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Ethical Leadership and Decision Making

The research paper is devoted to the problem of managerial leadership in decision making on the conflict situation at work based on a definite scenario. It is all about poor job performance as a result of long-lasting conflict situations in the Certification and Accreditation department. The main purpose of the study is to work out if senior staff’s managing by exception will be enough to reduce the problem of counterproductive work behaviors. For this reason the theoretical framework along with further analysis and recommendations are included to take a deeper glance at the models and theories which suit the scenario.


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..., the research outlines the validity of the main findings to satisfy the research question. Introduction The case under investigation reflects an ordinary possible situation in the workplace which touches upon direct managerial prospects of leading and verifying the work process as such. In this respect the managerial practice expands over a set of different approaches which refer to finding out optimal solutions in order to reduce conflict situations.

The question is that the world of management goes hand in hand with possible challenging problems emerging within the personnel. Nevertheless, decision making process should be weighed thoroughly in order to omit taking premature decisions on employees’ destiny at work. That makes more emphasis on implementing the most rational way for depleting the roots of the problem. Thus, the purpose of the study is to implement theoretical approaches and some psychological and social models in order to answer the following question: Can management achieve a goal by managing by exception?

In its turn the argument is represented in the study through a particular organization of the paper. Context, theoretical framework, diagnosis and analysis, and recommendations are all included to provide deep insights into the nature of the problem. Finally, the conclusion will show personal reflections on the problem as well as what one can understand out of this research. The main body Context The scenario presupposes constant conflict situations in the Certification and Accreditation Team during the period of 4 years.

The main difficulty is in the fact that there is still no constructive approach on the part of the senior management team to decrease this harmful effect on the overall performance of the company. The department consists of 12 employees broken down into three groups. It was done primordially to provide more space for cooperation. Nonetheless, there is no cohesiveness at all. The conflicting type of character is taken for granted among employees. Moreover, some of the staff members are also willing to make debates on quite provoking topics tearing thereby the reputation of the company down.

To say more, the quality of the work in the department leaves much to be desired, as it has become obvious among the rest of departments and it is now known to the senior staff. Theoretical framework The case needs theoretical implementation in terms of practicality and adequacy of the key points and models to be adjusted to a better investigation of the core reasons and solutions as well. Thus, the main concept of decision-making as a leader goes without saying in the study. Leadership is outlined hereby through laissez faire leadership and full range leadership model.

These two concepts differ in the extent of the senior management team’s active participation in cases when conflicts rise eventually (Kinicki & Kreitner, 2009). The first one is a passive characterization of the figure of a leader while the second is understood as leadership throughout different frontiers at work. Thus, the overall concept of organizational behavior touches upon the macro dimensional approach, as the research goes around three groups of people (12 employees) (Kinicki & Kreitner, 2009).

Four basic elements might be taken into account to approach the outlined problem, namely: perception (employee’s cohesiveness with the appropriate work behavior); motivation (issues on communicating job satisfaction); conflict (functional and dysfunctional); ethical decision-making (cooperation with managers and senior staff on the problem of applicable organizational behavior). On the other side, intergroup conflicts are taken into consideration. In this respect there are cases of dysfunctional conflict personalities which are characterized by harmful impacts on job performance (Kinicki & Kreitner, 2009).

What is more there is loss of expectations and no authority inside the department under analysis. Thus, the motivational model can be applied to maintain a working and social equilibrium in the psychological climate of the team (Isaac, Zerbe, & Pitt, 2001). Hence, the expectancy theory is an asset in this respect. In addition, there is a lack of team competition for positive results. Counterproductive work behavior is another part of employees’ character traits to hinder the work process at large (Mount, Ilies, & Johnson, 2006). Close attention should be drawn to inadequate communication within the department.

The question is that if the situation is left unresolved, a set of negative phenomena will definitely emerge instead, namely: dysfunctional conflict, low morale, non-productive and non-competitive team with low performance, job dissatisfaction turning into bad job performance influencing the rest of departments. Thus, the key definitions to be imposed in the research problem are: managing by exception, meaning solving the problem with each employee individually; applying expectancy theory of motivation, Thomas’s model of intrinsic motivation, and Kelley’s model of attribution.

Expectancy theory, therefore determines individual’s efforts by “expectations that an outcome may be attained and the degree of value placed on an outcome in the person’s mind” (Isaac, Zerbe, & Pitt, 2001, p. 214). Intrinsic motivation model is about energizing and inspiring the personnel through positive thinking and positive results to come true eventually (Thomas, 2000). Last but not least, Kelley’s attribution model is about “casual attribution process” (Manusov & Harvey, 2001, p. 216).

