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Geology 15 & 18

The main drawback of composting as a waste reduction strategy is?
separating organic from nonorganic waste
What is the most important consideration in site selection for a sanitary landfill?
Geological and climatic conditions that will limit water flow through the landfill
Why is it necessary to rethink strategies of solid waste management?
Waste generation from urban areas is increasing rapidly
Deep-well disposal of hazardous wastes can result in?
Why has integrated waste management been criticized?
Overemphasis on recycling
A mineralized liquid generated by water flow through landfills is called what?
Waste from one part of a society is used as a resource for another is called what?
Industrial ecology
Anomalously rapid movement of glacial ice is termed what?
What is largely responsible forkeeping northern Europe relatively warm
The ocean’s conveyor belt
The dominant form of anthropogenic climate forcing is the emission of what?
Carbon Dioxide
Hydrothermal mineral deposits would be least expected to form in what type of plate tectonic setting?
Transform Boundary
If surface mines tend to cause greater environmental impacts, why are they used?
They are more economical
How is biotechnology helping to reduce the environmental impacts of mining?
Through efficient treatment of mine wastes and contaminated water
Why is steel recycled at such a high rate?
The market is large and widespread
Why is cyanide heap leaching used to extract gold from some deposits?
The gold concentration is too low to be extracted using traditional methods
Most water pollution associated with mining operations has to do with what?
Water passing through mine wastes
What phase of mining generally causes the least environmental degradation?
Exploration and testing
Biotechnology may help to reduce the use of what hazardous chemical in ore processing?
What element represents the greatest amount of recycling by volume?
A measure of mineral concentration that is necessary for profitable mining.
concentration factor
A collection of a naturally occurring material
The portion of a resource that is currently available to be legally extracted at a profit
What is the difference between recources and reserves?
based on current geologic, economic, and legal factors
Caused by the heat, pressure, and chemically active fluids of the cooling magma interacting with the surrounding rock, called country rock, or host rock.
Contact metamorphism
As evaporation progresses, dissolved materials precipitate, forming a wide variety of compounds, minerals, and rocks.
Mineralizing fluids migrate through a host rock, crystallizing as veins or small dikes.
Hydrothermal (hot-water) deposits
Natural occurring minerals that can be extracted for a profit.
Heavy metals that collect in open crevices or fractures at the bottoms of pools, or at the inside curves of bends
Placer deposit
Results from an increase of temperature and pressure associated with deep burial of rocks or tectonic activity.
Regional metamorphism
The major types of mineral deposits are?
Elements for metal production and technology, building materials, minerals for the chemical industry and minerals for agriculture.
What are the major environmental impacts associated with mining?
waste from mines, water pollution, air pollution, impacts on the biological environment, and social impacts.
Why is iron recycled so much?
The market is large, and the environmental impacts of disposal would be so great if it was not recycled.
A natural climatic event that causes high surface temperatures in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean and droughts and high-intensity rainstorms in various places on Earth.
El Nino
What are Preston Cloud’s central goals for the Earth sciences?
Understand how Earth works and how it has evolved; apply that understanding to better manage our
What is earth system science?
The study of Earth as a system, comprised of several interacting subsystems.
What are the major tools and methods of studying climate change?
Geologic record, real-time monitoring, and mathematical models, as well as instrumental records, historical records, and paleo-proxy records.
What are the three main factors that determine the temperature of Earth?
The amount of solar energy received, the amount reflected by Earth’s surface, and the amount of heat
retained by the atmosphere.
What categories are mineral resources broken down into based on how they are formed? (5) BSWIM
Igneous Processes
Metamorphic Processes
Sedimentary Processes
Biological processes
Weathering Processes
A kimberlite pipe is an example of what? What do they produce?
Igneous resources. Diamonds.
What are the two types of methamorphic resources? What elements does each produce?
Contact metamorphism. Lead and Silver. Regional Metamorphism. Asbestos and copper
What can sedimentary resources supply us with?
Sand and gravel after it has been sorted in an esker. Oil and natural gas
Black smokers contain what resources?
Zinc, copper, iron, and silver
Deep-ocean floor deposits contain what recources?
Sulfide deposits
Manganese nodules
What are the subsystems in earth system science? BOLA
atmosphere, oceans, land, and biosphere
Humans are responsible for the emission of what greenhouse gases?
Carbon dioxide
Nitrogen oxides
What pattern is the ocean’s conveyor belt?
Thermohaline Circulation
Flat, nearly featureless plain deposits are called what?
Ground moraine (till plains)
Material such as silt, sand, and gravel that is carried away from glaciers by melt water is called what?
What is Carbon Sequestration?
Capture carbon dioxide from power plants and
injecting that carbon into the subsurface geologic environment.

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