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DSST Management Information Systems CH 1-5

Business Process Reengineering
IT being used to restructure work by transforming business processes
client/server computing
a computing environment where end user workstations (clients) are connected to micro or mini LAN servers and possibly to mainframe superservers
Computer-Based Information
an info system that uses computer hardware and systems software to perform its information processing activities
downsizzing
the time interval during which a decive is malfunctioning or inoperative
electronic commerce
buying and selling marketing and servicing and delivery and payment of products services and info over the internet, intranets, extranets, and other networks b/t an internetworked enterprise and its prospective customers, suppliers, and other business partners
end user
anyone who uses an info system or the info it produces
enterprise collaboration
use of groupware tools and the internet intranets extranets and other computer networks to support and enhance comm coordination, collaboration, and resources sharing among teams and workgroups in an internetworked enterprise
information system
system that uses the resources of hardware, software, and people to perform input, processing, output, storage, and control activities that transform data resources into informational products
information technology
hardware, software, telecomm, database management, and other info processing technologies used in computer-based information systems
internetworked enterprise
business that uses the internet and other nets to support electronic commerce and other business processes, managerial decision manking, and team and workgroup collaboration within the enterprise and among its customers, suppliers, and other business partners
internetworking of computing
computers are being networked or interconnected by the nets
knowledge workers
ppl whose primary work activities include creating, using, and distributing information
legacy systems
older traditional mainframe-based business information systems
network computing
network-centric is a concept which views networks as the central computing resource of any computing environment
roles of IS
support business ops, managerial decision making, and strategic competitive advantage
Success of IT
user involvement, executive management support, clear statement of requirements, proper planning, realistic expectations
failure of IT
lack of user input, incomplete requirements, changing requirements, lack of executive support, technological incompetence
business information systems
information systems within a business organization that supports one of the traditional functions of business such as marketing, finance, or production; can be either operations or management IS
control
the systems component that evaluates feedback to determine whether the system is moving toward the achievement of its goal and then makes any necessary adjustments to the input and processing components of the system to ensure that proper output is produced
cross-functional IS
IS that crosses the boundaries of functional business areas in order to support business processes across the organization
data
facts or observations about physical phenomena or business transactions; objective measurements of attributes (attributes-important vocab!!) or entities (important vocab!!) such as people, places, things, and events
data or info processing
act of converting data into information
data resources
data model and knowledge bases
decision support systems
IS that utlizes decision models database and a decision maker’s own insights in an ad hoc interactive analytical modelling process to reach a specific decision by a specific decision maker
enterprise collaboration systems
enhance collaboration among networked teams and workgroups
executive information system
EIS – IS that provides strategic information tailored to needs of top management
expert systems
computer-based IS that uses its knowledge about a specific complex application area to act as an expert consultant to users; system consists of a knowledge base and software modules that perform inferences on the knowledge and communicates answers to a user’s questions
feedback
data or info concerning the components and operations of a system’s performance
hardware resources
includes all physical devices and materials used in information processing (machines and media)
information
data that has been placed into a meaningful context for an end user
information system activites
input processing output storage and control
IS Model
IS uses people, hardware, software, network, and data resources to perform input, processing, output, storage, and contraol activities that transform data resources into information products
integrated IS
IS that combine the capabilities of several types of IS
knowledge management system
college, organize, and disseminate business know-how w/in a company
management IS
IS designed to provide info needed for effective decision making by managers
management support system
includes executive info systems decision support systems (DSS) and management IS
network resources
include communications, media, and network support
operations sypport systems
include office automation systems, transaction processing systems, and process control systems
people resources
IS specialists and end users
process control systems
computer-based systems that control an ongoing physical process such as petrochemical production
software resources:programs
set of instructions that cause a computer to performa particular task
software resources:procedures
set of instructions used by people to complete a ask
strategic information systems
IS that provide a firm w/ competitive products and services that give it a strategic advantage over its competitors in the marketplace
subsystem
system that is a component of a larger system
system
group of interrelated components working together twoard a common goal by accepting inputs and producing outputs in an organized transformation process
transaction process systems (TPS)
