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Ecology and Environmental Science Final Multiple Choice

Radioactive waste from the Hanford Plant in Washington leaked 150 square miles into
soil, sediment, groundwater, and air.
Current development and construction of nuclear power plants is occurring mostly in
Asia
Type of reactor that uses the hydrogen isotope, deuterium, in the coolant water.
heavy-water reactor
What radioactive isotope is generally used to fuel a controlled nuclear chain reaction?
uranium 235
In what two countries have nuclear power accidents had the greatest effect on people’s attitudes towards safety?
United States and Ukraine
In which of the following does carbon dioxide serve as coolant for a graphite-moderated core?
gas-cooled reactor
Material that absorbs the energy from neutrons released by fission.
moderator
Uranium mining and milling waste contains low levels of
radioactive materials.
Which of the following will be placed in underground tunnels at Yucca Mountain, Nevada?
high-level radioactive waste
Biological damage may be caused by beta or __________ radiation.
gamma
After the Chernobyl explosion in 1986, opposition to nuclear power rose in the United States from
67 to 78%.
One of the greatest terrorism-related nuclear threats is from
dirty bombs.
__________ is a controversial location proposed as a repository for long-term storage of nuclear waste in the United States.
Carlsbad, New Mexico
Type of electromagnetic radiation that comes from disintegrating atomic nuclei.
gamma radiation
Choose the correct sequence of steps in the nuclear fuel cycle.
fabrication, enrichment, reprocessing
Decontamination and disassembly of a nuclear power plant.
decommissioning
Radiation consisting of electrons released from the nuclei of many fissionable atoms.
beta radiation
The first goal for developing nuclear energy was to
produce bombs.
Measure of the biological damage to tissue caused by radiation.
rem
Radiation consisting of a particle with two neutrons and two protons.
alpha radiation
Energy that travels through space in the form of waves or particles.
radiation
Waste consisting of various isotopes of plutonium.
transuranic waste
Which of the following is NOT a form of energy released from nuclear disintegration?
delta
Biological effects of ionizing radiation include
All of these are correct.
The Hanford plutonium and uranium production facility
was responsible for one of the largest and most complex environmental cleanup sites in the United States.
All nuclear reactors contain all of the following EXCEPT
a fusion breeder.
Naturally occurring radioactive isotope used in nuclear reactors.
U-235
Which of the following reactors produces heat and a new supply of the radioactive isotope, Pu-239?
boiling-water reactor
Which of the following is NOT a part of the nuclear fuel cycle?
gas cooling of the reactor
What type of cancer in children has now been found to be associated with Chernobyl?
thyroid
As fission occurs in a nuclear reactor the concentration of U-235 atoms
decreases
Time it takes for half of the radioactive material to decompose.
radioactive half-life
What is the name of the process in which the fuel is removed from a nuclear plant, its surfaces are cleaned, and people are permanently prevented from coming in contact with the building?
decommissioning
As of 2006 there were ____ nuclear power plants under construction in eleven countries.
24
Waste heat that industry generates.
thermal pollution
Which of the following cancers is strongly linked to increased radiation exposure?
leukemia
Radioactive waste is categorized in _____ general categories.
4
Which one of the following processes involves increasing the U-235 content of the ore from 0.7% to 3%?
enrichment
Union of smaller nuclei to form a heavier nucleus.
nuclear fusion
Genetic diversity is influenced by which of the following?
All of these are correct.
Biodiversity is a broad term used to describe the
All of these are correct.
Salmon introduction in the Great Lakes has brought in millions of dollars from sportfishing, yet environmentally it has
decreased native fish populations and disrupted spawning.
Which is the greatest cause of extinction?
habitat alteration
Which harvesting method allows cutting of mature trees without damaging the forest?
selective harvesting
Process of replanting an area after the original trees are removed.
reforestation
Which of the following factors is NOT characteristic of a species likely to become extinct?
generalized niche
The productivity of ecosystems depends on policy choices relating to
All of these are correct.
Species are more likely to become extinct if they
have both a low population density and reproductive rate.
