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ENVS- Chapter 3

What equation does Paul Erich think that the impact of human activity on environments can be summarized
I=P*A*T
what is the viewpoint that more people on the planet will drive technology to support the world’s growing billions is often termed
Cornucopian
Where are the most fertile soils in the world located?
Temperate Grasslands (Asia, US)
How much of the natural topsoil in N. america has been lost since farming began after Euro colonization?
30%
What is the land degradation in arid, semi-arid, and dry sub-humid areas known as?
Deforestation
How many million acres are removed from agricultural production annually because of poor land management
What is the term that refers to the number of different animal and plant species and also to the genetic variability among individuals of those species?
Biodiversity
What is the most significant threat to biodiversity today?
Loss of Habitat
What method of gene transfer in plants is used that puts the desirable genetic fragments into the plant?
Gene Gun
the incorporation of new variety of seeds that resist disease, pest,drought, and flooding became known as what?
The Green Revolution
What technologies have contributed significantly to reducing hunger in millions of people?
Cross Breeding, Mutation, Gene Transfer, and Precision Farming
Many Members of any society will likely pass on the consequences of their destructive actions if they will benefit in the short term & receive little or no negative consequences from that action, refers to:
Tragedy of the Commons
The consequences of laying waste to a land in the past were minimized by the ability of the population to emigrate..The consequence of the us of resources well beyond their replacement level will eventually result in ecological and human disaster, refers to:
The Pioneer
What are the benefits of the tropical rain forest?
1. A major producer of oxygen for the global atmosphere
2.The Major carbon dioxide “sink”
3. Potential source of pharmaceuticals (for human diseases)
4. An important source of species diversity
As the population increases, the need for what also increases?
Food
As the need for food increases, what happens?
Land is cleared, soil is degraded and desertification occurs
What is the permanent decline in crown cover of trees to a level that is less than 10% of the original cover?
Deforestation
What biomes does deforestation take place?
Tropical rainforest, temperate rainforest, prairies, deserts, and arctic tundra
What is the “slash and burn” technique?
where is most of the forestland being destroyed?
Tropical Rainforest
Why are plants considered autotrophic?
Because they synthesize their own food from inorganic substances?
What soils are best suited for agriculture?
Soils that consist of Sand, Silt, and some clay in a homogeneous mixture aka loam.
Complex organic matter that has been biologically broken down so that original plant and animal matter is unrecognizable
Humus
What does Humus serve to do?
1.Retain Moisture (like a sponge)
2.Act as an insulator to heat and cold
3.to bind and release nutrients to plants in useable forms
What farming techniques are practiced to reduce soil erosion?
Crop rotation
Fallowing (Letting land “rest” for a growing season)
Terracing
Land degradation in arid, semi-arid, and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various factors including both climactic nations and human activities, refers to:
Desertification
What are the different types of wetlands?
-Swamps
-Bogs
-Prairie Potholes
-Bottomland Hardwood forests
-Estuaries
What are the benefits of wetlands (7 things)
1. Purify and replenish water supplies
2. Extremely rich in biomass
3. Important source of food
4. Absorb large amounts of CO2
5. Control flooding in low-lying areas (because they work like sponges)
6.Protect coastal areas from storms
7. Provide recreation and beauty
The amount of plant and animal life in an area
Biomass
What percent of wetlands have been lost in the United States?
50%
What is the greatest cause of biodiversity loss?
Loss of Habitat
The view that world would become overcrowded, pollution ridden , and ecological unstable
Neo-malthusians

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