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Economic Demand

More recently, research in this area has expanded to examine the associations of parental involvement with student achievement motivation. Knowing how parental guidance can have an impact or influence in the learning willingness of students can help determine how well they will do in their academic performance.

The empirical research originates from a pervading theme in various developmental and social psychological theories that environmental influences shape individuals’ achievement motivation. For example, social cognitive theory of human behavior and learning emphasizes the view that individuals’ functioning has its foundation in social systems and that environmental factors affect not only what individuals think but also what they do (Bandeau, 2005; Chunk & Zimmerman, 2006).

According to Bandeau (1997), the social environment can affect an adolescent’s behavior and sense of self- efficacy through vicarious learning experiences and supportive communication because adolescents exist within social systems and are continuously interacting with their caretakers, parents not only influence the development of self-efficacy but also provide observational models that guide adolescents’ adjustment of their self efficacy. When adolescents are encouraged and affirmed of their capability, they are more likely to experience less self-doubt, exercise greater effort and persist when facing difficulties.

In Saudi Arabia, a university conducted research investigating

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the causes of possible academic failure and lack of motivation and willingness to learn among university students. As revealed, most of the students mentioned external factors such as family circumstances that affected their learning. This indicates that here is indeed a link and influence of family relations in regards to learning. (Omar & Already, 2012) In the national setting, a study conducted by a researcher among second year high school students in Santa Maria, Vulcan was factors that affected their performance in school, one of them involving learning their lessons.

It looked into the student’s problems and found that the relationship of family and environment had connections to academic performance. One of the factors of affecting performance in school and partaking of tests were motivational practices of the family. Nicolas-Victorian, 2011) The above cited scenarios prompted the proponents to assess the level of parental guidance and learning willingness of Psychology students in San Pedro College. Hence, this study will be conducted.

Theoretical Framework This study is anchored to the cognitive evaluation theory of Decide and Ryan (2000) proposing that environments impact the development of intrinsic motivation. Within this framework, the importance of social environments is also recognized, as they can either enhance or hinder intrinsic motivation based upon the interpersonal context n which rewards are delivered (Ryan ; Decide, Bibb; 1980, 1985; DCE’, Costner, & Ryan, 2001). When the environment conveys meaningful feedback in the context of self determination, it is perceived as informational and enhances intrinsic motivation.

On the other hand, aspects of the environment that are perceived as controlling, such as externally controlled rewards, controlling communication, deadlines and surveillance, pressure individuals towards specified outcomes and undermine intrinsic motivation (Ginsburg & Bernstein, 1993). Recent research examining the associations between parent-child relationship and achievement titivation has provided empirical support for the motivational theories described above and has redirected educational psychologists’ attention back to parents.

However, few studies have examined parental involvement, a primary socializing agent, as direct predictor(s) of adolescents’ senses of self-efficacy, engagement and intrinsic motivation. Although it has generally been suggested that parents have positive influences on their children’s educational outcomes. Much of the research has not fully considered the differential effects of various aspects of parental involvement on different elements of achievement motivation (e. . Bong et al. , 2008).

Therefore, more specific information is needed to understand which parental activities and behaviors contribute to promoting and shaping the development of adolescents’ senses of self-efficacy, engagement and intrinsic motivation. These three (Fan & Williams, 2010) elements shall be turner discussed Conceptual Framework in the conceptual trademark. Researchers have incorporated the multidimensional conceptualization of parental involvement by identifying and studying specific components of this construct, which are the six types of parental involvement activities.

Epstein (1995) provided a multidimensional definition by describing six types of parental involvement activities: parenting, communicating, learning at home, volunteering, decision-making and community connections. Parenting is the rearing of a child or children, especially the care, love, and guidance given by a parent. Communicating pertains to verbal and non-verbal communications that happen between the child and parent. Learning at home pertains to giving the child an inductive environment of learning, meeting every needs of the child from safety and security as well as physical needs.

Volunteering refers to active participation of parents to their child’s learning, such as surveillance of grades, helping out with homework, consulting to teachers and instructors if trouble in academics arise. Community connections pertains to the parent’s active involvement in the Independent Variables Dependent Variables Parental Guidance * Parenting * Communicating * Learning at Home * Volunteering * Decision-making * Community Connections Learning Willingness * Academic self-efficacy * Student Engagement * Intrinsic Motivation Moderator Variables * Type of Family Institution * Age * Year Level Figure 1 .

Conceptual Paradigm of the Study school institution, by attending Parent-Teacher conferences and consultation to teachers for further guidance to learning of students. According to Bandeau (1986), self-efficacy refers to individuals’ beliefs in their ability to produce desired results as well as to learn and perform.

He emphasizes in social cognitive theory the construct of self-efficacy and its impact on learning, as this belief in one’s own ability influences choice of activities and effort, engagement in the behaviors that are necessary to attain goals, academic interest and motivation, as well as growth of cognitive impenitence and accomplished achievement In addition, self-efficacy consistently predicts academic achievement due to its effects on effort and persistence, because students who demonstrate greater senses of self-efficacy are more likely to put forth the necessary effort and persist longer when facing academic challenges (Bong, 2008; Chunk & Zimmerman, 2006). Engagement has been defined differently in the literature by various researchers. It has been categorized into three types: behavioral, emotional and cognitive engagement.

However, research most often offers to behavioral engagement and emphasizes factors such as effort, persistence, concentration and attention (Birch & Laid, 1998; Fredrick’s et al. , 2004). In addition, student engagement in school activities promotes academic achievement. It increases graduation rates, decreases students’ decisions to drop out of school. It improves student’s performance and increases positive expectations about academic abilities. (Gemsbok, ; Connell, 1998) Intrinsic motivation, which exists within and drives the spontaneous behaviors of individuals, has been argued to be very important for adolescents’ cognitive development.

Those who demonstrate intrinsic motivation engage in academic tasks due to the enjoyment of the tasks and the desire to learn. Studies have indicated that intrinsic motivation has positive associations with children’s achievement, persistence and effort, self-efficacy and achievement motivation. (Reining, Mean, ; Lasher, 2002) Statements of the Problem The main thrust of the study is to determine the significant relationship of parental guidance and learning willingness of Psychology students of San Pedro College of Dave. More specifically, it will answer to the following queries: 1. What is the level of parental guidance in terms of: a. Parenting; b. Communicating; c.

Learning at Home; d. Volunteering; e. Decision-making; and f. Community Connections? 2. What is the overall mean of parental guidance? 3. What is the level of learning willingness in terms of: b. Student engagement; and c. Intrinsic motivation? 4. What is the overall mean of learning willingness? A. Academic self-efficacy; 5. Is there a significant difference of learning willingness when grouped according to: a. Type of Family Institution; b. Age; and c. Year Level? 6. Is there a significant relationship between parental guidance and learning illnesses? Hypothesis: The following null hypotheses will be tested at 0. 05 level of significance: 1 .

There is a significant difference of learning willingness in terms of type of family institution, age, and year level. 2. There is a significant relationship between parental guidance and learning willingness. CHAPTER 2 METHOD This study deals with the research design, respondents, research instrument, data gathering procedures and the statistical tools to be employed in this investigation. Research Design This study will utilize the descriptive correlation method of research. This is a teeth which describes the significant relationship of parental guidance and learning willingness of Bachelor of Science in Psychology Students of San Pedro College.

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