Over the past few hundred years, humans have increased the species extinction rate by as much as
1000 times.
Those species that are present in such small numbers that they are in jeopardy of becoming extinct.
endangered species
The Endangered Species Act of 1973
gave the federal government jurisdiction over any species that were designated as endangered.
Which of the following is NOT a technique for managing wildlife?
introduction of exotic species
Extinction of a species in one area of its range is called
local extinction.
Many migratory waterfowl
mate in Canada and winter in Mexico.
__________ is an organization that certifies whether or not products are dolphin-safe.
The Earth Island Institute
What happened to private landowners who had northern spotted owls nesting in their forests when the owl was declared a threatened species?
The landowners were not allowed to cut any of their trees and sued for compensation.
Forest harvesting method in which individual high-value trees are removed from the forest, leaving the majority of the forest undisturbed.
selective harvesting
Sport hunting seasons are regulated to the fall so that
surplus animals are taken before the challenges of winter.
World fish harvests have remained constant since 1989 which indicates
fisheries have been exploited to their capacity.
Impact to ecosystems from human activity has sometimes been referred to as
“Engineered ecologies.”
Complete extinction occurs when
all individuals of a species are eliminated.
Pollution _____________ with population density.
increases
Which of the following is an example of a species that is not likely to become extinct soon?
rabbits
The reduced size of the California condor population is thought to have been caused by
the extinction of large Ice Age mammals.
Which of the following do fish require for a healthy population?
All of these are correct.
What invasive species is an external parasite of lake trout and decimated populations for more than 20 years?
lamprey
Waterfowl present special wildlife management problems because
they are migratory.
Term used to describe all of the different types of genes, species, and ecosystems in a particular region.
biodiversity
Process of developing a new species.
speciation
Elimination of all of the individuals of a species.
extinction
Any change in the DNA of an organism.
mutation
Environmental impacts from freshwater aquaculture include
nutrient overload and escape of exotic species.
An individual can help to control the spread of invasive species by
All of these are correct.
Those species that could become extinct if a critical factor in their environment were changed.
threatened species
An example of a local growth management action would be
to establish growth limits by restricting building permits.
The Green Building Council estimates that green building can reduce
All of these are correct.
Development along transportation routes.
ribbon sprawl
In the United States, what is one of the major uses of public land?
outdoor recreation
What is the major problem in planning urban recreation facilities?
location near residential areas
What is one mechanism used by states to encourage regional planning that results in environmental protection?
land-use regulations
Large, regional urban center.
megalopolis
A(n) ________________ is an effective tool for promoting efficient land use and establishing boundaries for development.
urban growth limit
Lowland area on either side of a river.
floodplain
What technology is available to assist citizens in participating in land-use planning decisions?
sophisticated mapping programs called decision-support tools
Mass transportation systems are often underfunded because they are
Only often crowded and uncomfortable and extremely expensive are correct.
Large-scale migration to cities was caused by which of the following?
All of these are correct.
Which of the following is a goal of urban transportation planning?
None of these are correct.
Which of the following did NOT contribute to sprawl?
Planners do not allow building on floodplains.
The United Nations projects that by 2008 the urban population will make up over ______ of the total Earth’s population.
½
Early towns were usually built
near rivers, lakes, and oceans.
“Green buildings” have been built over the past few years using a standard called
Both LEED and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design.
Vacant urban industrial and commercial sites are referred to as
brown fields.
The major problem on federal rangelands is
overgrazing.
Which three developing countries have a city where the population is expected to grow more than 50% by 2015?
India, Nigeria, and Pakistan
Which state has been very successful in controlling the negative impacts of urban growth?
Hawaii
What is an example of a negative impact of urban sprawl in the United States?
deteriorating infrastructure, poor schools, and a lack of affordable housing in inner city areas
A sustainable community seeks to protect and enhance the environment by
valuing and protecting the diversity of nature.
Unplanned suburban growth.
urban sprawl
Characteristics of a smart or sustainable community may include
Both promoting economic success and seeking to protect and enhance the environment are true.
