Economics: English Language and Instructional Materials
Background to Study The English Language was introduced into many countries through colonization among other factors. As early as the beginning of the 19th century, English language had become the language of trade, contact and missionary endeavourer. Countries such as Nigeria and Ghana use it as a means of communication nationally and internationally. Within these geographical region, the English language acts as medium of instruction from the primary school up to tertiary level.
English language s spoken around the globe and it has a wider dispersion than any other language. A teacher is a very significant factor in the school environment as well as the materials he uses to drive home his/her point. These materials used by the teacher tend to have a significant implication which cannot be dismissed with a wave of hand if academic excellence is to be achieved in our education institution. In order to achieve these educational goals, the use of instructional materials cannot be over- emphasized.
Instructional materials are materials which assist teachers to make lesson explicit to the learners. They also transmit information, ideas and notes to learners Isadora (1997), Nina (1982) asserts that instructional materials are those materials or resources used in any teaching
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The same is amplified by Guyana (1984) who describes teaching materials as anything that helps the teacher to promote caching and learning activities. Sharing the above view, Kay (1981) defines them as things which are intended to help the teacher to teach more effectively or better still which enables the pupils to learn more easily. In the opinion of Syllabi (2000) and Kinsley (1997) many educational technologist see instructional materials as devices and resources used in learning situation to supplement to written or spoken words in the transmission of knowledge, attitude, ideas or concept and values.
Kinsley (1997) further states that thy have been defined as things or objects brought into play to emphasize, clarify, strengthen, italics the teachers instruction. Syllabi (2000) subtly puts instructional materials as teaching-learning materials that constitute an integral component of classroom instructional process which are utilized in delivering educational information to the Economics: English Language and Instructional Materials By Dealer 47 are motivated to learn at their own pace, rate and convenience.
Since English language came to Nigeria, it has assumed many roles especially in educational circle. The English language is divided into many parts in the school like orals, lexis and structure, comprehension, essays. It is an important subject that must be compulsorily be credited before gaining admission into tertiary institution. The importance of this subject makes it necessary that teaching materials should be used for effective learning. Macaulay J. L. 1989) asserts that visual aids make lesson come alive and help students to learn better. He further states that an ample provision of visual and general teaching materials is an evidence of teachers’ preparedness for the lesson. Choice (1989) summarizes the importance of instructional materials further “One of the ways of relaxing in the classroom atmosphere, motivating the dents and teaching English creatively and interactively in through the use of audio-visual and other teaching aids.
This is because well selected/well planned and produced audio-visual: * arouse the learners interest * kindle imagination * stimulate active participation and involvement in a lesson * help memory and recall * relate learning to real life * can stay in view as long as the teacher wishes National policy on Education (1998 revised) states that instructional materials should be concept centered, activity based and work related. Instructional materials include both visuals and audiovisuals such as pictures, lascar, posters, charts, tape recorder, radio, video, television, computers among others.
These materials serve as supplement to the normal processes of instruction. 1. 2 Statement of Problems The act of teaching is fundamentally concerned with passing ideas, skills and attitude from the teacher to the learner. In Nigeria, for example experience has shown that spoken words alone in the communication of ideas are grossly ineffective and inefficient in producing desired learning outcomes. Every year, when the results of public examination are released, there has always been mass failure in English language. There are parts of English language that pose problem of comprehension to students especially poetry and grammar.
These cannot be taught effectively without instructional materials. Mutest and Mantra (1994) indeed affirmed that we learn and remember 10% of what we hear, 40% of what we discuss with others and as high as 80% of what we experience directly or practice. This contention is underscored by the often quoted What I hear, I forget What I see, I remember What I do, I know 1. 3 Purpose of Study The purpose of this study is to identify the problems responsible for students’ poor reference in English language. The purpose includes: I.
To examine the influence of the sue of instructional materials on the teaching of English language in secondary schools it. To ascertain the extent to which secondary school student’s learning of English language can be influenced by the use of instructional materials iii. To determine whether there will be any difference in the performance of secondary schools students in English language due to the use of instructional materials. 1. 4 Research Questions In order to achieve the objectives of this study, the following research questions were enervated to guide the investigation: I.
Will the use of instructional materials influence the teaching of English language in secondary schools? It. To what extent can secondary school students learning of English language be influenced by the use of instructional materials? Iii. Will there be any difference in the performance of secondary school student in English language due to the sue of instructional materials? 1. 5 Research Hypotheses The following null hypotheses were formulated and tested during the study. I. The use of instructional materials will not have significant influence on the teaching of
English language in secondary schools. It. The use of instructional material will not have significant positive influence on secondary school students’ learning of English language. Iii. There will be no significant difference in the performance of students in English language due to the use of instructional materials. 1. 6 Significance of Study The use of audio-visual in the classroom is at present strong emphasized. The use of instructional materials will give the learner opportunity to touch, smell or taste objects in the course of teaching and learning encounter.
