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EMT Chapter 36: Patients With Special Challenges

Which of the following statements regarding patients with developmental disabilities is correct?
Patients with developmental disabilities are susceptible to the same disease processes as other patients.
Autism is MOST accurately defined as a:
pervasive developmental disorder characterized by impairment of social interaction.
Patients with autism:
have extreme difficulty with complex tasks that require many steps.
Which of the following statements regarding autism is correct?
Most cases of autism are diagnosed by 3 years of age.
Characteristic anatomic features of Down syndrome include:
a round head with a flat occiput.
2/3 of children born with Down Syndrome have
congenital heart disease
airway management can be challenging in patients with down syndrome because their
teeth are misaligned and they have a large tongue
You respond to a residence for a 9 year old female with Down syndrome who is sick. When you arrive at the scene and assess the patient, you determine that she is unresponsive and has gurgling respirations. You should:
open her airway with a manual maneuver, suction her oropharynx, and insert a simple airway adjunct.
An important aspect in the assessment of a patient who experienced a previous brain injury involves:
speaking with the patient and family to establish what is considered normal for the patient.
Which of the following conditions would MOST likely cause a patient to slur words, speak very slowly, or speak in a monotone?
Which of the following would be the MOST practical method of communicating with a hearing-impaired patient until his or her hearing aids can be located?
using a piece of paper and writing utensil to ask questions
General techniques for communicating with hearing-impaired patients include:
positioning yourself approximately 18? directly in front of the patient.
Because hearing-impaired patients typically have more difficulty hearing high-frequency sounds, it is important for you to:
lower the pitch of your voice.
When enlisting the help of an interpreter who signs, it is important for you to ask the interpreter to:
report exactly what the patient signs and not to add any commentary.
By placing one hand on top of your head and the other hand over your abdomen, you are asking a hearing-impaired patient if he or she:
is sick
Cerebral palsy is characterized by poorly controlled ________ movement.
Cerebral palsy is a condition that results from damage or injury to the
Which of the following statements regarding cerebral palsy is correct?
Conditions such as brain injury at birth, postpartum infections, and fetal hypoxia can cause cerebral palsy.
A significant number of pt with cerebral palsy also have
Seizure disorders
Common associated conditions in patients with spina bifida include all of the following, EXCEPT:
spastic limb movement
According to the “E” in the DOPE mnemonic, which of the following actions should you perform to troubleshoot inadequate ventilation in a patient with a tracheostomy tube?
Check the mechanical ventilator for malfunction.
General care for a patient with a tracheostomy tube includes all of the following, EXCEPT:
removing the tube if the area around it appears to be infected.
If suctioning of the tracheostomy tube is necessary, the EMT should:
attempt to use the patient’s suction device first because it is probably already sized correctly.
A 13-year-old child is on a home ventilator. The parents called because the ventilator is malfunctioning and the child has increasing respiratory distress. You should:
disconnect the ventilator and use a bag-mask device.
You receive a call to a residence for an apneic 2-month-old male. When you arrive at the scene, the infant’s mother tells you that her son was born prematurely and that his apnea monitor has alarmed 4 times in the past 30 minutes. Your assessment of the infant reveals that he is conscious and active. His skin is pink and dry, and he is breathing at an adequate rate and with adequate tidal depth. His oxygen saturation reads 98% on room air. You should:
transport the infant to the hospital and bring the apnea monitor with you.
In contrast to an automated implanted cardioverter/defibrillator, an internal cardiac pacemaker:
regulates the patient’s heart rate if it falls below a preset value.
Common complications associated with central venous catheters include all of the following, EXCEPT:
rupture of a central vein
Which of the following statements regarding gastronomy tubes is correct?
Pt with a gastronomy tube may still be at risk for aspiration
For which of the following conditions would you MOST likely encounter a ventricular peritoneum shunt?
The purpose of a ventricular peritoneum shunt is to:
prevent excess cerebrospinal fluid from accumulating in the brain.
Vagal nerve stimulators may be an alternative treatment to medication for patients with:
chronic seizure disorders
According to the Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act (EMTALA):
all health care facilities must provide a medical assessment and required treatment, regardless of the patient’s ability to pay.

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