Emergence of public sector Management
This is considered as a “paradigm shift” from the traditional public administration approach, which was dominant in the public sector for most of the century. The traditional approach was severely criticized. This literature review seeks to show the emergence of public sector management and its importance in the delivery of public goods and services. Public administration is no longer efficient and effective and as such, Public sector management Is a good strategy In Increasing efficiency and reduce costs In the public sector.
There were a number of problems leading up to the emergence of public sector management. There were newer theories of organizational structure and behavior, which argued that the bureaucratic model is no longer particularly efficient or effective, and there was a need for more flexible forms of management. It was argued that the traditional public administration approach was developed at a particular stage of industrialization, which suited relatively small and stable public sector (Thompson, 1967; Integers, 1979).
According to (Hill. 1992), despite its advantages (e. G. Precision, continuity, stability, discipline, reliability), fixed and rigid procedures ND orderly working patterns do not work when the environment is constantly changing. As Brooks, et al. (1984) notes, the two drivers of this shift
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The role of the State, the management of state monopolies and the need to reform became a much discussed topic. The need for reform, was also deeply supported by the World Bank and the MIFF. Both institutions propagated the principles for economic liberalizing and a reduction of the role of the state for increased efficiency. These reforms were done through structural adjustment loans. The public administration system had a perception of poor performance, inefficiency, unfriendliness to the citizens and a perceived lack of service.
The public administration system was taught to be dying out by globalization through enhancement of international competitiveness of the economy and the pressure by nation-states to standardize systems and services (Isaac Henry, 1993: 4). There were cultural factors that give rise to the need for Geiger-quality servicing, citizen participation and better public accountability. Literature Review . Robert Bean defines the New Public Management as “the entire collection of tactics and strategies that seek to enhance the performance of the public sector.
Thompson (1997) argues;That public sector management favors loosening the structures of the traditional model to allow for more creativity and flexibility in order to achieve new efficiencies and better customer service. It would give lower level managers more flexibility to use their own information and Judgment to make decisions. It would encourage managers to take risks and be more entrepreneurial. Donald Kettle, summarizes the goal of the new public management approach as aiming to “Remedy a pathology of traditional bureaucracy that is hierarchically structured and authority driven,” and “to root out authority-driven hierarchical systems. He summarizes the six “core characteristics” of the New public management approach as: productivity, normalization, service orientation, decentralization, a policy orientation, and accountability for results. The emergence of public sector management is considered a “paradigm shift” to a new approach to the public sector. This new paradigm” poses a direct challenge to the principles of public administration; consumers; a greater focus on results than processes, on initiative and responsibility rather than its evasion, and on management rather than administration, and a greater concern with value for money.
The most salient features and status of public sector management aim to change the relationship between politics and administration from a situation of loyalty and hierarchy into a system of partnership and transaction. It provides explicit and measurable standards of performance in arms of the range, level and content of services to be provided, increased competition between public organizations and private organizations for the pursuit of particular tasks, rather than having semi-permanent ‘ascribed’ roles.
Public sector management adopts a more business-like approach to conducting business and using management practices that are similar to those employed in the private sector; and emphasis on discipline and economy in the use of resources by public employees. Mechanisms to improve performance in the public sector. This includes establishment of statutory bodies, in which functions formerly performed by overspent are given over to statutory bodies or the private sector.
In the case of Grenade, the government estuaries or sold state enterprises as telephone service, power plant and post office. In economies where the government sector is smaller, and most sectors of the economy are already in private hands; such as the United States, prevarication has taken the form of private sector delivery of goods and services that are paid for by the government, referred to as “contracting out. ” It is argued that businesses act more efficiently than governments because of different incentives and greater flexibility, and so contracting will save the taxpayers money.
It is not expected that elements of public administration practices will disappear or replaced completely by another approach. However, they are now considered old- fashioned and no longer relevant to the needs of a rapidly changing society since the focus of governments has shifted from the rigid structures, procedures and safe guards to flexible structures, and results (Hughes, 1994: 24). Conclusion Thus new public management approaches can be useful to governments and ought to be seriously considered. This paper has focused upon the role and benefits of public sector management. Viewing a variety of literature, I mentioned the drivers that have encouraged the need for reform in public administration practices. Public sector management is different from the traditional Hibernia view and has an important role to play. It focuses more on provision and less on production. It aim’s for: reduced cost (or efficiency), improvements in service delivery (or effectiveness), reducing dishonest behavior (or honesty), giving the citizens a greater say in what the public sector does and ensuring the programs are sustainable.