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Exam 2 Review

________ is the world’s most populous nation, home to ________ of the people living on Earth.
China; one-fifth
Which statement most accurately describes the population control efforts in China?
A one-child policy that is enforced through taxation and penalties has successfully controlled population growth.
If a population roughly doubles in the course of 50 years, its growth rate would be close to ________%.
1.4
IPAT stands for ________.
Impact, Population, Affluence, and Technology
The world population growth rate is currently at approximately ________%.
1.2
According to the IPAT model, technology that enhances our acquisition of minerals, fossil fuels, timber, and ocean fish ________.
increases environmental impact
The Cornucopian view held by many economists suggests that resource depletion due to greater numbers of people ________.
is not a problem if new resources can be found to replace depleted ones
The “sensitivity factor” in the model used to represent human environmental impact denotes ________.
the sensitivity of an environment to human pressures
Malthus was responsible for ________.
the idea that without social restrictions, human population growth would lead to famine and war
Helmut Haberl and colleagues have compiled data on ________ as a measure of how human population growth impacts Earth’s natural resources and ecosystem services.
consumption of net primary productivity
Author of The Population Bomb
Paul R. Ehrlich
The current global human population is approximately ________.
7 billion
Replacement fertility ________.
is equal to 2.1 in stable populations
A high birth rate coupled with a declining death rate resulting from increased food production and improved medical care is characteristic of the ________ stage of the demographic transition model.
transitional
The term demographic transition refers to ________.
the decline in death rates followed by decline in birth rates, occurring as a country economically develops
The transitional stage in Frank Notestein’s demographic model is initiated by ________.
industrialization
If global fertility rates remain at 2005-2010 levels, the United Nations predicts that world population will be approximately ________ billion in 2050.
11
The annual global growth rate of the human population peaked in the ________ and has been declining ever since.
1960s
Zero population growth can be achieved in a population when ________.
birth rate equals death rate, and there is no migration
In the demographic transition model, the highest population growth rate in a country is likely to occur during ________.
stage 2, the transitional stage
A population that is not growing will have a TFR of ________.
2.1 or lower
If there is ________, a country’s population growth rate will increase.
increased immigration
Diminishing population growth rates in poor countries can be partially attributed to ________.
the education of women
The 1994 Cairo, Egypt, conference was organized ________.
to urge governments to better address social issues such as poverty, disease, and lack of education as potential sources of population problems
Life expectancy in parts of southern Africa ________.
has fallen dramatically since 1990
Which of the following factors drives TFR down?
social and economic security
The richest one-fifth of the world’s population possesses approximately ________ times the income of the poorest one-fifth, and the richest one-fifth uses over 86% of the world’s resources.
80
Demographically speaking, the effects of AIDS are most significant because ________.
AIDS sickens and kills the youngest and most productive members of society
Not surprisingly, the nation with the highest rate of contraceptive use (84%) is ________.
China
Most of the world population growth in the near future will be in ________.
developing countries
Recent research suggests that ________ has/have contributed to the large drop in fertility rates in Brazil over the past several decades.
soap operas
Because of the success of China’s population control programs, ________.
China’s population growth rate has dropped below replacement levels
________ refers to the agricultural practices in which the members of a farming family produce only enough food for themselves and do not make use of large-scale irrigation, chemical fertilizer, or machinery and technology.
Subsistence agriculture
This pyramid depicts soil ________.
textures
The layer below the O horizon in an idealized profile
A horizon
Humus is ________.
a soil component composed of organic compounds that holds soil moisture and enhances soil fertility
Leaching and the rate of movement of water would be greatest in a soil classified as ________.
sandy
Factors involved in soil formation include ________.
weathering of parent material and the addition of organic material
A soil deficient in humus would ________.
have unusually low levels of biological activity
The breakdown of large rocks into smaller pieces is ________.
affected by rainfall, freezing, and thawing
Leaching ________.
removes water-soluble nutrients from soil
The O horizon is ________.
primarily composed of organic materials
The horizon where leaching has deposited materials is called the ________.