What is one mechanism used by states to encourage regional planning that results in environmental protection?
land-use regulations
The 1872 Mining Law allows
anyone to prospect for and claim minerals on public lands for $5.00.
Since 1940, the use of mass transit in North America has
declined.
Construction of an orderly list of priorities for the use of available land.
land-use planning
Which of the following encouraged suburban growth?
rising automobile usage
Level area constructed on steep slopes for agricultural purposes.
terrace
Which horizon has the highest amount of organic matter?
A
Soil organic matter.
humus
The way soil particles clump together.
soil structure
By avoiding excessive tillage, soil quality is enhanced by
minimizing loss of organic matter.
Soil quality management components include
enhancing organic matter.
Two processes which chemically alter parent material are
oxidation and hydrolysis.
Soil compaction
reduces the amount of air, water, and space available to roots.
Soil erosion is linked to which of the following environmental issues?
water pollution
Soil conservation or quality management practices include
contour and strip farming.
Which country of the world has the greater percent of land suitable for agriculture?
United States
Horizontal layer of soil.
horizon
Land unsuitable for crops may be used for which of the following?
All of these are correct
Which of the following is NOT a typical soil inhabitant?
lichen
__________ increases the decomposition rate of organic matter.
High temperatures
Process of breaking up large particles by physical forces.
mechanical weathering
What is the importance of humus?
It decreases pH.
Series of layers seen as one digs down into soil.
soil profile
Which of the following is NOT an example of an initiative instituted by the U.S. Government in the 1930s in response to the drought and soil depletion of the Great Plains?
The U.S. Army Corp of Engineers
Decaying organic material is called
humus.
Ability of soil to crumble.
friable
Method of tilling and planting at right angles to the slope.
contour farming
_________ is added to soils to make them less acidic.
Lime
What region of the world has the highest percent of soil degraded by human activity?
Asia
Organisms affect the soil in which of the following ways?
All of these are correct.
Soil type with good drainage and texture that is ideal for agriculture.
loam
Process of breaking up large particles by chemical reactions.
chemical weathering
Which of the following is NOT a physical process affecting break down of parent material?
drought
Land has characteristics that influence how it can be used, including
soil, climate, and degree of slope.
What percent of the U.S. cropland requires no soil conservation practices?
2%
In regions with _______, basic ions are leached from the soil and more acidic materials are left behind.
high rainfall
Planting of trees to prevent wind erosion.
windbreak
Which term describes the movement of large plates on the surface of the Earth?
plate tectonics
Physical and chemical breakdown of materials involved in the breakdown of parent material into soil.
weathering
Which of the following a typically a pioneer organism to colonize the surface of bare rocks?
lichens
The major soil classification types in North America are
grasslands, forests, and deserts.
Fertile soils have a balanced mixture that may contain
All of these are correct
Organophosphates and carbamates work by
interfering with an insect’s nervous system.
DDT is a type of
chlorinated hydrocarbon.
Boron, zinc, and manganese.
micronutrients
Class of pesticides that kills fungi.
fungicide
Biomagnification occurs most commonly in which organisms?
All of these are correct
Pesticide that persists for a long period of time.
hard pesticide
Which is a typical method used by organic farmers to control pests?
predator or beneficial insects such as the ladybug (ladybird beetle)
Class of pesticides that interferes with normal nerve impulses.
organophosphate
Kind of chemical that kills many different types of living things.
biocide
If fertilizers are applied just before a heavy rain,
nutrients are carried into streams and lakes and encourage unwanted plant growth.
Which of the following is a macronutrient?
nitrogen
Chemical produced by one animal that changes the behavior of another.
pheromone
Pesticide designed to kill mice, rats, and related organisms.
rodenticide
“Organically grown” is a legally defined term which requires that
All of these are correct
Increases in the amount of material at successively higher trophic levels.
biomagnification
All of the following are benefits of organic farming and crop rotation as a sustainable agriculture method EXCEPT
it can best help large-scale farmers.
Which of the following is NOT a problem associated with pesticides?
increased soil erosion
Which of the following is NOT an issue that for decades has impeded a long-term global solution to feeding the world’s hungry?
insufficient worldwide agricultural production capacity
Pesticide consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and chlorine.
chlorinated hydrocarbon
Integrated pest management requires
a complete knowledge of the pest’s life history.
