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Earth Science California

Facts
~As of the 2010 united states census, southern California has a population of 22,680,010
~California has 4.40 million acre-ft/year
~With over 22 million people, southern California contains roughly 60% of California’s population
~Southern California alone contains a larger population than all the other states in the lower and upper basin combined
~the most populated state in the country, and the eighth largest economy in the world
~1/6 of Californian is tied to agriculture in some way which depends on water
Water usage 1
Groundwater:
~California uses more groundwater than any other state
~Southern California gets it’s water from a variety of sources such as groundwater and rivers
~Groundwater sources provide between 30 and 40 percent of supply, and the remainder 70 to 60 percent is imported from the Owens Valley, the Colorado River, and the State Water Project
~1/3 Californians rely solely on groundwater to meet their needs, not only in rural areas, but also the cities of Fresno and Bakersfield
~Along the central coast, 90% of the drinking water is from groundwater
~Perchlorate has been showing up in an increasing number of Southern California’s groundwater sources, including Santa Clarita, Rialto, and Simi Valley.
Owens Valley:
~As early as 1900, Los Angeles had already outgrown its limited water supply which was the Los Angeles River
~William Mulholland found the water that the city needed in the Owens Valley
~Ever since Mulholland embarked on this journey to bring the water from the Owens Valley to California, they have remade its landscape
~The dewatering of the Owens Valley has not been without it’s ill effects on the Owens Valley and on Mono Lake
~The export of water south to Los Angeles decimated a thriving agricultural community, dried up Owens Lake, and turned parts of the Owens Valley into a desert
Water sources
The Colorado River:
~The Colorado River Aqueduct brings water from the Colorado River to Southern California for urban uses
~The Colorado River Aqueduct supplies San Diego
~After completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct, booming population growth and drought sent Mulholland and the City looking for additional water sources

The State Water Project:
~The State Water Project brings water from the San Francisco Bay Delta and delivers it to farmers in the Central Valley, as well as providing water for urban uses in Southern California
~The State Water Project begins at Lake Davis in Northern California, and spans 600 miles south to Southern California.
~It includes 34 storage facilities, 20 pumping plants, four pumping-generating plants, 5 hydroelectric power plants, and about 700 miles of canals, tunnels and pipelines.
~The State Water Project provides drinking water for 23 million people and irrigation water for 750,000 acres of farmland. However, these pumps suck in and kill significant amounts of fish.

The Los Angeles Aqueduct:
~The Los Angeles Aqueduct brings water from the Owens Valley south to Los Angeles
~Owned and operated by the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, the Los Angeles Aqueduct supplies a portion of the water needed to supply the residents and businesses in it’s 465 square mile service area
~The Los Angeles Aqueduct system includes 8 storage reservoirs along the aqueduct, and 99 reservoirs and tanks located within the city
~The Los Angeles Aqueduct system brings water 338 miles from the Mono Basin and 233 miles from the Owens Valley by gravity to Los Angeles

water usage
~In the year 2005-2006, the Owens Valley supplied 48% of the water for DWP (Department of Water and Power)
~Metropolitan Water District supplied 41%
~Groundwater sources provided 11%
~1% of water is recycled
~About 72% of water use in DWP’s service area is for residential use
~25% is for commercial & government
~3% is for industrial use
~Due to this rapid and intensive development, fish populations have been depleted, wetlands have been drained, and dams and levees have altered natural water flow patterns
~Native species of many plants have declined or become extinct, and water quality has been impaired by agricultural, mining and urban sources
~The growing population demands for more water comes from the agricultural industry, businesses, manufacturers and developers
~These needs must be balanced against demands for protecting water quality and for protecting fisheries, wildlife and recreational interests
~California has twelve hundred major dams, the two biggest irrigation projects on earth, and some of the biggest reservoirs in the country
~Only about 25% is for urban use, the remainder is split between irrigation and environmental purposes

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