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Educational Psych. 5-6

true
(T/F) The number of minority group students in the United States has been increasing steadily over the years.
false
(T/F) The assumption underlying the cultural deficit model was that many ethnic groups did not want to assimilate completely into mainstream American society.
true
(T/F) Both traditional and ethnocentric approaches should be emphasized in multicultural education.
true
(T/F) Membership in a particular group determines behavior as well as increases the probability of certain types of behavior.
true
(T/F) Socioeconomic status (SES) is positively correlated with school achievement.
false
(T/F) The majority of poor children in the schools of the United States are African-American.
false
(T/F) Differences in cultural values as well as the dangers of neighborhoods may make the strategy of less parental control both appropriate and useful for children’s learning.
true
(T/F) The purposes of creating culturally compatible classrooms are to lessen ethnic prejudice, racism, and sexism and, at the same time, provide equal opportunities for all students.
true
(T/F) Segregation was declared illegal by the Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka ruling.
false
(T/F) Discrimination and prejudice are the same negative behaviors.
false
(T/F) In a study of the effects of a negative stereotype on college students’ standardized test performances, similar results were found for both African-American and Caucasian students.
true
(T/F) Comparisons between males and females on mental ability tests generally show small or no differences.
false
(T/F) Gender differences in mathematics achievement are generally the same for all racial groups.
false
(T/F) It is difficult for most students whose original language is a dialect to learn the standard speech of their country.
false
(T/F) Recent studies show that speaking two languages is detrimental to cognitive development.
middle class, sectarian values
Educational practices in American schools during the twentieth century have tended to be based on
come from an inferior culture that leaves them at a disadvantage
The cultural-deficit model suggests that immigrant students
culture
The rules and traditions that guide the behavior of a group comprise its
social class
Membership in what cultural group is the best predictor of cultural differences?
Marie, who was placed in the low reading group in the third grade, is counseled in the eighth grade into home economics instead of beginning algebra
Which one of the following student situations is predictive of tracking practices?
parents’ attitudes toward education
Which one of the following variables is MOST likely to correlate positively and highest with children’s school achievement?
it refers to a group of people who receives unequal or discriminatory treatment
Which one of the following statements is technically TRUE regarding the term minority group?
different experiences in and out of school
Researchers generally believe that differences between ethnic groups in cognitive abilities occur primarily as a result of
“people from that region just aren’t ambitious”
Which one of the following quotations MOST clearly represents the concept of stereotyping?
behavior
As opposed to the term prejudice, the term discrimination refers to
context
The term gender is associated with judgments influenced by culture and
preschool children
What group of people have the most stereotyped notions of gender roles?
balance competitive and cooperative approaches
What type(s) of learning approaches would be the most helpful in eliminating gender bias in the classroom?
males tend to score highest and lowest on various tests
Which one of the following differences in test scores between males and females is most clearly documented in the current research literature?
dialect
A language variation spoken by a particular ethnic, social, or regional group is called a
accept students’ dialects as a valid and correct language system, but teach standard English as well
In order to reduce the possible negative stereotypes about students who speak a different dialect, teachers should
changing demographics
What is the primary reason why bilingualism has generated such heated debates in recent years?
the more skilled the individual is in the first language, the faster he/she will learn a second language
Research on bilingualism suggests that
try to make students fluent in both languages
According to Woolfolk, the most desirable approach to the “language problem” in today’s bilingual schools is to
Mr. Buhr regularly demonstrated the correct procedures for borrowing school materials during his homeroom period
Which of the following illustrations is characteristic of a culturally compatible classroom?
thrive in spite of the difficult circumstances
Resilience children not only survive in difficult times, they also
provide a safe and orderly classroom and develop positive teacher-student relationships
According to Borman and Overman (2004), teachers can do the following to create resilient classrooms
field-independent
Research on African-American students suggests that the typical learning style of this group is
reasoning by inference
The learning style of Native Americans appears to be
when it is appropriate to talk to another student as well as to respond to the teacher
Participation structures in a classroom would generally dictate
false
(T/F) Learning is defined as a deliberate action that produces a positive result.