An unwanted plant.
weed
Beneficial insects are used in agriculture because they
prey on pest insects.
Pesticide that breaks down into harmless products in a few hours or days.
soft pesticide
Genetically modified (GM) foods have been called
frankenfoods
Sustainable agriculture utilizes methods that
do not deplete soil, water, air, or wildlife resources.
Slash-and-burn practices contribute primarily to what environmental problem?
deforestation
People that oppose the use of GMOs argue that
no long-term studies have been done to ensure safety.
Genetically modified organisms are created by
inserting pieces of DNA, which will result in pest or disease resistance in a crop.
An environmental problem associated with pesticide use in the former Soviet Union is
contamination of baby food with nitrates and pesticides.
Pesticide resistance is
pesticide tolerant individuals who survive and reproduce, which makes the pesticide less effective for future pest generations.
Which of the following is a characteristic of a perfect pesticide?
All of these are correct
Plant hormone that stimulates growth.
auxin
Advocates of GMOs argue that
this method offers promise for solving world hunger problems by increasing crop production.
A permeable layer in an artesian aquifer.
aquitard
What percent of sewage is treated in North America?
90%
What may be the effect of toxic chemicals on humans?
All of these are correct.
The amount of oxygen required to decompose organic matter is called
BOD.
Pollution from a single pipe or series of pipes.
point source
In the United States and Europe, the top use of water is for
industry.
Method of disposing of solid waste that involves burying the waste.
landfills
Saltwater intrusion occurs when
groundwater pumped from wells along the coastline causes saline groundwater to move inland.
Water intended for human consumption is referred to as
drinking water.
Worldwide, there is a relationship between the price of water and the amount consumed as the price
increases and water use decreases.
In the United States, two agencies set the drinking water standards… one of which is the
Food and Drug Administration.
What two land uses result in substantial wetland loss in the United States?
urban development and agriculture
The vegetable basket of the United States in central California has what water problem?
groundwater depletion
Pressurized aquifer intersecting the surface from which water gushes without being pumped.
artesian aquifer
Aquifer that usually occurs near the land’s surface.
unconfined aquifer
Diffuse pollutants, such as agricultural runoff that are not from a single source.
nonpoint source
Which of these is an issue that commonly results in an international water dispute?
quotas and water allocation to different stakeholder groups
The term used to indicate processes that remove chemicals and pathogens from water is
purified
Pond created to hold liquid materials.
surface impoundment
Unpolluted freshwater supplies are known as
potable waters.
Eutrophication occurs when
nutrient increase causes excessive plant growth.
A trickling filter system is generally used during which stage of sewage treatment?
secondary
What is biochemical oxygen demand?
amount of oxygen required to decay a certain amount of organic matter
Which of the following is a source of groundwater pollution?
agricultural runoff
Most large urban areas depend on which of the following for their water supply?
groundwater
An impermeable layer in an artesian aquifer.
aquiclude
What two activities use the most water for a typical North American family of four?
lawns and toilets
Plants in natural wetlands are able to remove _______ if sufficient river miles are undisturbed.
nutrients
Worldwide, the top use of water is for
agriculture.
Which nutrient(s) stimulates algae and aquatic plant growth?
nitrates and phosphates
The largest watershed in the world is the
Amazon
Which of the following removes larger particles from sewage by screening or settling?
primary sewage treatment
Water supplies are distributed
unequally around the world.
Removal of water from an aquifer faster than it is replaced.
water table
Top of the layer of water in an aquifer.
nonpoint source
The upper surface of shallow groundwater is called a(n)
water table.
Which of these is a common contaminant of drinking water?
nitrates from fertilizer and manures
Water is the most important “good” provided by freshwater systems for human uses such as
All of these are correct.
The process by which the Earth’s water cleanses itself through solar evaporation, precipitation, and infiltration is called
hydrologic cycle.
