Developing new technologies
Information technology transforms the mode of communication and work processes. Custom or standardized operations are replaced with skilled and multi-skilled workers. An extremely trained labor force is desired to manage information technology. Worker motivation and satisfaction might improve since workers are no longer restricted to routine operations, enjoy management powers, and can contribute to developments in their work processes. New technology also has an impact on the organization itself, as follows:
Organizational reformation is required. This reformation makes the organization flat. Decision-making powers are decentralized. Communications are better and the organization ...
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...is capable to make timely responses to its environment. Introduction of new products and services is improved and varieties of products can be efficiently introduced and marketed by the organization. The organization is competent to improve its efficiency, quality, and competitiveness. Today’s advanced technology can, conversely, easily become a basic technology.
A rapid increase of new technologies also brings rapid obsolescence of earlier technologies. Policies concerning technology must not be static; they must keep evolving. Stalk (1988) points out that “competitive advantage is a persistently moving target . . . The best competitors, the most thriving ones, know how to keep moving and always stay on the cutting edge. ” A company should be able to evaluate potential new technologies quickly. The goal must be to remain competitive, and effective management of technology is a vital step in achieving this.
With an increased focus on customer satisfaction, technology is a decisive means for achieving customer satisfaction. Browning (1990) notes that a learning organization “uses technology incessantly to refresh its knowledge of its customers’ wants and to work out new ways of satisfying them. ” This commitment to be a learning organization needs vast resources, however. For example, Browning also points out that building a learning organization “necessitates new skills, clever people and capable machines.
” Noticeably, technology and human resources should be used together for the organization to stay competitive. Barabba and Zaltman (1991) note that “hearing the accent of the market and making constructive use of it with respect to the voice of the firm is a learning progression. ” Essentially, the voice of the market has to be interpreted into facts and tasks that will lead to suitable products or services to satisfy customer needs. This is related to the application of quality function deployment, whereby the organization expands its strategic plans to assure customer needs.
Thus, a learning organization should also be a caring organization. As a caring organization, its major objective is to please its stock or stakeholders, its customers, and employees, and also to be collectively responsible. The traditional organization, with the focus on satisfying stockholders alone, is varying to this new form, with a sophisticated stakeholder group. Thus, Technology and human resources’ management are recognized as key variables that facilitate an organization to improve its productivity, quality, and competitiveness.
A critical constituent is the information technology, which offers both opportunities and challenges. The organization should show understanding to its environment via its policies, and be learning and caring organization, as time and reliability influence competitiveness. Finally, organizations should innovate and constantly move to achieve new targets, particularly in view of today’s rapidly developing new technologies. This is not to deny that the extent of interaction has increased gradually over time, though the time involved has been centuries somewhat than the last few decades.
The diverse industrial revolutions paced this up. Basically, once two societies’ trade, they become mutually dependent. The stock markets subside in New York in 1929 triggered the Great Depression in all parts of the world with any momentous economic relationships with the United States. Interactions were closer than they had been previously and they were to become even faster. The complex capitalist economies were tied intimately together in the long run even if short-term fluctuations were less rapidly passed on (Aiki S. 1991).