It is necessary therefore to e that knowledge passed unto the students at different level of educational instruction are well planned and meaningful. Hence the researcher intends to point out the relevance of this study to the following: students, teacher, curriculum planners, educational system and society at large. To the students, if there is effective use of instructional materials, the students should be able to learn effectively and also retain what they have learnt. Enwinding (2000) asserts that “learning is a process by means of knowledge, skills, means of achieving this is through the use of instructional materials.
The study will be of benefit to the teachers because there will be increase in productivity if effective teaching and learning takes place. Summer and loge (2001) say, “It is only the teachers who will guarantee effective and adequate usage of instructional material and thereby facilitate success. Consequently a teacher of English language who makes use of appropriate instructional materials to supplement his teaching will help enhance quick and creative thinking, sharpen students’ imagination and this helps the learners to be spontaneous and enthusiastic.
Roomier (2002) asserts that any teacher who takes advantage of these resources and learns to use them correctly will find that they make almost an incalculable contribution to instruction. He further says that these resources can be used not only at the level of the school system but also fitted into any teaching situation Just as naturally on printed material. He says that they are of high value in importing information, clarifying difficult and abstract concepts, stimulating thought, sharpening observation, creating interest and satisfying individual difference.
Nina (1982) and Guyana (1984) support Ramjet’s (2002) assertion by saying that he use of instructional material for teaching enriches the classroom work and contributes directly and indirectly to effective teaching and learning. Richmond (1970) puts the importance more succinctly noting that they make learning more meaningful, focusing on pupils’ interest and attention, simulate learning, encourage expression and help visualization and provision of a sensory contact with realities.
The educational system and society at large will also benefit from the study because when the teachers solidify their teaching with instructional materials and the earners learn effectively, the knowledge acquired will reflect in the society positively. Students speak and communicate better at home and in their place of work. The standard of education will also improve. The mass failure in English language will also be minimized. 1. 7 Scope of the Study The study investigated the influence of instructional materials on students’ performance in English language.
Due to the vast and universal nature of this study, the researcher concentrated on Baring and Yuba Local Government Area of Lagos State. The study involved students in Junior Secondary School II OSI) from four Mandalay selected schools. The schools are: *SMS Grammar School, Baring *Our Lady of apostles Secondary School, Yuba *Stockbreeder Secondary School, baring *Federal science and Technology College, Yuba The major factor that constituted a limitation to this study was the insincerity of the respondents in supplying appropriate information required of them in relation to their personal data, socio-economic and educational background.
Besides, insufficient fund to take the researcher to vast areas like Leeks and Kirkwood areas limited the wider coverage of the study. Time constraint also posed a limitation to the study. Finally, incessant power failure circumspect the researcher’s ability to get adequate necessary information from the internet, which in turn cushioned the volume of the literature reviewed during the study. Definition of Terms Effect: This is the way in which an event, action or person changes someone or something. Instructional Material: What the teacher uses to make the lesson more interesting and understandable.
Performance: This has to do with the ability to do something or carrying out an activity. CHAPTER TWO 2. 0 LITERATURE REVIEW In this chapter, the literature will be reviewed under the following topics: Language it. English language in Nigeria iii. The importance and status of English language in Nigeria lb. English language and education in Nigeria v. The problems associated with teaching of English language v’. Instructional materials and types vii. The impact of instructional material in teaching English language viii.
Relationships between instructional material and students’ performance. 2. 1 Language Drama (2001) defines language as that attributes of man by which interaction is established inform of fertilization either in spoken or written form which may or may not be mediated by any instrument as a means of exchanging meanings. He further explains language as a phenomenon by which human beings establish their essence and construct their reality in order to make life meaningful to them and become relevant to their immediate physical, spiritual, cultural, aspect of life.
Language by these definitions is an attribute of man, exclusive to man and a tool for interaction. It is an indispensable tool for development in all ramifications. Environment. The use of language by man enables him to develop his physical, cultural, and spiritual instinct; language therefore serves the purpose of man’s cultural expressions and spiritual inclinations. Man affects his environment to suit his needs and express his inner thoughts. With language, man communes and communicates with his creator-God.
