1. Which of the following is the first step in the ethical decision making process?
c. Recognizing that an issue requires an individual or work group to make a choice that ultimately will be judged by stakeholders as right or wrong
Which of the following is not one of the six “spheres of influence” to which individuals are subject when confronted with an ethical issue?
a. Educational attainment
The perceived relevance or importance of an ethical issue to the individual, work group, or organization is
ethical issue intensity.
Studies have found that more than a third of the unethical situations that lower and middle-level managers face come from _____
internal pressures and ambiguity surrounding internal organizational rules.
have been found to decrease unethical practices and increase positive work behavior.
e. Good personal values
involves subordinates simply following the directives of a superior without question. It demonstrates the influence that significant others can exert in the workplace.
a. Obedience to authority
Multiple elements work on individuals to affect their behavior. While an individual may intend to do the right thing,
_ can alter this intent
e. organizational or social forces
If management fails to identify and educate employees about ethical problem areas, ethical issues may not reach the critical
a. awareness level.
Which of the following would not be considered a negative reinforcement of employee behavior?
c. Ignoring the behavior
The can be defined as a set of values, norms, and artifacts, including ways of solving problems shared by members of an organization
a. corporate culture
Following the ethical directives of a superior relates to
b. obedience to authority
Codes, rules, and compliance are essential in organizations. However, an organization built on to develop a high integrity corporate culture
e. informal relationships
According to the ethical decision-making framework, the absence of punishment provides a(n) for unethical behavior.
Which of the following is not considered a significant other group in the workplace?
External and internal rewards relate to which part of the ethical decision-making framework?
Which of the following is not an issue that helps in business ethics evaluations and decisions?
d. Personal guilt
is the first sign that an unethical decision has occurred.
People who believe in , go with the flow because they feel the events in their lives are uncontrollable.
d. external locus of control
Which of the following is not an individual factor that affects business ethics?
d. Significant others
is an organizational factor that gives a company specific characteristics. Over time, stakeholders begin to see the company as like a living organism with a mind and will of its own.
c. Corporate culture
An ethical corporate culture needs
to establish an ethics program and monitor the complex
ethical decisions being made by employees .
e. shared values; proper oversight
Those who have influence in a work group are referred to as significant others and include
a. peers, managers, coworkers, and subordinates.
Research concerning nationality and the ability to make ethical decisions
b. is hard to interpret in a business context because of cultural differences.
The relationship between business ethics and age
c. is complex, although experience helps older employees make ethical decisions.
Employees that see themselves as going with the flow because that’s all they can do have a(n)
a. external locus of control.
For people who begin the value shift that leads to unethical decisions, which of the following is not a usual justification to reduce and eliminate guilt?
e. This is in keeping with my personal morals and the code of conduct, so it is okay.
. is the ability to perceive whether a situation or decision has an ethical dimension.
c. Ethical awareness
relates to individuals’ perceptions of social pressure and the harm they believe their decisions will have on others.
b. Moral intensity
The ethical decision making process in business includes all of the following except
d. Making ethical decisions
culture involves values and norms that prescribe a wide range of behavior for organizational members, while culture reflects the integrity of decisions made and is a function of many factors, including corporate policies,
top management’s leadership on ethical issues, the influence of coworkers, and the opportunity for unethical
c. Corporate, ethical
All of the following are true with regards to organizational factors except
a. Employees approach ethical issues on the basis of what they learned from others in the organization.
The includes the motivational “carrots and sticks” superiors use to influence employee behavior.
b. Immediate job context
All of the following are true with regards to opportunity and ethical decision making except
d. The opportunity for unethical behavior can be eliminated with aggressive enforcement of codes and rules.
When we discuss approaches, we are talking about how organizational decision makers should approach an issue.
By incorporating objectives into corporate core values, companies begin to view as significant.
a. shareholder, stakeholders
Normative business ethics takes into account the realities outside the legal realm in the form of industry standards.
institutions include religion, education, and individuals such as the family unit.
All of the following are true regarding institutions except
c. There is no clear link between institutional theory and the stakeholder orientation of management.
High levels of create a higher probability that firms cut corners because margins are usually low.
The thought experiment used by John Rawls that examined how individuals would formulate principles if they did not know what their future position in society would be is called
a. Equality principle
states that economic and social equalities should be arranged to provide the most benefit to the least-advantaged members of society.
b. Difference principle
Values have all the following characteristics except
. Widely accepted
Companies take basic and translate them into core .
a. Customs, values
Organizations that have ethics programs based on a
orientation are found to make a greater contribution than
those based simply on compliance, or obeying laws and regulations.
Studies have shown that within the organization have more impact on a worker’s decisions on a daily basis than any other factor.
a. significant others
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