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Exam 3 Chapter 7

Rousseau believed that the source of all social ills was:
private property
According to Rousseau, there are two forms of inequality: ________, or natural, and _______, or physical.
physical; social
Which kind of inequality did Rousseau believe would always exist?
both physical and social
Karl Marx and Jean-Jacques Rousseau tended to agree on at least one thing. They both felt that the primary source of social ills in society was due to the emergence of:
private property
Ferguson and Millar saw social developments resulting from the establishment of private property as representing a huge improvement in society because private property leads to higher degrees of social organization and:
efficiency
What is the term that refers to a form of wealth that can be stored for the future?
assets
Thomas Malthus believed that the human population grows ____________, but the ability to produce food increases ____________.
geometrically; arithmetically
From Malthus’ perspective, what keeps the population in check?
inequality
Thomas Malthus had a positive view of inequality. He defended disease, slavery, and child murder. Why?
he felt this would allow the population to thin itself out naturally
One of the best ways to reduce the number of children born (according to Sachs) is to:
provide family planning
What term refers to a two-directional relationship, one that goes both ways like a conversation between two people (such as master-slave)?
dialectic
Hegel felt that the relationship between slave and master was dialectic. This means that:
each is dependent on the other
Which standard of equality is most concerned with the distribution of resources?
equality of opportunity
The game of Monopoly follows the rules of what standard of equality?
equality of opportunity
An example of the ideology of equality of condition put into practice is:
segregation
Let’s say you are best at building with your hands and you become a carpenter working for a local building contractor. A friend of yours is very good at programming computers, so he or she works at IBM. Yet another friend excels at science, so he or she goes to medical school and becomes a physician. Each of you is paid the exact same salary and each of you lives in the same neighborhood and drives the same type of car. What standard of equality would this be an example of?
equality of outcome
The examination of how race and ethnicity affect income is really an examination of:
stratification
Each society has a type of social stratification. How does the United States ideologically justify its type of stratification system?
?
Which of the following is NOT a type of social stratification mentioned in your text?
proletariat system
Which social stratification system was favored in feudal Europe and the American South before the Civil War?
estate system
A type of stratification that is basted on heredity notions of the religious and theological purity and in which there is little to no individual mobility within the strata is the:
caste system
The process in India whereby an entire caste can leapfrog over another and obtain a higher position in the hierarchy is called:
sanskritization
Although Indian castes historically have been ____________, increasing rates of ____________ have made classifying children more difficult.
endogamous; exogamy
Under what system is your societal position related to your position in the economic market?
class
What group sells its labor to the bourgeoisie in order to receive wages?
proletariat
Which group exploits the working class by taking more of the value of the work of the laborers than they repay in wages?
bourgeosie
Business managers are examples of what concept?
conflict class
Professionals, small business owners, and craftsmen are referred to as:
petit bourgeoisie
According to the “Relative Social Prestige of Selected U.S. Occupations” table (Table 7.1 in your text), which white-collar occupation has the highest prestige score?
physician
According to the “Relative Social Prestige of Selected U.S. Occupations” table (Table 7.1 in your text), which blue-collar occupation has the highest prestige score?
police officer
A stratification system with a governing elite—that is, few leaders who broadly hold the power in society—is called a(n) ____________ system.
elite-mass dichotomy
Mills argues that there are three major institutional forces in modern American society in which the power of decision making has become centralized. Which of the following is NOT one of these forces?
social order
Mills believed that centralized power in the hands of a few ____________ democracy.
hurt
C. Wright Mills had a negative view of the elite-mass dichotomy. His viewpoint fits into what paradigm?
conflict
C. Wright Mills argues that there are three major institutions in the United States today that have the power to make decisions for the masses. Which one of the following is NOT one of these?
religion
Sociologists often describe an individual’s position in a stratified social order that attempts to classify groups, individuals, families, or households in terms of indicators such as occupation, income, wealth, and education. Sociologists call this:
socioeconomic status
What term refers to everything you own minus debt (such as mortgage on you home and credit card debt)?
wealth
Historically, Marx’s capitalist class was made up of members of the:
upper class
What is the fastest-growing job market for people with only a high school education?
food preperation
What is another term for the nonworking poor?
underclass
Trade of goods and services across national boundaries, as well as the mobility of businesses and labor through immigration, is called:
globalization
The effect of globalization has been to bifurcate labor into:
high skilled and low skilled
The movement between different positions within a system of social stratification in any given society is called ____________ mobility.
social
____________ social mobility refers to a group or an individual transitioning from one social status to another that is situated more or less on the same rung of the ladder.
horiontal
An example of horizontal social mobility is a(n):
secretary changing firms but retaining his or her occupational status
Mobility that is inevitable from changes in the economy is called:
structural
Typically, one moves vertically (up or down) the social ladder. If factories are moving from the United States to Mexico and that is causing major job losses in the United States, one would say that downward mobility is due to:
?
The U.S. estate tax is sometimes called the ____________ tax.
death
Proponents of the estate tax assert that the tax:
provides an important source of government revenue
Opponents of the estate tax have consistently portrayed ____________ as its undeserving victims, although it only affects a small number of such individuals.
?

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