Man makes representation of his thought process whereby he establishes his individuality by himself and in consonance with others in the immediate and distant environment. Chomsky (1965) defines language as an act of specific universal principles, which are intrinsic properties of human mind that form part of our genetic endowment. Language can thus be defined as an arbitrary system of conventional (spoken or written) symbols by means of which human beings as members of a social group monomaniac. Quirk (1962) defines language as a human instrument of expression through sound as release by the vocal cords.
According to barber (1964), human language is a signaling system using the vocal sound as its materials. Brouhahas in his book, The Nature of Language describes language thus: “Language is a system of symbols- a system which is purely human and non-instinctive and symbols which are conventional and vocal – the whole being used for communication among the members of a community’. Here we have all the fundamental characteristics of language, it is human, non instinctive, symbolic, conventional, vocal and systematic. The first point is that language is human.
There are no animals outside myth or legend which have developed a language. We sometimes say that a parrot, for instance, can talk, but we never say that a parrot is using language. The use of language is specifically and solely human. Language is also non-instinctive. We do not acquire or develop a language by instinct nor do we inherit it as we inherit bodies, we have to learn our languages as children and difficult process it is too. We learn it from our parents, our elder brothers and sister and from our playmates but English language is learnt officially from school.
The description of language continues that a language is a system of conventional vocal symbols. A symbol is simply something which we can perceive and with which we connect a meaning or significance. A word is a clear case of symbol. It consist of two parts- a stretch of sound which we can hear, and a meaning which is associated with it, so that when we hear that stretch sound, its meaning comes into mind. Words are not the only symbol of language, some symbols may be smaller than a word. If we ear the word ‘cats’ we know that more than one cat is spoken of.
Here the ‘s’ which is associated with meaning. There are other types of symbols which are greater than words as in sentences. The symbols of language are vocal symbols that is produced by the human is primarily and essentially a spoken thing made up of vocal symbols, and written and printing are secondary methods of communication derived from and depending on the spoken language. The symbols in a language are also conventional. By this we understand that each symbol exist in a language by virtue of a sort of agreement among the speaker of the language.
All the speakers of English, for examples agree that if they wish to refer to that four-legged flat-topped wooden object in the middle of a room, they will use the stretch of sound “table” and if they wish to refer to the female child of a family, they will use the stretch of sound “daughter” and so on. This is simply a convention among the speakers of English language. Also the idea or conception of language as a system is fundamental. It implies that the parts or, units which make up language are so organized as to be related to one another and to be integrated into the whole which language.
A language is not simply a list or collection of sound and words but a highly organized system in which each unit of whatever nature has its own place, its own value and its own role in the whole. This system of convention vocal symbols is used for the purpose of communication among members of a community. All the complex interaction and co- operation between the members of a human society is unthinkable without language. Brouhahas sums up this “language is a purely human and non instinctive thing. It is based on vocally produced symbols, stretches of sound or pattern of orders with which the speakers agree to associate specific meaning.
The sounds and the symbols are related, one to the other, and together are organized into the integrated whole system which is language. A man uses his language as a means of communication, as a socializing force and as a tool for his thinking and planning. This summation puts credence to the fact that language is meaning making since language is language because for its intelligibility. Language by the interactive is central to man’s educational, social, political, economic, industrial and technological development. 2. 2 English Language in Nigeria
There is no gainsaying the fact that English language has become a Nigerian language. This has become an inevitable legacy of the British which has provided Nigerian with yet another means of expressing their culture. Before the incursion of the Europeans into various African states, a kaleidoscopic linguistic diversity was already in existence. Many of these languages are genetically and historically related. The extreme linguistic complexity before the advent of the Historically, European had their first contact with Nigerian in the fifteenth century.
Adequate (1978) stated that the European sea-merchants were searching for an alternative sea route to India and they called at some West African parts. The Portuguese developed a trading relationship with West Africa. The British interest drew in Nigeria especially during the slave trade. The Europeans took slaves from Nigeria and to do that successfully they were in close contact with some chiefs and slave traders. They communicated with Nigerian in English or a bastardize form which we now refer to as broken English.
Crotchet (1962) revealed that the early period of the contact showed that English language was associated with supremacy and prestige. Many Nigerian accepted English language and its culture and strive to make themselves like English people (acculturation or assimilation). After the abolition of slave trade, the missionaries came. Their main was to convert the people into Christianity. However, they discovered that their converts could not communicate in their language (English) and they needed to read the bible which was written in English language. The Christian Missionaries established school in different parts of Nigeria.
Their education was based on IRS, that is, Reading, Writing and Arithmetic. This help the converts to understand English Language. Later the British Government showed interest in education. They help to upgrade educational system and this gives English language a better position. English language is now regarded as the official language of the country. 2. 3 The Importance and Status of English Language in Nigeria A nation like Nigeria, with multilingual and multi-ethnic diversities, needs a strong search for a language that will cut across her land surface of about 913, 073 square kilometers.
