Effective Leadership as Effective Management
While management and leadership are not opposing concepts, determining the right fit or balance is not easy or simple. A possible problem is resistance by the traditional perspective of management (Caldwell 2003). Not all organisations adopt a flexibility and openness to innovation and new ideas. This also translates to individual manager that stick to their traditional roles without recognising the link of these roles with leadership. Management is not a mechanical process as much as human resources do not work alike. Another problem is the difficulty in finding the fit between management and leadership in actual practice.
This is because of personal, structural or organisational culture factors that determine the extent or limit the fit and balance between management and leadership (Borgelt & Falk 2007). Developments in organisational management can address these problems. In some organisations, managers have assumed the role of facilitators in motivating and empowering employees to accept and flow with necessary changes such as technological innovation (Caldwell 2003). This is due to the need of the company to engage in technology to achieve competitiveness, especially in the international arena.
The emergence of more horizontal or flatter organisational structures have also allowed managers to embrace a change orientation and behaviour
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This involves a clear delineation of the leader and followers. (Davidson et al. 2006) This has the closest link to the traditional management role since this form of leadership influences people through the exercise of authority and control and derives decision with limited or lack of participation of followers much like the traditional role of managers. This works in organisations where the leader has the most experience and there is little room for consultation. Participative leadership involves the highest level of interaction between a leader and followers.
The leader provides guidance to the group members, group members interact with each other, and the leader interacts with group members to derive inputs and perspectives resulting to quality consensus decisions. The leader allows participation but has the last say especially in case of conflict. This fosters innovation and creativity. The rationale for this is that participation results to greater commitment and compliance as well as job satisfaction. (Davidson et al. 2006) This mode of leadership could fit with the expanded and non-traditional management role perspectives.
Delegative leadership works through a lose influence since the leader offer limited guidance to followers so that followers take on the role of decision-making in areas affecting their work. This could work in organisations with highly experienced members working on technical areas so that they comprise the best decision-makers. This offers the risk of developing poorly defined role structures. (Davidson et al. 2006) This style of leadership offers limited areas of fit with traditional management roles but better fit in expanded management roles.