Exam 2 BCOM Practice
Gender egalitarianism deals with the division of roles between men and women in society. In high gender egalitarianism cultures, men and women are encouraged to occupy the same professional roles and leadership positions.
Uncertainty avoidance (UA) refers to how cultures socialize members to feel in uncertain, novel, surprising, or extraordinary situations. People from high uncertainty avoidance cultures often stress orderliness and consistency, even if it means sacrificing experimentation and innovation.
The opposite of a learner mind-set when working with other cultures is the judger mind-set. In cross-cultural working relationships, the judger mind-set is often referred to as ethnocentrism. It is the belief that your own culture is superior.
Uncertainty avoidance (UA) refers to how cultures socialize members to feel in uncertain, novel, surprising, or extraordinary situations. People from low uncertainty avoidance cultures prefer informality in the most interpersonal business interactions.
In egalitarian cultures, people tend to distribute and share power evenly, minimize status differences, and minimize special privileges and opportunities for people just because they have higher authority. A company that wants employees to share in ownership is a sign of egalitarianism.
Individualism refers to a mind-set that prioritizes independence more highly than interdependence, emphasizing individual goals over group goals, and valuing choice more than obligation. By contrast, collectivism refers to a mind-set that prioritizes interdependence more highly than independence, emphasizing group goals over individual goals, and valuing obligation more than choice.
refers to a mind-set that prioritizes independence more highly than interdependence. It emphasizes valuing choice more than obligation.
Humane orientation (HO) is the degree to which an organization or society encourages and rewards individuals for being fair, altruistic, friendly, generous, caring, and kind. In low HO cultures, people smile and display other nonverbal signs of welcome infrequently.
In order to create an effective business message, during the reviewing stage you should ensure that the communication is fair, consider whether your message is effective, and remove any distractions.
Excellent business thinkers possess a number of characteristics. First, they clearly and precisely identify and articulate key questions and problems. Second, they gather information from a variety of sources. Third, they make well-reasoned conclusions and solutions. Fourth, they remain open to alternatives to approaching and reasoning about the business problem—that is, they are mentally flexible.
For some messages, such as when delivering bad news, the indirect or inductive approach is used. In this approach, supporting reasons are provided first, followed by the primary message.
To break out of a reputation as an inexperienced newcomer you should set up a time to talk with your boss. In the meeting, explain your growth in various areas and ask for your boss’s ideas about improving your professional reputation.
Claiming that orientation programs eliminate the likelihood of new employees quitting would be an exaggeration, since Carter’s analysis only found that it reduces the likelihood of quitting. Exaggeration impacts readers’ perceptions of the writer’s overall credibility as well as the credibility of the message.
In order to make business messages more positive, you should focus on actions you can accomplish and demonstrate a realistic optimism.
As you analyze business issues, you are often trying to identify causes and effects. To build well-reasoned business positions, you should avoid faulty cause/effect claims.
In order to create an effective business message, during the drafting stage you should set a positive and other oriented tone, make the message easy to read, and make the message easy to navigate.
Most business arguments employ a direct or deductive approach. In other words, they begin by stating the primary message, which is typically a position or recommendation. Then they lay out the supporting reasons. Most business messages conclude with a call to action.
In order to make business messages more positive, you should focus on actions you can accomplish and demonstrate a realistic optimism. Stressing that the yoga program would increase the efficiency of employees accomplishes this.
To build well-reasoned business positions, avoid the following types of logical inconsistencies: unsupported generalizations, faulty cause/effect claims, weak analogies, either/or logic, slanting the facts, and exaggeration.
Being specific affects the judgments your readers make about your credibility. Specific statements lead your readers to believe that you know what you are talking about (competence); that you are not hiding anything (character); and that you want your readers to be informed (caring). Being vague, on the other hand, detracts from your credibility.
The reviewing process includes three interrelated components: conducting the FAIR test, proofreading, and getting feedback.
Whenever possible, one should choose short, conversational, and familiar words in business messages so that it is easier for readers to interpret. Using longer, less common words to “sound smart” rarely pays off. They slow processing and distract from your message. They may even inadvertently send the signal that you are out of touch, quirky, or arrogant.
One challenge while writing a business message is deciding which information is relevant for your message. After all, providing too much information can distract your readers and weigh your document down. On the other hand, not providing enough information can leave your reader wondering how to respond.
Whenever possible, choose short, conversational, and familiar words. Using longer, less common words to “sound smart” rarely pays off. They slow processing and distract from your message.
To keep your writing natural and engaging, make sure you do not distract your readers with overused or out-of-place words or phrases. Buzzwords, which are workplace terms that become trite because of overuse, can stir negative feelings among some readers.
The reviewing process includes three interrelated components: conducting the FAIR test, proofreading, and getting feedback. The “R” in FAIR test stands for “respect.” At this stage, you are likely to check whether your message shows that you value others.
Readers naturally want to know precisely who or what the subject of a sentence is, particularly in business writing, where specificity is so important. Most sentences that begin with “it is” or “there are” fail to provide a specific subject and generally contain more words than necessary
Most of your messages in the workplace have a clear goal: to update your team members, to promote a service to a client, to give an assignment, and so on. Your goal of completeness means that your message provides all the information necessary to meet that purpose. You can achieve completeness with three basic strategies: providing all relevant information; being accurate; and being specific.
If you are not specific while writing your business messages, your readers may become impatient and begin scanning and skimming for the information they want. If they cannot find that information, they are unlikely to respond to your message as you intend.
Typically, paragraphs in business messages should contain 40 to 80 words. For routine messages, paragraphs as short as 20 to 30 words are common and appropriate.
Carefully review your message for typos, spelling, punctuation, or grammatical problems before sending it. For important messages, consider first composing your message with word processing software. This will help you apply a higher level of seriousness. In addition, you’ll be able to use spell-check and grammar-check features that are more reliable than those within email systems.
In most business positions, you need to respond to others as soon as possible. This places you in a delicate balancing act; how can you stay responsive to others yet stay focused enough on your own tasks to achieve peak performance?
Conference calls are used for team conversations. They are typically less rich than one-to-one phone conversations because many participants do not provide cues continuously during the conversations.
Phone conversations are used for one-to-one conversations between parties in in different locations. They constitute a fairly rich communication channel that enables workers to quickly discuss and clarify workplace issues.
In some cases, people’s sense of freedom online leads to flames, which are emails or other digital communications in which the sender communicates “hostile intentions characterized by words of profanity, obscenity, and insults that inflict harm to a person or an organization.”
There are many options for group voice and video calls. If you are leading the call, send out information about the technology to participants so they can be prepared. When the first five to ten minutes of group calls are consumed by participants trying to figure out the technology, the meeting rarely turns out productive or engaging.
Texting is difficult to classify. It can be considered asynchronous, yet many people use texting more conversationally with frequent and rapid back-and-forth messages, which makes it a more synchronous channel.
Three features contribute to email chains: forward, copy, and reply to all. Many business professionals use the copy feature liberally to let everyone in a department or work unit in on the conversation. Of course, one of your goals is transparency, allowing others in your relevant work group to know how decisions are being made. But copying too many people can lead to information overload.
are used for team meetings. They are a richer form of interacting than conference calls but typically require more expensive equipment and careful scheduling. It is low in planning as messages are spontaneous.
involves releasing and overcoming anger and frustration so that you can make a more rational and less emotional response.
In an email conversation of more than four or five people, various message recipients can lose track of the sequence of messages or miss some messages altogether. Reply email chains become especially confusing when some colleagues are using just the reply feature whereas others are using the reply to all feature.
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