The English language, through the British colonial government legacy has been adopted for our national survival because it gives Nigerian a feeling of oneness. During the missionary era, towards the end of the 19th C, there was a new orientation concerning the aims of education. The local populace this time around had the desire to speak English like the white man, they wanted to learn to read books in English particularly the bible, and they had the desire to get Jobs in the mission (Tomorrow, 1977). Thus the education ordinance of 1882 (section 10. ) made English compulsory as a condition for the award of government grants to proprietors of private schools in the country. Later the education amendment ordinance of 1883 indicated that: Incentives be given to teachers of English language. T. Many hours to be assigned to English per week in the school curriculum iii. There must be the practical necessity to know how to read and write English for The colonial era which spanned between 1920 and 1960 was that of linguistic imperialism. Colonizer wanted only a limited spread of English among the local people, yet they had disregard for indigenous languages.
Reverend Metcalf, the first inspector of schools in West Africa says: “These said (native) languages (are) only interesting to the comparative philologist are never likely to become of any practical use to civilization. The native must and will know English in spite of all well meaning but disperse notion, it is the language of commerce and the only education works a moments consideration”. At this period, learners were encouraged and given incentives such as scholarships and allowances if they would speak English in secondary schools.
Grants were given to schools based on the number of boys that could speak English. Later by 1960, English language was made compulsory in the school syllabus in order to regulate the standard and a candidate had to pass it to obtain a certificate in the General Certificate Examination. English language performs three broad functions in Nigeria biz accommodation, participation and social mobility. In performing the accommodating function, English language is recognized as a world language, so it performs international functions.
It serves as a link between people of multilingual societies of Africa and the outside world. It is the language of international politics, trade and sports. For instance at the AAU, NUN and the common wealth, Nigeria has no language other land English for taking part in deliberations. English also opens the door to high technology, science, trade and diplomacy. All these are made possible because of the large number of English speakers. English language also serves as the official language in the country. It is the language with which the government conducts its business.
It is the language that literate people from different ethnic groups use to communicate with one another. English is used as a matter of political expediency. It is retained so as to bring about political stability in the country. The choice of one of the indigenous languages may create some problems. Thus, in order to allay the fear of domination, there is the need for a central language that will serve official purposes. In view of the prominent on assigned English language in the Nigerian constitution (chapter 7) the participation function of the language becomes critical to the lives of people.
Those who wish to participate in the social, political and economic life of the country must “know’ English. Proficiency in English language is generally required for admission to parliament, to the bench and bar, civil service, essential service e. T. C. Also, scholars have been entrusted with the task of socializing children Because of the prestige attached to the language, a speaker is considered an literate if he/she cannot speak English, even if such a person is literate in the mother tongue.
Conclusively, the English language is the language of the institutions left behind by the colonizer. It is the language of education, technology, administration, politics, commerce, Judiciary and executives. 2. 4 English Language and Education in Nigeria It would seem a futile exercise to talk about education without discussing the tool to it which is language. Here English language plays a major role. According to National Policy on Education (1978), English language should be aught as a subject while used as a medium of instruction in the upper level of the primary school to tertiary level.
This policy is applauded by many because they fell that it is important that a child learns his or her mother tongue. The top supporter of this policy is Fauna. According to Fauna (1978) it (mother tongue) is natural to him like mother’s milk. It is also the means by which his attitude and aptitude are best developed. He is supported by Bamboos (1976), Flaying (1979) and Mojave (1976) when they assert that pupils learn and comprehend their subjects better in their mother tongue. This policy seems good but the implementation is the problem.
Sometimes some doubts have been raised as regards the prospects of the mother tongue policy in cosmopolitan cities like Lagos, Abidjan, Sudan, Enough and Port Harcourt where people from different ethnic groups reside. In such a case, English language is used. In the Junior secondary level, English language is merged with literature in English and is called integrated English studies. Formerly, English language and literature in English are taught as a separate subject. Later experts see this as a big mistake as literature in language is action.
To separate them is likened to deny a bridegroom his bride after signing the marriage register, a gross injustice. Piles and Algae (1970) assert: “Literature is language that pleases, but pleases in a special way. The pleasure that literature gives comes not only from the message, content or meaning, but also from the way it is expressed, it is not the message that makes literature, but the play of language that gives it form” Chining et al (1980:3) supports Piles and Algae by saying: “Language is much more than the maiden medium of literature instrument, a primary building material and a part of the conceptual foundation”.