Worldwide, what two agricultural practices result in contamination of water?
fertilizer and pesticide use
In the United States, Las Vegas Nevada is one of the fastest growing population centers and this has resulted in
Both an increase in demand for water and forcing the city to look for water farther away are correct.
Which of the following accounts for two-thirds of all human-caused marine oil pollution?
All of these are correct.
Aquifer that is bound on the top and bottom by confining layers.
confined aquifer
Which of the following is a source of groundwater contamination?
All of these are correct.
The main activity of the U.N. initiated Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is
to provide regular intervals of assessments of climate change knowledge.
Who ultimately pays for the changes mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act?
consumers
The Clean Air Act
set national ambient air quality standards for six pollutants.
The decline in arctic sea ice may be contributed to
Both climate change and naturally occurring climate variability could be true.
The role of ozone in the atmosphere is to
shield the Earth from radiation from ultraviolet light.
What is the function of a catalytic converter?
It reduces lead and other metals.
Condition in which warm air is sandwiched between two layers of cold air.
thermal inversion
Which of the following is not included in the energy policy initiatives of Germany to help reduce carbon dioxide emissions?
All of the above are correct
Yellowish-brown haze that is the result of the interaction of hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen, and sunlight
photochemical smog
Pollutants produced by the interaction of primary pollutants and an energy source.
secondary air pollutants
Accumulation of potential acid-forming particles on a surface.
acid deposition
What is the name given to the accumulation of acid-forming particles on a surface?
acid deposition
One of the IPCC reports provided much of the technical information which led to
the Kyoto Protocol.
A significant loss of Arctic sea ice was first reported in 2005 by
NASA
Particulate matter is a dangerous pollutant because it
irritates the lining of the respiratory tract.
Air pollutant consisting of nitrogen and oxygen compounds.
oxides of nitrogen
Gas emitted from certain kinds of rocks.
radon
The number of smog days in the top ten most polluted cities has
decreased to below 2 per year by 2000.
Which of these is listed by EPA as a criteria air pollutant?
carbon monoxide
The Environmental Protection Agency is responsible for enforcing the Clean Air Act to
reduce emissions of sulfur and nitrogen compounds.
The principal framework for national, state, tribal, and local efforts to protect air quality in the U.S. is found in
the Clean Air Act.
Molecule consisting of three atoms of oxygen.
ozone
Nitrous oxides enter the atmosphere from fossil fuels and ___________.
fertilizers.
The amount of lead released into the atmosphere
has declined since the introduction of lead free gasoline.
Industrial dust and ash are considered
particulates.
Even with the use of catalytic converters, nitrogen dioxide levels have not decreased significantly in the United States because of
an increased number of cars and miles driven.
The chief source of chlorofluorocarbons in the environment is
All of these are correct.
Photochemical smog forms when _________ and ________ are trapped by a thermal inversion and form ozone.
hydrocarbons; oxides of nitrogen
Compound produced when sulfur-containing fossil fuels are burned.
sulfur dioxide
Releasing pollutants into the air does not get rid of them but only
dilutes and disperses them.
Types of unmodified materials released into the atmosphere.
primary air pollutants
The most common source of carbon monoxide is from
vehicles.
Which of the following is NOT a conclusion reached by the IPCC regarding global warming?
There is a direct correlation between temperature increase and the amount of greenhouse gases.
To decrease exposure to second hand smoke, the EPA recommended that
people not smoke in their homes or near children.
Which of the following chemicals is implicated in both global warming and ozone depletion?
chlorofluorocarbons
Small pieces of solid material that are dispersed into the atmosphere.
particulates.
Gas caps with air pollution control valves
reduce hydrocarbon loss.
Property of carbon dioxide that allows light to enter but not leave the atmosphere.
greenhouse effect
Which of the following is an adverse health effect from air pollution?
All of these are correct.
Lead levels fell by 94% in North America between 1982 and 2002 due to the
elimination of leaded gasoline.
The Kyoto Protocol was an international agreement to
set limits on carbon dioxide and greenhouse gases.
A common source of volatile organic compounds is
vehicles.
Why is carbon monoxide dangerous?
It binds with hemoglobin, reducing the blood’s oxygen carry-capacity.