IS that processes data arising from the occurrence of business transactions
types of IS
classified into operations management and other categories (vague as f***)
computer-aided system engineering (CAS)
using software packages to accomplish and automate many of the activities of information systems development including software deelopment or programming
end user development
managers and business specialists can deevlop their own computer-based business applications (i believe this is bottom up)
functional requirements
detailed description of user information needs and the input, processing, output, storage, and control capabilities required to meet those needs
intangible benefits
non-quantifiable benefits of a proposed solution
intangible costs
non-quantifiable costs of a proposed solution
operational feasibility
willingness and ability of management, employees, customers, and suppliers to operate, use, and support a proposed system
organizational analysis
evaluating the organizational and environmental systems and subsystems involved in any situation
organizational feasibility
how well a proposed information system supports the objectives of an organization’s strategic plan for IS
postimplementation review
monitoring and evaluating the results of an implemented solution or system
problems versus symptoms
problem- basic condition causing undesirable results; symptoms are merely signals of the underlying problem
prototype
working model of an IS which includes tentative versions of user input and output databases and files, control menthods, and processing routines
prototyping
rapid development and testing of working models of new IS appls in an interative process involving both systems anals and end users
systems analysis
analysing the detail in the components and requirements ofa system; and analysing in detail the info needs of an organization, the caharacteristics and components of presently utilized IS, and the functional requirements of proposed IS
systems approach
systematic process of problem solving based on the scientific method which defines problems and opportunities in a systems context; data gather describing the problem or opportunit and atlernative solutions are identified and evaluated
systems design
deciding how a proposed IS will meet the info needs of end users; includes logical and physical design activities and user interface data and process design activities hwich produce system specifications that satisfy the system requirements developed in the systems analysis stage
systems development life cyle (SDLC)
IMPORTANT!!!!!! planning, analysis, design, implementation, maintenance; read chapter 9!!
systems implementation
stage of systems development in which hardware and software are acquired, developed, and installed; system is tested and documdented ppl are trained to opearte and use the system and an organization converts to the use of a newly developed system
systems investigation
screening selection and prelim study of a proposed IS solution to a business problem
systems maintenance
monitoring, evaluating, and modifying of a system to make desirable or necessary improvements
systems specifications
product of the systems design stage; consists of specs for the hardware, software, facitilies, personnel databases, and the user interface of a proposed IS
systems thinking
trying to recognize systems and the new itnerrelationships and components of systems in any situation
tangible benefits
quantifiable benefits of a proposed solution or system
technical feasibility
whether reliable hardware and software capable of meeting the needs of a proposed system can be acquired or developed by an organization in the required time
user interface data and design
three major activities or products of systems design
arithmetic logic unit
unit of a computing system containing the circuits that perform arithmetic and logical operations
binary representation
pertaining to the presence or absence of electronic or magnetic signals in the computer’s circuitry or in the media it uses; only two possible states or conditions
central processing unit (CPU)
unit of a computer system that includes the circuits that control the interpretation and execution of instruction; CPS includes the arithmetic-logic unit, control unit, and primary storage unit (know basic CPU system)
computer system
computer hardware as a system of input, processing, output, storage, and control components; consists of input and output devices, primary and secondary storage devices, the CPS, the control unit w/in the CPS, and other peripheral devices
computer terminals
any input/output device connected by telecommunications links to a computer
control unit
subunit of the CPU that controls and directs the operations of the computer system; retrieves computer instructions in proper sequence, interprets each instruction, and then directs the other parts of the computer system in their implementation
direct access
method of storage where each storage position has a unique address and acan be individually access in approx. the same period of time w/out having to search through other storage positions
downsizing
results from using networks of microcomputers to replace minicomputers and mainframes (big ass machines to smaller ones)
generations of computing
reflect stages in the development of electronic computers characterized by major changes in technology or performance
liquid crystal displays (LCD)
electronic visual displays that form characters by applying an electrical charge to selected silicon crystals
local area network (LAN)
comm network that typically connects computer terminals and other computerized devices within a limited physical area such as an office building, mfg plant, or other worksite
magnetic disk storage
data storage technology that uses magnetized sports on metal or plastic disks; small plastic disk coated with iron oxide that resembles a floppy (not really); widely used form of media that provides a direct access storage capability for microcomputer systems; secondary stoarage
Primary Storage vs. Secondary Storage
IMPORTANT!! primary – hard drive, microchips, etc; secondary – flash drive, CD-ROM, etc.