true
(T/F) In Pavlov’s experiment the conditioned stimulus was the tuning fork tone.
true
(T/F) Extinction in classical conditioning occurs when the conditioned stimulus is presented repeatedly without the unconditioned stimulus.
false
(T/F) B.F. Skinner established the basis for operant conditioning and E.L. Thorndike was responsible for developing the concept of operant conditioning.
false
(T/F) Negative reinforcement introduces an aversive stimulus to decrease the frequency of a behavior
true
(T/F) Detention after school is an example of both presentation and removal punishment.
false
(T/F) The act of providing an antecedent stimulus immediately before a particular behavior is to take place is called prompting.
false
(T/F) In using the Premack Principle, it is important that the higher frequency behavior happens first.
true
(T/F) Positive practice involves having students give correct responses several times immediately following errors
false
(T/F) Removing something aversive as soon as the desired behavior occurs is an example of punishment.
false
(T/F) Ms. Tolleson is effectively using social isolation when she removes Mark, who is being disruptive, for a period of 60 minutes.
true
(T/F) Mr. Matin interviews a student about her disruptive behavior to learn about her reasons for the behavior. This approach is an example of doing functional behavioral assessment.
false
(T/F) A contingency contract is an example of a system for rewarding positive group consequences.
false
(T/F) Reinforcement is an important concept in operant conditioning theory but is irrelevant to Bandura’s social cognitive theory.
false
(T/F) Researchers agree goals-setting is most beneficial for self-management when students keep their goals private.
observable actions
Behavioral theories of learning emphasize
two events through pairing
The principle of contiguity involves an association between
in a contiguous relationship
In classical conditioning, the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus must be
extinction
Ray’s temper tantrums have finally driven his mother to her “wits’ end.” Ray’s mother resolves that she will ignore the tantrums no matter what. This plan is an example of
consequences
The law of effect in Thorndike’s theory of learning is related to the concept of
negative reinforcement
Removing an aversive stimulus to increase the frequency of a behavior exemplifies
negative reinforcement
You finally take out the garbage in order to get your father to stop pestering you. Your behavior is being influenced by
variable ratio
Slot machines that pay off after an indeterminate number of uses illustrate what schedule of reinforcement?
variable interval
What schedule of reinforcement is most likely to be involved when teachers give “pop” quizzes?
variable ratio
The schedule of reinforcement that is the most appropriate to use in the classroom because it encourages persistence and high rates of response is what type of schedule?
variable
Persistence in responding is increased by what type of reinforcement schedule?
a preferred activity is a reinforcer for a less-preferred activity.
The Premack Principle states that
describes the sequence of skills leading to a goal
Which one of the following is a major advantage of task analysis?
soft and private
The most effective reprimands are those that are
group consequences
The Good Behavior Game is based on the application of
unpopular students who are unable to perform well
Woolfolk suggests that programs for promoting group responsibility may be particularly hard on
may be both a positive and a negative influence
Which one of the following statements is TRUE regarding the use of peer pressure in applying group consequences? Peer pressure
varied in price so that all students may be rewarded
Rewards to be purchased with earned tokens should be
individual performance contracts with each student.
In a contingency contract program, teachers set up
self reinforcement
The concluding step of the self-management process is
self instruction
Cognitive behavior modification adds what to the management process?
Attention, retention, production, motivation
Which one of the following in the correct sequence of phases for Bandura’s model of observational learning?
response cost
Each time Robert fails to do his homework, five points are deducted from his total course points. The procedure being used by the teacher is
develop sentences using commonly misused words.
An example of the use of positive practice is having students
performance is otherwise too poor to gain reinforcement
Shaping is an appropriate method for developing new behavior when

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