The major causes of water pollution in Louisiana are nutrients, sediment, and microorganisms. Which stakeholder group will be most affected by needed changes to make rivers fishable and swimmable?
farmers.
Scrubbers, precipitators, and filters
reduce particulate pollution.
Approximately ______ municipal solid waste landfills in the United States combust landfill gas to generate heat and electricity.
400
The most common method of waste disposal is
burying in landfills.
Method of disposing of solid waste by burning.
incineration
Term used to describe a product which is used once and thrown away.
disposable
In which method of composting are compostables formed into long rows and aerated?
windrow composting
The management of municipal solid waste is directly affected by
All of these are correct.
The greatest source of waste material today is
yard waste.
Future management of municipal solid waste will be an integrated approach involving
All of these are correct.
The United States and ________ are among the world’s leaders in waste production.
Canada
The notion that our economy demands ritualistic buying and use of goods.
forced consumption
In Arizona, how is the recycling partnership between the city of Flagstaff and Northern Arizona University helping to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from 1,128 metric tons per year?
by using a recycling program to divert 21 tons of recyclable materials from the landfill
Agricultural waste is the _____ most common form of waste.
second
Which countries account for 80-90% of the hazardous waste generated worldwide?
OECD countries
Which of the following statements regarding the impact of landfills on water is correct?
Landfills should have 2 or more liners along with a leachate collection system above and between liners.
Process of reclaiming a resource and reusing it.
recycling
Organic material used to cover soil.
mulch
Waste prevention is also known as
source reduction
Mining waste is generated in _____ primary ways.
three
Container deposit-refund programs are the original
product stewardship programs.
Which of the following is a problem with solid waste disposal?
All of these are correct.
Which of the following is NOT a method of source reduction?
use of PCV valves
One effect of the 1972 Oregon Bottle Bill was that
beverage-container litter decreased by about 49 percent.
Reducing the amount of solid waste generated by using less.
source reduction
The major problem with recycling plastics is
the inability to mix plastics.
The most immediate problem resulting from the increase in solid waste is
a shortage of space in landfills.
Waste produced by the residents of a community.
municipal solid waste
Syndrome in which there is local opposition to the location of landfills and other sources of pollution.
NIMBY
In a modern landfill, the water that leaches from the site
is pumped into a leachate treatment system.
The purpose of state “bottle bills” is
to reduce the amount of one-time-use beverage containers.
The type of chemical most routinely emitted from industrial sources is
carcinogens.
Which industry produces the most toxic and hazardous wastes?
chemical
Lead poisoning is an example of
chronic toxicity.
What percent of Superfund sites have been cleaned-up in the United States?
50%
Which of the following is NOT an objective of CERCLA?
closing down the Superfund
The high number of physical and mental disorders in Japan in 1953 was caused by
mercury poisoning.
CERCLA is also known as the
Superfund.
Many states now ban the disposal of household computer screens in landfills and incinerators because
they contain large amounts of lead, cadmium, and mercury.
Which country leads the world in hazardous waste generation?
United States
What is the simplest way to deal with hazardous wastes?
reduce, reuse, and recycle
Which of the following is an issue involved in setting regulations?
All of these are correct.
Which countries account for 80-90% of the hazardous waste generated worldwide?
OECD countries
Which of the following addresses dump sites requiring urgent attention?
National Priority List
The 1980 law that addressed the issue of cleanup of hazardous waste sites.
CERCLA
ASTM International developed voluntary consensus standards for environmental site assessments known as
Phase I ESA.
Property of materials which can cause danger to human health or the environment.
toxicity
Substances that could endanger life if released into the environment.
hazardous wastes
The two most common methods of hazardous waste disposal are
incineration and land disposal.
A serious effect that occurs shortly after exposure to a hazardous substance.
acute toxicity
New environmentally friendly green bullets will soon be used by the U.S. Army because the old bullets
contained lead.
Listing of hazardous-waste dump sites requiring urgent attention.
National Priority List
The Basel Convention
All of these are correct.