magnetic ink character
machine recognition of characters printed with recognition magnetic ink (MICR); primarily used for check processing by banking industry
magnetic tape
plastic tape with a magnetic surface on which data can be stored by selective magnetization of portions of the surface
mainframe computer
larger-size computer system typically with a separate central processing unit as distinguished from microcomputer and minicomputer systems
microcomputer
very small computer ranging in size from a computer on a chip to a small typewriter-size unit
microprocessor
semi-conductor chip with circuitry for processing data
midrange computer
larger and more powerful than most microcomputers but are smaller and less powerful than most large mainfram computer systems
minicomputer
small electronic general-purpose computer
multimedia computer
technology that presents info in more than one medium including text, graphics, animation, video, sound effects, music, and voice
multiple processors
computers with more than one major processing element
networked computer
multiple computer systems connected via telecommunications networks
network server
computers more powerful than microcomputrs; used to coordinate telecommunications and resource sharing in LANs of interconnected microcomputers and other computer system devices
offline
not under control of central processing unit
online
under control of central processing unit
optical character recognition
machine identification of printed characters through the use of light-sensitive devices
optical disk storage
technology based on using a laser to read tiny sports on a plastic disk; disks are currently capable of storing billions of characters of information;
CD-R
recordable; enables computers with this to record their own data once on a CD then be able to read the data indefinitely
CD-RW
record and erase data by using a laser to heat a point on the disk’s surface
DVD
3.0-8.5 GB of multimedia data on each side
optical scanning
using a device that scans characters or images and generates their digital representations
pen-based computing
tablet-style microcomputers that recognize hand-writing
peripheral devices
unit of equipment distinct from the CPS that provides the system with input, output, or storage capabilites
pointing devices
a mouse
point device
that old thing that was like an eraser that you used as a mouse; also a trackball; also the rectangular surface that is modern
primary storage unit
main (internal) memory of a computer; usually in form of semiconductor storage
secondary storage device
external storage device that supplements the primary storage of a computer
semiconductor memory
microelectronic storage circuitry etched on tiny chips of silicon or other semiconducting material; aka primary storage, type of RAM memory that holds temp data and instructions needed shortly by the CPU;
Volatile Storage
RAM
Unvolatile Storage
when you can cut off the power and your documents are still saved (i.e. CD or flash drive)
sequential access
sequential method of storing and retrieving data from a file
smart cards
debit, credit cards which have an embedded microprocessor chip and sevel KB of memory
storage capacity elements
units used for starage capacity and data (bits, bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB); contraction of binary digit; bit is either 0 or 1
about bits and bytes
NOTE: sequence of adjacent binary digits operated on as a unit Byte and shorter than a computer word; in many computer systems, a byte is a grouping of eight bits that can represent one alphabetic or special character or can be packed with two decimal digits
data storage note
NOTE: bit-1 binary; byte- 8 bits; then 1024 for the following: KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB
supercomputer
large computer systems that are the most powerful available; designed to solve massive computational problems
time elements
units used for measuring processing speeds
time speeds note
millisecond – 1/1,000 of a second; microsecond – 1/1M of a second; nanosecond- 1/1B of a second; picsecond- 1/1T of a second
wand
handheld optical character recognition device used for data entry by many transaction terminals
applet
small limited-purpose application program or small independent module of a larger application
application software
programs that specify the info processing activities required for the completion of specific tasks of computer users; ex – electronic spreadsheet and word processing programs
application-specific programs
app software packages that support specific applications of end users in business, science, and engineering, etc.
