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Exam 1 Questions CJ 2310

Vigiles
The _________ began as early Roman firefighters and eventually became the first civil police force designed to protect citizens
Frankpledge or mutual pledge
In the latter part of the ninth century, King Alfred the Great of England and King Cnute II of Denmark devised the __________, a form of community self-protection
the watch and ward
the hue and cry
the parishable constable
the requirement for all males to keep weapons in their homes for use in maintaining the public peace
In 1285, the Statute of Winchester established
Henry Fielding
_________ formed the Bow Street Runners
Robert Peel
___________ is generally credited with establishing the first police department in London, England-
Boston
The first American police Department was organized in 1838 in ___________
Slave patrols
Many historians and scholars argue that ________ in the American south were the precursor to the American system of policing
County Sheriff, town marshall
The only law enforcement officers available on the American frontier were the ________ and the ________
Posse Comitatus
The Latin term _________ means “the power of the county”
Texas Rangers
The first state police agency was the ___________
Wickersham Commission
In 1929, President Herbert Hoover created the National Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement. This commission was known as the ___________
Knapp Commission
The ______________ investigated police corruption in the New York City Police Department
Kerner Commission
The National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, also known as the ______________, released a report stating, “our nation is moving toward two societies, one black, one white, seperate and unequal.”
August Vollmer
_____________ served as chief of police in Berkeley and istituted many practices that started to professionalize the U.S. police, including incorporating university training as a part of police training
Raymond Blaine Fosdick
____________ is noted for developing modern management and administrative techniques for policing
Local
The majority of law enforcement agencies in America are __________
2.5
Nationwide, in 2008, the sworn law enforcement employee average was ___________ law enfrocement employees per 1,000 citizens
87
In the United States, ____________ percent of police departments have 25 or fewer officers
24
Racial and ethnic minorities constitute approximately _________ percent of full-time sworn personnel
Chain of Command
______________ is the management concept that says each individual in an organization is supervised by one immediate supervisor who in turn reports to a higher supervisor
Span of Control
_______________ is the number of officers or subordinates a supervisor can supervise effectively.
Pendleton Act
The civil service system was created by the _________
Merit
The civil service system is a _____________ system
12
Among local departments, women account for approximately ___________ percent of sworn personnel
Civilianization
______________ is the process of removing sworn officers from nonenforcement jobs and replacing them by nonsworn personnel
Patrol
_________ is an example of an operations unit in a police department
Personnel
___________ is an example of an administrative unit in a police department
Communications
___________ is an example of an auxiliary unity in a police department
Job Analysis
A ________ identifies the important tasks performed by police officers and then identifies the knowledge, skills, and abilities, necessary to perform those tasks.
Discriminatory
When a proper job analysis is done, tests in the police screening process are considered to be ______________
Maturity
Hrand Saxenian says _________ is the single most important criterion in the police selection process
Women
Physical agility testing has been criticized for discriminating against __________
Written Entrance Exam
The _______ stage of the police selection process receives the most litigation
Candidates who cannot perform the required job tasks
The purpose of the medical examination is to screen out ___________________________________
Broadening
The Sherman Report criticized current police higher education and suggested that higher education programs for the police should offer them a ____________ experience
Liberal Arts
The Sherman Report suggested recruiting police applicants from _____________ college programs
20/20
Most police agencies require the vision of a police applicant to be correctable to __________________
10;5
According to John Firman, the research director for the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP), the most common restriction on hiring applicants for police service with a history of drug use within the recent past is _____ years free from using hard drugs and ______ years free from marijuana
Psychological and Medical Evaluation
After the conditional offer of employment has been made to a potential police applicant, the final stage of the selection process is _________________
Oral Board
The _______________ can be used to examine a candidate’s characteristics that might be otherwise difficult to assess, including poise, presence, and communication skills
Tennessee v. Garner
In 1985, the fleeing felon rule was declared unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court in the landmark case of ______________
Property
The police make more arrests for ________ crimes than for the other types
Motor Vehicle or Traffic related issues
Most police contacts involve _________
Tainted Occupation
Egon Bittner has stated that police work has, from its earliest origins, been a ___________
Enforcers
Optimists
Realists
Optimists
____________ is one of Broderick’s police operational styles
Aggressive
is NOT one of James Q. Wilson’s operating styles
Maintaining order, and protecting life and property
Sheehan and Cordner state that the two primary goals and objectives of police departments
The police want to show they have a caring attitude toward the community
Which of the following is NOT one of the reasons police exercise discretion

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