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Environmental Science exam 4

The relationship between frogs and insects is an example of
a predator-prey rel
Production of a new species from a previously existing species
Speciation
Loss of an entire species
Extinction
Distinct pieces of DNA that determines the characteristics an individual displays
Genes
All of the individuals of the same species found within a specific geographic region
Population
Process that determines which individuals within a species will reproduce and pass their genes on to the next generation
Natural selection
Population of all the organisms who can potentially reproduce and have fertile offspring
Species
Changes in genes and characteristics seen in successive generations over time
Evolution
One organism kills and eats another organism
Predation
One organism lives on or in another organism
Parasitism
One organism benefits and the other organism is not affected
Commensalism
Two organisms strive to obtain the same limited resources
Competition
Both species benefit; in many of these relationships one species can’t live without the other
Mutualism
Each step in the flow of energy through an ecosystem is known as a
Trophic Level
Phosphorous is released from rocks by which process?
Weathering and erosion
Charles Darwin is generally credited with
developing the concept of natural selection
Study of the ways organisms interact with each other and with their non-living surroundings
Ecology
Everything that affects an organism during its lifetime
Environment
The place where an organism lives
Habitat
The functional role an organism has in its surroundings
Niche
Natural selection is the process that determines
which individuals within a species will reproduce and pass their genes to the next generation.
What are some abiotic factors that can influence an organism?
Energy, water, air, sunlight, and soil
What kind of plant has nitrogen-fixing bacteria living in their roots?
Legumes
Organisms that use energy from the sun to make complex, organic molecules
Producer
Organisms that require organic matter as a source of food
Consumer
Animals that eat producers
Herbivore
Animals that eat other animals
Carnivore
Animals that eat plants and animals
Omnivore
This concept states that no two species can occupy the same ecological niche in the same place and the same time.
Competitive Exclusion Principle
What is the term used to describe a shallow, partially enclosed area where freshwater enters the ocean?
Estuary
What abiotic conditions are the biggest determinants of biome location?
Precipitation and Temperature
List the freshwater layers from top to bottom:
Epilimnion
Thermocline
Hypolimnion
Benthos
List the Oceanic zones from top to bottom:
Littoral
Pelagic
Epipelagic
Mesopelagic
Bathypelagic
Abyssal
Hadal
In addition to northern latitudes, patches of tundra-like plant communities are also found
On mountain tops
Mediterranean Shrublands (Chaparral) have been heavily impacted by humans because
they are near the oceans and have a moderate climate.
A progression that begins with a total lack of organisms
Primary succession
Which group of organisms forms the base of the energy pyramid in a pelagic marine ecosystem?
Phytoplankton
The unusual forest biome occurring in California, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia is called a
Temperate rainforest
Which is an example of secondary succession?
a burned field
What is the dominant organism colonizing bare rock during primary succession?
Lichens
The taxonomic group that displays the greatest biodiversity is
Insects
Which harvesting method allows cutting of mature trees without damaging the forest?
selective harvesting
Biodiversity is a broad term used to describe the
Diversity of genes, species, and ecosystems
Complete extinction occurs when
all individuals of a species are eliminated
Genetic diversity is influenced by which of the following?
Migration, Mutation, Sexual reproduction
Sport hunting seasons are regulated to the fall so that
surplus animals are taken before the challenges of winter.
The chief aim of CITES is to
to prevent illegal international trade of endangered species.
Waterfowl present special wildlife management problems because
they are migratory
Which organism was introduced into the Great Lakes and has expanded its range to the Mississippi River?
Zebra Mussel
The number one cause of extinction is
habitat fragmentation and loss
What is an example of genetic diversity?
Three different color variations of the same butterfly species
Which of the following is NOT a technique for managing wildlife?
Introduction of exotic species
An individual can help to control the spread of invasive species by
Becoming informed about the issue, growing native plants, and not releasing non-native plants, fish or other animals into water.

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