assembler language
programming language that utilizes symbols to represent oepration codes and storage locations
database management package
computer program that facilitates the storage, maintenance, and utilization of data in a database
desktop publishing
use of microcomputers, laser printers, and page-makeup software to produce a variety of printed materials formerly done only by professional printers
electronic mail
email
file management
controlling the creation, deletion, access, and use of files of data and programs
Fourth-Gen Language (4GL)
programming languages that are easier to use than high-level languages such as BASIC, COBOL, or TORTRAN; aka nonprocedural, natural, or very high-level languages
General Purpose Application Programs
programs that can perform info processing jobs for users from all application areas; ie – word, excel, graphics can be used by individuals for home education, business, scientific, and other purposes
Graphical User Interface
software interface that relies on icons, bars, buttons, boxes, and other images to initiate computer-based tasks for users
Groupware
software packages that support work activities by members of a work group whose workstations are interconnected by an LAN
high-level language
programming language that untilizes macro instructions and statements that closely resemble human language or math notation to describe the problem to be solved or the procedure to be used; compiler language
HTML
page description language that creates hypertext or hypermedia documents
integrated package
software that combines the ability to do several general-purpose applications (word, excel, graphics) into one program
java
object-oriented programming language created by Sun Microsystems
language translator program
program that converts the programming language instructions in a computer program into machine language code; major types include assemblers, compilers, and interpreters
machine language
programming language where instructions are expressed in the binary code of the computer
multitasking
concurrent use of the same computer for several different information processing tasks
natural language
programming language that is very close to human language; also called very high-level language
network management programs
perform functions such as automatically checking client PCs and video terminals for input/output activity, assigning priorities to data comms, requests from clients, aand detecting and correcting transmission errors and other network probs
network operating systems
software that manages telecomms in complex LANs
nonprocedural language
programming languages that allow users and professional programmers to specify the results they want w/out specifying how to solve the problem
object oriented language (OOP)
language used to develop programs which create and use objects to perform info processing tasks
operating system
main control pgoram of a computer system; system of programs that controls the execution of computer programs and may provide scheduling, debuggin, input/output control, system accounting, compilation, storage, assigment, data mangement, and related services
personal information manager
software package that helps end users store, organize, and retrieve text and numerical data in the form of notes, lists, memos, and a variety of other forms
presentation graphics package
using coputer-generated graphics to enhance the info presented in reports and other types of presentation
programming tools
software packages or modules which provide editing and diagnostic capabilities and other support facilities to assist the programming process
resource management
operating system function which controls the use of computer system resources such as primary storage, secondary storage, CPS processing time, and input/output devices by other system software and application software packages
software suites
powerful software packages that combine several individual packages that share a common graphical interface adn are designed to easily transfer data b/t them
system management programs
operating system modeuls and other system programs that carry out the function of resources management
system software
programs that control and support the operation of a computer system including opearting systems, database management systems, communications control programs, services and utility programs, and programming language translator programs
task management
basic operating system function that manages the accomplishment of the computer tasks of users by a computer system
trends in software
toward powerful general-purpose integrated packages with easy to use natural language interfaces
user interface
part of an operatin gsystem or other program that allows users to communicate with it to load programs, access files, and accomplish other computing tasks
utility programs
standard set of routines that assisti n the operation of a computer system by performing some frequently required process such as copying, sorting, or merging
virtual memory
use of secondary storage devices as an extension of the primary storage of the computer, thus giving the appearance of the larger main memory that actually exists

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