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FINAL EXAM: exam 1

The _____ began as early Roman firefighters and eventually became the first civil police fore designed to protect citizen.
Vigiles
In the letter part of the ninth century, King Alfred the Great of England and King Cnute II of Denmark devised the ______, a form of community self protection.
frankpledge or mutual pledge
In 1285, the Statute of Winchester established
all of the above
_______ formed the Bow Street Runners.
Henry Fielding
_______ is generally credited with established the first police department in London, English.
Robert Peel
The 1st American police Department was organized in 1838 in_______
Boston
Many historian and scholars argue that _______ in the American south were the precursor to the American system of policing.
slave patrols
The only law enforcement officers available on the American frontier were the _____ and the _____
county sheriff, town marshal
The Latin term _______ means “the power of the county.”
posse comitatus
The first state policel agency was the _______.
Texas Rangers
In 1929, President Herbert Hoover created the national Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement. The commission was known as the ______
Wickersham Commission
The _______ investigated police corruption in the New York City Police Department.
Knapp Commission
The National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, and known as the ____________, released a report stating, “Our nation is moving towards two societies, one black, one white, separate and unequal.”
Kerner Commission
______ served as chief of police in Berkeley and instituted many practices that started to professionalize the U.S police, including incorporating university training as a part of police training.
August Vollmer
_______ is noted for developing modern management and administrative techniques for policing.
O.W. Wilson
The majority of law enforcement agencies in America are ______
local
Nationwide, in 2008, the sworn law enforcement employee average was ______ law enforcement employees per 1,000 citizens.
2.5
In the United States, ________ percent of police departments have 25 or fewer officers.
87
Radical and ethic minorities constitute approximately _______ percent of full-time sworn personal in local departments.
24
Among local departments, women account for approximately _______ percent of sworn personnel.
12
_________ is the management concept that says each individual is an organization is supervised by one immediate supervisor who in turn reports to a higher supervisor.
Chain of command
_________ is the number of officers or subordinates a supervisor can supervise effectively.
Span of Control
The civil service system was created by the ______.
Pendleton Act
The civil service system is a ______ system.
merit
____________ is the process of removing sworn officers from non-enforcement jobs and replacing them by non-sworn personnel.
Civilianization
____________ is an example of an operations unit in a police department.
Patrol
____________ is an example of an administrative unit in a police department.
Personnel
__________ is an example of an auxiliary unity in a police department.
Communications
A ________ identifies the important tasks performed by the police officers and the identifies the knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary to preform those tasks.
job analysis
When a proper jobs analysis is done, test in the police screening process are considered to be __________.
job related
Hrand Saxenian says ________ is the single most important criterion in the police selection process.
maturity
Physical agility testing has been criticized for discriminating against ________.
women
The ________ stage of the police selection process receives the most litigation.
written entrance exam
The purpose of the medical examination is to screen out _______.
candidates who cannot perform the required job tasks
The Sherman Report criticized current police higher education and suggested that higher education programs for the police should offer them a ______________ experience.
broadening
The Sherman Report suggested recruiting police applicants from _________ college programs.
liberal arts
The U.S. Supreme Court case of Dothard v. Rawlinson (1977) dealt with _________.
height and weight requirements for candidates
Most police agencies require the vision of a police applicant to be correctable to ___________.
20/20
According to John Firman, the research director for the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP), the most common restriction on hiring applicants for police service with a history of drug use within the recent past is ________ years free from using hard drugs and _______ years free from marijuana.
10; 5
Adverse impact or different rate of selection occurs when the selection rate for any gender, rate or ethic group is less than ________ percent of that for the group with the highest selection rate.
80
After the conditional offer of employment has been made to potential police applicant, the final stage of the selection process is _________.
psychological and medical evaluation
The ________ can be used to examine a candidate’s characteristics that might be otherwise difficult to assess including poise, presence, and communication skills.
oral board
In 1985, the fleeing felon rule was declared unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court in the landmark case of ___________.
Tennessee v. Garner
The police make more arrest for _______ crimes than for the other types.
property
Most police contacts involve _______.
motor vehicle or traffic related issues.
Egan Bittner has stated that police work has, from its earliest origins, been a
tainted occupation
Sheehan and Cordner state that two primary goals and objectives of police departments
maintaining order, and protecting life and property
_________ is one of Broderick’s police operational styles.
all of the above
_________ is not one of James Q. Wilson’s operating styles.
Aggressive
Which of the following is not one of the reasons police exercise discretion?
the police want to show they have a caring attitude toward the community

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