Thus, the main elements to implement the attribution theory concern with the attributions of persons and entities through the continuum of time (Manusov & Harvey, 2001). In turn all three models along with the aforementioned key terms should run the gamut of the scenario under investigation. Diagnosis and Analysis The case mentioned in this research is not unique in the managerial practice. It is all about individuals’ differences in character traits. When there is a point on misunderstanding, there is no way for driving business forward.

Thus, analyzing the scope of the main findings highlighted in the research, one should be accurate to draw parallels with other similar cases. In part, cases of misbehavior within an organization are a direct way to possible managerial fraud and whistle blowing as well. Leaving the situation unchanged, the senior staff risks to have problems of more aggravated type thereafter. The models and key prospects listed above provide a theoretical approach according to the four main aspects: perception, motivation, conflict, and ethical decision making.

The question is that dealing with character traits of each employee, a prescribed supervisor from the senior staff can make several conclusions as for causes and consequences of the problem. To make it plain, there should be a report done on the progress of each among workers in their workplace. As might be known, all of them are professionals in the field of certification and accreditation. It is not the main problem, in fact. The main construct of it is based on interpersonal “obstacles. ” Thus, applying the expectancy theory, the problem could have some ways to be reduced.

It is about the process of implementation the main task and time frames selected for completing it. It is similar to the attribution model which also explains the fulfillment of motivation emerging in a time-framed cooperation of employees with the higher staff (Manusov & Harvey, 2001). What is more, the analysis identifies the model of intrinsic motivation as the way out. It appeals to the vision and philosophy of the company to be a part of each among employees (Thomas, 2000). All in all, the main problem is in personalities of employees.

Conflict situations are yielded due to counterproductive behavior in the organization. Thus, a harder approach as of estimating seriousness of the situation should be exposed to each among 12 employees individually. Thus, if there is a disagreement lying between this and the rest of departments, there is plenty to talk about, as the reputation of the company and taking profits will go down subsequently. Recommendations The overall analysis of the scenario gives grounds to provide a set of recommendations to be useful in designating the place of each “troublemaker” as applied to the consensual ways to reduce the conflict.

First of all, it is a matter of psychological climate in the department. Motivation is likely to disappear as long as the employees are not satisfied by their jobs. It is a source for further rumination on the issue. Perhaps, there were some pivotal points on disagreement referred to unfair actions on the part of the senior management team. Hence, management-subordinate conflict and subordinate perceptional differences have possibly taken place in the company. On the other side, another recommendation serves as a reminder to provide intensive training programs.

The main purpose here is to maintain and put in deeply the set of the main values going along with the philosophy and specificity of the company on the whole. It should be done intensively, i. e. spaced a week apart. The main topics to outline during the training period are about motivation and ways to overcome difficulties in communication. On the other hand, it can consider a topic of transforming dysfunctional conflict into functional one. Above all, the cornerstone topic of effective leadership should be taken into consideration.

In this respect the senior staff is to be responsible to decrease the extent of passive avoidant behavior within the senior management team. As the conflict lasted for four years, it is a direct reminder of the indifference going on in the administrative zone of the company. Conclusion To sum up, the construct of the scenario mentioned in the research provides a case when internal dysfunctional conflicts are likely to have no solution for a substantial period of time. It is clear now that managing by exception is applicable according to the highlighted situation.

Thereupon, the research provides a set of key points and theoretical approaches to be useful to understand the problem from inside out. The proposed models on motivation (expectancy, attribution and intrinsic models) suit the conversation as they can explain and resolve the problem at large. The research showcased a practical lesson on the significance of positive motivation in the workplace as a guarantee of company’s difference from rivals and its success, as a result. Dysfunctional conflict and counterproductive work behaviors are inaccessible as the precursors for breaking the strike.

Keeping it in mind, a theoretical framework on increasing employees’ motivation based on practical examples in the well-known companies worldwide is beyond disagreement. Furthermore, investigating the highlighted scenario gives more points on making further development in business sector improved significantly.


Isaac, R. G. , Zerbe, W. , & Pitt, D. (2001). Leadership and motivation: The effective application of expectancy theory. Journal of Managerial Issues , 13 (2), 212-226. Kinicki, A. , & Kreitner, R. (2009).Organizational behavior: Key concepts, skills & best practices (4 ed. ). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill. Manusov, V. L. , & Harvey, J. H. (2001). Attribution, communication behavior, and close relationships. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Mount, M. , Ilies, R. , & Johnson, E. (2006).

RELATIONSHIP OF PERSONALITY TRAITS AND COUNTERPRODUCTIVE WORK BEHAVIORS: THE MEDIATING EFFECTS OF JOB SATISFACTION. Personnel Psychology , 59, 591-622. Thomas, K. W. (2000). Intrinsic motivation at work: building energy & commitment. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

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