What is the most commonly released toxic compound?
copper
By-products of industrial or business activities are referred to as
hazardous wastes.
Measure of toxicity or the dosage that will kill 50% of a tested population.
LD 50
Most toxic waste comes from
chemical and petroleum industries.
Which of the following hazardous waste management methods uses carbon absorption tanks?
treatment
Interaction of materials that increases the potential for harm.
synergism
Which of the following is considered a persistent pollutant?
DDT
Ability to degrade standard materials.
corrosiveness
Which term describes the level of exposure at which no test animals are affected?
threshold level
A serious effect that occurs after prolonged exposure to small doses of a toxin.
chronic toxicity
Manufacturing process that would reduce the waste produced.
waste minimization
Which of the following is a type of hazardous waste disposal on land?
All of these are correct.
The major producers of hazardous waste are
mining companies, power generating companies, and chemical and petrochemical industries.
Which of the following terms describes the tendency of a substance to explode?
reactivity
Minimum amount of something required to cause measurable effects.
threshold levels
Common name for CERCLA, which was designed to address hazardous waste sites.
Superfund
In the U.S., “command and control” of governmental regulation began in the early 1970s with the creation of
the EPA
Which of the following programs deals with the clean-up of hazardous waste sites?
Superfunds
Which of the following is NOT part of the pollution prevention hierarchy?
discharge into rivers and streams
The 1976 law that specifically addressed the issue of hazardous waste.
RCRA
Portion of U.S. government responsible for development of laws.
legislative branch
Resolution calling for constitutional protection of environmental rights.
Environmental Quality Amendment
Gasoline taxes in the U.S. are ________ than those in the United Kingdom.
less than
Of the 770 bird species that migrate to the U.S., over 350 species winter in
Latin America.
Supporters of the “wise-use” of public lands include
ranchers and loggers.
The accidental leaking of cyanide-laced water in northwestern Romania has become an international environmental security issue because
All of these are correct.
Which of the following is a source of environmental degradation of Eastern Europe?
All of these are correct.
The office of the President of the United States.
executive branch
Which country has the most well-established Green Party?
West Germany
In the U.S., it is thought that perhaps ____________ concerns and issues will become the political bridge of the future
environmental
EPA enforcement options include
fines, incarceration, and revoking an existing permit.
Failure to protect ecosystems contributed to massive loss of life in 2004 when a tsunami swept across the
Indian Ocean.
What is the single event that put the environmental movement in gear?
Earth Day
The notion that people have a right to clean air, water, and soil is part of the
Environmental Quality Amendment.
An example of eco-terrorism is the
dumping of millions of gallons of crude oil into the Persian Gulf.
The use of eco-labels on products for the promotion of rational consumption of scarce resources is an example of
green consumerism.
Of the major environmental groups, which has the largest membership?
National Wildlife Federation
One of the worst environmental catastrophes caused by a natural disaster hit the United States in 2005 when _____________ hit the Gulf of Mexico coast.
Hurricane Katrina
Which agency was formed as a result of the 1990 Farm Bill?
Office of Environmental Quality
The 1946 Federal Administrative Procedure Act
designated federal agency procedures for rulemaking and enforcement.
The role of the legislative branch of government is to
None of these are correct.
Planned course of action on a question or a topic.
policy
Which program was born out of the 1972 U.N. Conference in Sweden?
U.N. Environmental Program
The Copper River delta, near Cordova, Alaska, encompasses the largest continuous _________ on the Pacific Coast of North America.
wetland.
The dumping of 1.1 billion liters of oil in the Persian Gulf during the Gulf War is an example of
eco-terrorism.
U.N. agency which provides assistance to developing nations.
World Bank
Largest organized demonstration in U.S. history.
Earth Day
The Earth Summit was a meeting of
178 representatives which produced Agenda 21.
Developing and approving policies, acts, and bills is the job of the
legislative branch.
Approach in which restrictive and highly specific legislation and regulation are implemented by centralized authorities to achieve narrowly defined ends.
command and control
Which of the following is a principle of the Reagan Administration’s Council on Environmental Quality?
decentralization of government responsibility for environmental protection

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