Developing Interacting Skills
1. Problem Sensing. There are a number of ways in which problems of a team can be identified. Often the team itself defines which aspects of teambuilding it wishes to work on. This problem can better be identified in terms of what is hindering group effectiveness. At this stage, generally most of the members come forward with their arguments as to what the real problems are. The views may be quite different ranging from the organizational problem, groups problems to even personal problems. In problem identification, the emphasis should be on consensus.
The consensus seeking part of the process necessitates that each person becomes thoroughly aware and understand clearly the basic concepts of team-development. Much of the problems may be solved through effective communication and training sessions. 2. Examining Effects of Differences in Perception. The perception of people on an issue differs because of their differing backgrounds, such as, their value systems, personality, and attitudes. The perception maybe brought to conformity through the process of exercise on perception, which involves a number of psychological exercises particularly on perceptual differences.
The role of communication is important in this context because it will help in clarifying the actual problems to the members. 3. Giving
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The feedback should be given to the members about their feelings, about the issue, the way people talk about the issue, the staying with the topic or going off on tangents, who was talking more or who was talking less, who was trying to resolve the differences, etc. Such feedback generally provides members to evaluate the values but at the same time also provides opportunity to understand them. 4. Developing Interacting Skills. The basic objective of this process is to increase the ability among the people as to how they should interact with others and engage in constructive behavior.
Following are the examples of constructive and negative behaviors: Constructive Behavior: (i) Building: developing and expanding the ideas of others. (ii) Bringing in: harmonizing, encouraging others to participate. (iii) Clarifying: resting, ensuring, understanding, and seeking relevant information. (iv) Innovating: bringing in new relevant ideas, information, feelings etc. Negative Behavior: (i) Over talk: interrupting, talking together with speaker. (ii) Attacking: deriding, belittling, and criticizing person. (iii) Negating: cooling, cynicism, undermining morale.
At the time of discussion of feedback, people take themselves assignments to increase specific constructive behaviors and decrease specific negative behaviors. If this process is adopted several times, there is a strong possibility that members may learn constructive behaviors and leave negative behavior. This is quite helpful in developing teamwork. 4. Elements of Management Development at work Management Development helps us to analyze the optimum level of performance of an organization and to know where the organization is where it wants to be and how can it go there.
The techniques of Management Development consist of methods drawn from behavioral science, which aim at developing resources, a skill within the organization to face the problems, anticipate issues and to plan and to deal with them. The various elements of Management Development can be classified into the following two groups: I. (a) Inter-personnel competence. (b) Self-awareness. (c) Communication ability. (d) Ability to manage conflict and tolerance. (e) Managerial grid. II. (a) Problem solving ability. (b) Goal setting ability. (c) Planning ability.
(d) Understanding the process of change. 5. Concept of Management Development Management Development believes that organizational members can learn to describe its culture and can be helped to plan what it should be like and in assisting the organization to change from what it is to-what it should be. The essential characteristic of Management Development is the involvement of the people in the organization to carry out various activities. These activities are designed to meet the organizational objective with and around the inter-action of groups within the organization.
Management development feels that it pays to confront, it lays emphasis on trust and openness, it aims to develop, increase understanding between and within groups in order to reduce tensions and introduce team management. Management development objectives are to improve organizational effectiveness and organizational health. Objectives of Management l development can be outlined as follows: (a) Sensing the problem. (b) Choosing Consultant. (c) Joint Diagnosis. (d) Strategic Planning. (e) Developing change agents Management Development Manager is required to have the following objectives:
(a) To help the organization to adapt to internal and external changes. (b) To organize and conduct the team building programme. (c) To prevent unplanned organizational changes to take place. (d) To undertake organization diagnosis and to bring the diagnosis to the top management’s notice. (e) To work as internal change agents 6. Need of Management Development For an individual to make personal changes on the job, an organizational climate should exist to support these changes. Otherwise, training the individual will have little or on impact on the organization.
Developing the system to support the desired individual change is a basic part of the management development. Developing- the system involves building more effective interpersonal relationship among members of the working group. For example, the team may become more efficient, responsive, flexible and creative from the point of view of the organization. The concept of team building lies in the art of management development but organization effectiveness requires more than effective teams. Management Development is not a programme or a project rather it is a continuing process.
This process may involve certain projects, planning and implementation of a changed specific programme such as seminars, conferences, appraisal, interviews with an object to develop better procedures and supporting climate for dealing with organization problems. Technological change in industries are well planned and implemented with considerable care but organization change that is modifying some part of organization structure or implementing a new process of work is often not deliberately planned but haphazard activity. Planning, implementing and evaluating these organization changes are part of Management Development.
It can be correctly said; “Management development is best facilitated by identifying and taking advantage of learning opportunities at work, as opposed to a programme of planned development off-the-job. ” 7. Organization learning in an organization Organization learning refers to the process of bringing together physical, financial and human resources and establishing productive relations among them for the achievement of specific goals, It is concerned with building up a stable framework or structure of various interrelated parts of an enterprise, each part having its own function and being centrally regulated.
