Different management theories
Different Management Theories provide school heads with opportunity to enhance their knowledge and skills in operating and managing an organization. Definitely, these became very essential to managers for it helps them to maximize their capabilities and competencies in engaging themselves with Managerial tasks. The following are some of the Management theories being presented and how it became helpful to managers and school heads.
1.1. Under Taylor’s Scientific Management theory, organizations are managed through scientific methods to create a more systematic and productive work place. Through his theory, he helps managers to develop a concept of making management more efficient in a scientific way rather than continuing with its past traditions. This management theory has been very helpful to managers in order for them to realize that by increasing efficiency and wages of the workers, the productivity will also increase.
This also enables the manager to select the right employee for a certain job, by using the Scientific Selection Procedures. Meaning to say, rather than simply assign workers to just any job, match workers to their jobs based on capability and motivation, and train them to work at maximum efficiency. For instance, a supervisor and worker with such low level of education were
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1.2. Fayol focused his Management Theory on efficiency through management training and behavioral characteristics. His writings provided guidance to managers on how to accomplish their managerial duties, and the practices in which they should be engaged. Primarily, it gives the manager a better understanding of the importance of forecasting and planning, in order to train management and improve workplace productivity. Henri Fayol,’s Management Theory allows manager to develop the idea that management skills could be learned by the workers. Thus, he believed that the higher you go in the organization, the more management skills you need and the less expertise required. The reverse is thought to be true for the workers at the bottom of the pyramid.
1.3. Max Weber proposed that a form of organization, called a Bureaucracy, which refers to the management of large organizations characterized by division of labor, hierarchy, formalized rules, impersonality, and the selection and promotion of employees based on ability, would lead to more efficient management.
Weber also contended that managers’ authority in an organization should be based not on tradition or charisma, but on the position held by managers in the organizational hierarchy. It is important to note that typically, hierarchical pyramid of authority in which every level has distinctive jurisdictional areas, but all governed by rational policies or rules. For example, managers undertake certain specific trainings to run their offices and carry out their duties through files and written documents. In addition, through Weber’s Bureaucratic System, managers are guided with a guideline that personnel should be hired on the grounds of technical competence, as well as work being assigned based on the experience and competence of the individual.
1.4. Behavioral Management Theory by Elton Mayo relies on the notion that managers will have to better understand the human aspect of workers and treat employees as important assets to achieve goals. Management taking a special interest in workers makes them feel like part of a special group. This theory has been very essential for school managers in order for them to maintain harmonious relationship among their employees. This theory will help the manager to better understand that he needs to find out what motivate the employees to work harder.
This gave way to the notion that workers are intrinsically motivated to work. When work is self-fulfilling and brings a high degree of satisfaction, productivity is high. With this, managers shifted focus from mere production and began building strong relationships with workers. Some of the ways to do this are: managers provided employees with positive feedback and appraisals, good working conditions, involvement in decision-making and good communication. Definitely, this theory would just want to imply that showing concern to workers will help the organization to attain its goals and objectives, for workers have high productivity because they experience increased satisfaction.
1.5. Douglas McGregor has strongly believed, in his Management Theory X and Y that: “staff will contribute more to the organization if they are treated as responsible and valued employees.” Gregor’s theory suggests that if management explained why certain actions were necessary for the good of the company, workers would cooperate without browbeating. Another thing, this will help the manager make workers act like mature adults, and would make the goals of the company their goals.
This motivational theory of McGregor definitely leaves a great contribution in the field of management for it helps managers to realize the following: that at some time, managers have to use of tight control and supervision. It implies that employees are reluctant to organizational changes. Thus, it does not encourage innovation; and that manager, most of the time, should create and encourage a work environment which provides opportunities to employees to take initiative and self-direction. Employees should be given opportunities to contribute to organizational well-being. In the real world, we have seen this time and time again as a group of employees agrees to put off raises, or even to take a pay cut to help a company through tough times. In other words, Theory X and Theory Y as a basis for understanding and improving motivation in an organization can be directly applied and utilized by a school manager to attain the school’s vision, mission, goals and objectives.
The contingency theory is based on the idea that the proper management technique in a given situation depends upon the nature and conditions of that situation. Hence, it is also called the Situation Approach. Different situations demand different solution. The basic concept of the contingency theory is that there is no best way to plan, organize or control. A technique that works in one situation will not necessarily work in all situations.
There cannot be universal principles of management appropriate to all situations. The contingency theory seeks to match different situation with different management methods. According to contingency theory, the correct management practice or managerial behavior in a particular situation and at a particular time depends on a many variables. Thus, it helps the manager to become more flexible in coping with diverse situation that occur. In addition, contingency model of management gives opportunity for managers to develop a wide range of alternative behavior through study and practice. The major contribution of this theory to management reminds the manager that there is no one best way to do anything in the world of management.