Elaborate the Function of Management
Elaborate the function of Management. Answer: Management Is the process of getting activities completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people. Thus Management Is creative problem solving or problem moving process. This creative problem solving Is accomplished through various functions of management: planning, organizing, staffing, leading and controlling. The intended result is the use of an organization’s resources in a way that accomplishes its mission and objectives. The function of Management is modern context are as follow: I. Planning Planning is concerned with the future impact of today’s decisions.
It is the fundamental function of management from which the other four stem. The need for planning is often apparent after the fact. However, planning is easy to postpone in the short-run. Postponement of planning especially plagues labor oriented, hands on managers. Planning Is Important at all levels of management. However, Its characteristics vary by level of management. The Planning Involves vision-Nilsson- objectives-goals. The tasks of the strategic planning process Is shown below The organizing, staffing, leading and controlling functions stem from the planning function.
The manager is ready to organize and staffs only after goals and plans to reach the goals are in place. Likewise, the leading function, influencing the behavior
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Organizing Is allocating and configuring sources to accomplish the preferred goals and objectives establishing during the planning processes. Hence we can say that Organizing is establishing the internal organizational structure of the business. The focus is on division, coordination, and control of tasks and the flow of information within the organization. Managers distribute responsibility and authority to Job holders in this function of management. Figure below shows the steps required to undergo in this function of management. Each organization has an organizational structure.
By action and/or inaction, managers structure businesses. Ideally, in developing an organizational structure and distributing authority, managers’ decisions reflect the mission, objectives, goals and tactics that grew out of the planning function. Specifically, they decide: C] Division of labor Q Delegation of authority CLC Depreciation 0 Coordination iii. Staffing Staffing is filling and keeping filled with qualified people all positions in the business. Recruiting, hiring, training, evaluating and compensating are the specific activities included in the function.
In the family business, staffing includes all paid and unpaid positions held by family members including the owner/operators. Management teams on successful farms excel at many human resource management skills. Staffing (including recruiting, selecting, hiring and training of employees) is among the skills that become more important as the complexity and overall level of performance of a farm business increases. With increasing size and improving performance comes people complexity: more things accomplished through employees, more delegation to key employees and more reliance on employees to maintain a routine that assures superiority.
Any cynical attitudes managers have about employees need to be replaced with positive attitudes. Staffing success upends heavily on the planning and organizing functions of management. In planning, both farm goals and employees’ goals are considered. A business functions best when business and employee goals are compatible. Job analysis leads to Job specifications and Job descriptions. In developing Job specifications, the necessary knowledge, skills and abilities for each position are determined. Job descriptions identify specific tasks for each position.
Full success in staffing rarely comes without analyzing the Jobs on the farm, determining what is needed for success in each Job and writing a description of the Job. Staffing is best done with attention to recruiting, selecting and training employees to help them satisfy their goals and the goals of the business. The following assumptions provide the context for our discussion of staffing: 0 The mission for the farm has been given careful attention by top management and distributed to the management team and all employees, I. E. , the reasons the farm is in business are known. A management team is in place and able to divide up responsibilities. Top management is willing and able as needed to delegate responsibilities and authority. 0 Key positions, e. G. , a hardeners, head liker, full-time crops and machinery person, or a full-time office person are being filled. The process for filling key positions can be modified for part-time and temporary positions. 0 The person hired will be trained to carry out the responsibilities of the position, I. E. , it is not necessary to hire a person who already knows how to do the Job. No selection process can guarantee selection success. Even if the “right” person was hired based on all the information available to the employer at the time the decision was made, six months, a year or three years later, it may seem that the “wrong” person was hired. Lb. Directing Directing is influencing people’s behavior through motivation, communication, group dynamics, leadership and discipline. The purpose of directing is to channel the behavior of all personnel to accomplish the organization’s mission and objectives while simultaneously helping them accomplish their own career objectives.
The performance, conduct and accomplishments. Managers accomplish their objectives through people. In blaming others for her or his human resource problems, a manager is denying the management responsibilities inherent in the directing function. The directing function gives managers a second responsibility: helping people in the organization accomplish their individual career goals. Organizations do not succeed while their people are failing. Helping people in the organization with career planning and professional development is an integral part of the directing function.
In Management Excel, the directing function in Managing for Success has included: motivation, communication, performance appraisal, and discipline and conflict management. Several Management Excel teams have offered situational leadership as an advanced course for Managing for Success graduates. Management Excel team leader in-services have included group dynamics and team building. . Controlling Controlling is a four-step process of establishing performance standards based on the firm’s objectives, measuring and reporting actual performance, comparing the two, and taking corrective or preventive action as necessary.
Performance standards come from the planning function. No matter how difficult, standards should be established for every important task. Although the temptation may be great, lowering standards to what has been attained is not a solution to performance problems. On the other hand, a manager does need to lower standards when they are found to be unattainable due to resource limitations and factors external to the business. Corrective action is necessary when performance is below standards.
If performance is anticipated to be below standards, preventive action must be taken to ensure that the problem does not recur. If performance is greater than or equal to standards, it is useful to reinforce behaviors that led to the acceptable performance. Effective control systems have the following characteristics: 0 Control at all levels in the business Acceptability to those who will enforce decisions 0 Flexibility Accuracy Timeliness Cost effectiveness Understandability Balance between objectivity and subjectivity Coordinated with planning, organizing and leading. V’.
Innovation Innovation means creating new ideas which may either result in the development of new products or finding user for the old ones. The implementation of new, ideas, practices, processes or structure that significantly alters the work of management in a way that further encompasses the organization’s goals is the main focus in this function of the management. Figure below shows the stages of management innovation. Following are the key points to underline in this function of management: 0 We innovation in technologies and products. Management innovation can be a deep source of competitive advantage. Management innovation needs active experimentation to take shape. Vii. Representation In this function of management a manager represents his/her Organization before various outside groups which have some stake in the organization. These stakeholders can be government officials, labor unions, financial institutions, suppliers, customers, etc. They wield influence over the Organization. Manager need to spend some part of his/her interacting with these stakeholders and must win their support by effectively managing the social impact of his Organization.