior), and provide physical support (reward ethical behavior)
Selection Tools
hire more ethical people, screen for ethics in application, treat applicants fairly
Training Tools
ethics training is mandatory since 1991 because government gives reduced penalties for those with codes of conduct and training; show employees how to handle ethical dilemmas, include participation of top managers to emphasize commitment
Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
makes ethics training more important
HRIS
use online tools to make ethics training cheaper and easier
Performance Appraisal Tools
unfair appraisals signal the employer condones unethical behavior; include ethical goals in appraisals
Privacy Policies
invasions of privacy seen as unethical; intrusion (locker room or email surveillance), publication (of private matters), disclosure (of medical records), and appropriation (of employee name or likeness for commercial processes) are privacy violations; monitoring often done to increase profit
Social media & HR
creates more fuzziness, 40% of employers have formal policy governing social media use by employees, but cannot be too strict
Electronic Communications Privacy Act
intended in part to restrict interception and monitoring of oral and wire communications, but with two exceptions: employers who can show a legitimate business reason for doing so and employers who have employees’ consent to do so
common-law protections against invasion of pricacy
second restriction on workplace monitoring (other is ECPA), protections that have evolved from court decisions
Reward and Discipline Systems
use fairly on all (including executives) to promote ethics
discipline
a means to encourage employees to adhere to rules and regulations, but must be a fair and thought out processes
Three pillars of fair discipline process
rules and regulations (clear rules to inform employees of what is and is not acceptable, should be written in employee handbook), penalties (system of progressive penalties depending on offense and repetition), appeals process (ensure supervisors mete out discipline fairly)
Diversity
is important keep factors/bias in mind, women treated more harshly than men if act unexpectedly
Discipline without punishment
no one likes being punished, punishment tends to gain short-term compliance but not long-term so avoid these drawbacks by reducing punitive nature of discipline through system of oral warnings and paid decision making leaves
dismissal
involuntary termination of an employee’s employment with the firm
employee relations
activity of establishing and maintaining the positive employee-employer relationships that contribute to satisfactory productivity, morale, motivation, and discipline as well as maintaining a positive, productive, and cohesive work environment

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