Organization learning focuses on the way people make sense of their experiences at work. The aim of organizing is to enable people to relate other and to work together for a common purpose. The organized group of people in a collective sense is known as organization. (Yvonne 129) “Organization learning is the process of identifying and grouping work to be performed, defining and delegating responsibility relationships for the purpose of enabling people to work more effectively together in accomplishing objectives. ” (Yvonne 149) -Louis Allen 8.
Management development by learning opportunities at work The learning organization is the general term given to strategies and initiatives for improving organizational success through emphasis on developing the capabilities, capacities and qualities of the workforce, and on approaches based on behavioral, attitudinal and professional enhancement. This is an organization-wide strategic process, designed to integrate all activities with staff collective and individual development and enhancement, depending on its adoption across the board in all departments and functions.
This strategic development draws on the direct relationship between the development of staff and commercial success and service quality advancement. To be effective, the learning organization approaches implemented in the organization must reflect the actual levels of investment and corporate willingness present, requiring continuous investment and priority in expertise and administration, so that institutional delivery and support remain of the highest possible quality.
BASKET is a means of defining the collective and individual need to attend to any organization’s long term development and reinforcement of their business strategy and policy needs, using 6 elements: B Behavior Attending to the required standard of behavior and ensuring that staff confirms to these A Attitudes Engendering the desired and required attitudes and individual and collective values as a key o culture development S Skills Attention to skills, development and enhancement both for the present
and Future K Knowledge Developing general, organizational and environmental knowledge, as well as that specifically required for particular jobs and occupations. E Expertise developing all round capability in product and service delivery and quality, and including attention o suppliers, customers, financial interests and the community. T Technological So that returns on investments on specific items or equipments are Proficiency maximized. 9.
Self-Development Process as a part of management development in an organization Self Development is the most effective means of training because of the unsolicited commitment involved. Self Development is the core of Management development process. All the development is self-development. Training is a process of increasing the skills and knowledge of employees to enable them to perform their job well while development is more akin to education. The initiative for development has to be taken by the individual himself.
Development is a process of becoming potentialities. At each stage of development there are specific tasks such as: skills, attitudes, understandings which are appropriate to that level of maturity and which society expects the individual to master. Self development has emerged as major concept in management development. Total Quality is an expression of the need for continuous improvement in four areas. • Interpersonal effectiveness, • Personal and Professional Development, • Managerial effectiveness, • Organizational Productivity. Interpersonal Relations
Total Quality on an interpersonal level means making constant deposits into the emotional bank accounts of others. It is continuously building goodwill and negotiating in good faith and not under fear. Emotional bank account can evaporate fast particularly when expectations of continuous communication and improvement are violated. If communication does not take place, people begin to tap into their memories and into their fears and spin off negative scenario and start planning based on the negative feelings. Personal and Professional Development
Personality and skill development is a process of ongoing improvement or profession-a constant upward spiral. It is a process of total integrity around your value system and part of the value system means you are always getting better, personally and professionally. The common denominator of success is a strong empowering, guiding, inspiring, uplifting purpose. The purpose is to unleash one’s creative capacities. Managerial Effectiveness It means nurturing “Win-Win” performance and making sure that they are aligned with what is happening inside creates inter functional teamwork.
Organizational Productivity Productivity is the essence of real leadership. A leader is a product of principles, values, attitude beliefs and behavior and transforms the situation and people in line with organization mission and objectives. 10. Conclusion It is important that top management gives full leadership and active support to Management Development efforts in order to make it successful and operative in the organization. If the top management is giving a lip service then it is quite critical to succeed on Management Development programme.
It is vital that all levels of management are involved in any change of process. Management development concentrates on the development of people in such a way that the development of the organization is ensured. References 1. Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behavior, Prentice Hall of India, Tenth Edition. Pg. 559-560, Pg. 577-579. 2. Garry Dessler, Human Resource Management, Eastern Economy edition. Pg 465-479. 3. Randy L. Desimone, Jon M. Werner and David M. Harris, Human Resource Development, Pearson education.
Pg. 21, Pg 225-239, Pg. 575-579 4. Darwin Cartwright, Achieving Change in People: Some Implications of Group Dynamics Theory; Human Relations, 1991, pp. 388-391. 5. Sharma MC. (2004). Business Studies. S Chand & Company. New Delhi. Pp 10-20 6. Ahuja K. (2005) Human Resource Management. Kalyani Publishers. Calcutta. Pp 880-883 7. Cummings & Worley, Organization Culture and Change , 2005, page 490-512 8. www. shrm. org 9. www. valuebasedmanagement. net 10. http://www. nsba. org/sbot/toolkit/Conflict. html