B horizon
Decomposers are most likely found in the ________.
A and O horizons
The lesson learned by Arliss and Todd Nielsen on their Iowa farm is that ________.
erosion and soil nutrient losses are reduced with no-till agriculture
We lose 5 to 7 million hectares of productive cropland per year to ________.
soil degradation
________ is the loss of more than 10% of soil productivity in arid areas due to such factors as erosion, soil compaction, overgrazing, and forest removal.
Desertification
The U.S. agency charged with slowing soil degradation is the ________.
Natural Resources Conservation Service
Shelterbelts are to ________ as terraces are to ________.
wind erosion; water erosion
Planting ________ between regular crops will help replace depleted nitrogen.
legumes
Erosion can result in a vicious cycle of worsening erosion because ________.
plants are less likely to grow in eroded soil
No-till farming would be most beneficial for farmers ________.
with steeply sloped fields
________ is the buildup of salts in soils as a result of overirrigation.
Salinization
Water diversion and pumping has allowed humans to grow crops in areas where natural supplies have been limited. A major challenge that exists in these regions has been ________.
salinization of soils
Irrigation can result in the salinization of soils because ________.
salts are deposited on the soil surface as water evaporates
The Conservation Reserve Program pays farmers to ________.
stop cultivating highly erodible cropland
More than half the ________ in the United States and Canada has/have been lost to urban and agricultural development, but the recent ________ subsidizes landowners to restore or protect remaining areas.
wetlands; Wetlands Reserve Program
Monoculture ________.
agricultural practices increase a crop’s susceptibility to insect pests
Which of the following is true?
More than one in three adults in the United States is obese.
Green Revolution techniques ________.
have increased crop yields but may not be sustainable
________% of the food we consume comes from ________ crop species.
90; 15
Agricultural productivity increased during the Green Revolution as a result of improvements in fertilizers, crop breeding, pest control, and ________.
irrigation
People around the world have become more dependent on global markets for their food. As a result, recent U.S. government policies encouraging ________ have had a major negative effect on food availability.
ethanol production
During the past half century, global food production has ________ world population growth.
grown at a faster rate than
Normal Borlaug, who passed away in 2009, pioneered the development of ________.
high-yield wheat
Aquaculture ________.
can bring economic benefits and food security to many developing regions
It is more energetically efficient for us to eat more ________.
plant-based foods
Seed banks are important for ________.
protecting genetic diversity
Can protect crops from insect pest-related losses when applied periodically
Bacillus thuringiensis
A successful case of biological control, introduced from Argentina to Australia in the 1920s to control invasive prickly pear cactus
Cactoblastis cactorum
Introduced for control of agricultural pests in Hawaii
wasps
Source of generic plasmids for genetically modified organisms
Escherichia coli
In Queensland, Australia, cactus moths ________.
effectively cleared non-native prickly pear cactus from rangeland
Managing crop competitors and pests has been challenging to agronomists for centuries. One approach, integrated pest management, ________.
combines synthetic chemical pesticides with biocontrol techniques
Which of the following best describes integrated pest management (IPM)?
biocontrol measures, crop rotation, and habitat diversification
Plants with showy flowers typically ________.
are pollinated by animals
Researchers in Switzerland have demonstrated that organic farming ________.
decreased organic soil losses while giving yields almost as high as conventional farming
Organic farming ________.
has become more challenging because of contamination by GM crop varieties
In order for livestock to be considered organic, ________.
animals must be fed 100% organic agricultural feed
Recombinant DNA ________.
is the merging of DNA from unrelated organisms
Bt crops ________.
have been given a bacterial gene that gives chemical protection against insect pests
Oaxaca, Mexico ________.
is a world center of biodiversity for maize
The European Union nations ________.
do not support the growth or sale of GM crops
The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety ________.
outlines regulations on international trade of GM foods
Recent investigations of the impact of GM crops on biodiversity in Great Britain indicate that ________.
some GM crops and sites showed increased biodiversity, while others showed decreases

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