Different Phases of HR Management
Orientation?acquainting new employees with the firm Maintaining human resources consists primarily of encouraging employees to remain with the firm and to work effectively. 0 Typical activities emphasize employee relations, compensation, and benefits to reward employee effort. 0 The development phase of HARM is concerned with improving employees’ skills and expanding their capabilities. There are two important activities in this phase. 1 . Training and development ?teaching employees new skills, new Jobs, and more effective ways of doing their present Jobs 2.
Performance appraisal ?assessing employees’ current and potential performance levels 0 In general, human resources management is a shared responsibility of line managers and staff HARM specialists. 1. In very small organizations, the owner handles all or most HARM activities. 2. As the firm grows, a human resources manager is hired to take over most of the staff responsibilities. 3. As growth continues, additional staff positions are added as needed. 4. In large firms, HARM activities tend to be very highly specialized. . Human resources planning and Job analysis are usually done by staff specialists, with input from line managers. . Recruiting and selection are generally handled by staff experts, although line managers are involved in the actual hiring decisions. C.
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However, line managers recommend pay increases and promotions. Human resources planning is the development of strategies to meet the firm’s future human resources needs. Strategic Planning Human Resource Planning Forecasting Human Resource Requirements Comparing Requirements and Availability Surplus of Workers Restricted Hiring, Reduced Hours, Early Retirement, Layoffs, Downsizing Forecasting Human Resource Availability Demand = Supply No Action Shortage of Workers Recruitment Selection Forecasting Human Resources Demand.
Forecasts of the demand for human resources in an organization should be based on as much relevant information as planners can gather. 1. The firm’s overall strategic plan will provide information about future business ventures, new products, and projected expansions or interactions of particular product lines. 2. This and other information should be used to determine both the number of employees who will be required and their qualifications, including skills, experience, and knowledge.
Forecasting Human Resources Supply. The human resources supply forecast must take into account both the present workforce and any changes or movements that may occur within it. Two techniques for forecasting human resources supply are useful. 1. A replacement chart is a list of the key personnel, along with possible replacements within the firm. 0 2. A skills inventory is a computerized data bank intonating information on the skills and experience of all present employees. Matching Supply with Demand.
Once they have forecasts of both the demand for personnel and the firm’s supply of personnel, planners can devise a course of action for matching the two. When demand is forecast to be greater than supply, plans must be made to recruit and select new employees. 0 When supply is forecast to be greater than demand, the firm must take steps to reduce the size of its workforce. Job analysis is a systematic procedure for studying Jobs to determine their various elements and requirements. The Job analysis for a particular position typically consists of two parts.
Job description Job specification Tasks Responsibilities Duties staffing training and Development Job Analysis Job Descriptions Job Specifications Performance Appraisal Compensation Safety and Health Employee and Labor Relations Legal Considerations Knowledge Skills Abilities Joy ascription A last AT ten elements Tanat make up a particular JODI U Duties to owe performed, working conditions, the Jobholder’s responsibilities, the tools and equipment used on the Job Job specification A list of the qualifications required to reform a particular Job 0 Skills, abilities, education, and experience Used for recruiting, selecting, evaluation, and compensation decisions In an organization with Jobs waiting to be filled, HARM personnel need to perform two actions: 1) find candidates for those Jobs and 2) match the right candidate with each job. Recruiting is the process of attracting qualified Job applicants. One goal of recruiting is to attract the “right number” of applicants. 0 Recruiters may seek applicants outside the firm, within the firm, or both. External recruiting Sources 0 Websites, newspaper ads, employment agencies, allege campuses, union hiring halls, employee referrals, Job fairs, walk-in applicants Advantages 0 Fresh perspectives and varied backgrounds of new hires 0 Attracting applicants with the required skills and knowledge Disadvantages 0 Expense 0 May cause resentment among existing employees Internal recruiting Promotion or transfer Job posting may be required by policy or union contract Advantages 0 Provides motivation for current employees 0 Helps retain quality personnel Disadvantages 0 Cost of filling the newly vacant position Cost of training another employee The recess of gathering information about applicants and then using that information to choose the most appropriate applicant Employment Applications.
Employment applications are useful in collecting factual information on a candidate’s education, work experience, and personal history. 0 The data obtained from applications are usually used to identify candidates who are worthy of further scrutiny and to familiarize interviewers with applicants’ backgrounds. 0 Many Job candidates submit r©sum©s to prospective employers, and some firms require them. A r©sum© is a one- or two-page summary of the candidate’s aground and qualifications. Employment tests Tests that are given to Job candidates usually focus on aptitudes, skills, abilities, or knowledge relevant to the Jobs that are to be performed. Interviews. 0 The employment interview is perhaps the most widely used selection technique. Job candidates are usually interviewed by at least one member of the HARM staff and by the person for whom they will be working. 0 Interviews provide an opportunity for the applicant and the firm to learn more about each other. 0 Unfortunately, interviewing may be the stage at which discrimination enters the election process. 0 Interviews. Some of these problems can be solved through better interviewer training and the use of structured interviews. A structured interview is one in which the interviewer is given a prepared set of Jubilated questions to ask. References 0 A Job candidate is generally asked to furnish the names of references? people who can verify background information and provide personal evaluations of the candidate. Assessment centers Used to select current employees for promotion to higher-level management positions Employees participate in simulated management activities ND are observed and evaluated by other senior managers Once all the available information about Job candidates has been collected and analyzed, those involved in the selection decide which candidate they would like to hire. 0 1. Soon after a candidate Joins the firm, he or she goes through the firm’s orientation program. Orientation is the process of acquainting new employees with the organization. 0 2. Orientation topics range from such basic items as the location of the company cafeteria to such concerns as various career paths within the firm. 0 Cultural (or workplace) diversity refers to the differences among people in a workforce due to race, ethnicity, and gender. Effective employee reward systems must Needle employees to stalest toner DSSSL needs Provide rewards comparable to those offered by other firms Be distributed fairly in the organization Recognize that different people have different needs 0 Compensation receive in return for their labor 0 Compensation system The policies and strategies that determine employee compensation The payment employees 0 Designing an effective compensation system requires three separate management decisions: 1 . Wage level The firm’s choice to position its general level of pay at, above, or below the market (prevailing wage) for an industry or a geographic area 0 Wage survey?a collection of data on prevailing wage rates within an industry or geographic area. 2. 3.