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Government ch. 7-11

A criticism of interest-group pluralism is
its class bias in favor of those with greater financial resources
The best description of the ideal of pluralism is that
interest should be free to compete with each other for governmental influence
the teamsters and the AFL-CIO are examples of what kind of interest group?
a labor group
Interest groups are concerned with the ___of government, while political parties are concerned with the ___ of government.
policies; personnel
The christian Coalition is best described as a(n)___group
ideological
The National League of Cities is a good example of
a public-sector interest group
Which of the following is NOT a key organizational component of interest groups
newsletter and website
The major organizational factors shared by most interest groups are
leadership, money , an agency or office, and members
When paid staff conduct most of the daily business of a group, that group is best described as
staff organization
A benefit that is sought by and interest group and that once achieved cannot be denied to nonmembers is called a
collective good
The free-rider problem occurs because
the benefits of a group’s actions are broadly available and cannot be denied to nonmembers
The solidary benefits of interest groups include
identification with the purpose or ideology of the group
If one enjoys the benefits a of a group’s collective efforts but

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did not contribute to those efforts, one is a
free-rider
When membership in an organization allows for a reduction in the price of a museum ticket it is called a
promotion offer
A___ is the best example of an informational benefit provided by many interest groups.
newsletter
why is it important for interest groups to offer selective benefits
it is necessary to limit the extent of the free-rider problem
One way the AARP has been effective at overcoming the free-rider problem is by providing__ benefits to its members.
selective
members of interest groups in the United States are typically people
with higher levels of income and education
The increased number and importance of interest groups
is a response to an increase in the size and activity of government
Over the last forty years, the number and scale of interest groups at he national level has
dramatically increased
what distinguishes lobbying from other strategies of influence?
lobbyists try to exert pressure directly on government officials themselves.
Lobbying is
an attempt by an individual or group to influence the passage of legislation by exerting direct pressure on members of congress or a state legislature
What is the most important beneficial resource that lobbyist provide government officials?
information
An iron triangle is made up of an alliance between
a legislative committee, and interest group, and an executive agency
How can interst groups use litigation as a strategy of influence?
filing amicus curiae briefs, financing lawsuits, and bringing a suit on behalf of the group
Which of the following groups has had the greatest success with a strategy of litigation
NAACP
A full page, fully paid spread in the New York Times publicizing a major oil company is best described as
going public
When interest groups take out advertisements and hold marches, these are examples of
mobilizing public opinion
In recent years, the religious right has had a great effect on American politics through
grassroots mobilization
What is the primary function of a political action committee?
to raise and distribute money to election campaigns
What type of group generally has the most trouble retaining members
citizens
The most important qualification for bien g a lobbyist is
experience with Washington, D.C. and government operations
Lobbyists targets ___ with their direct lobbying strategies
All three branches of government
The most common interest in Washington D.C. are
corporations and business trade associations
Efforts to regulate lobbying activities more effectively may conflict with
the First Amendment right to petition government
Which of the following is a correct statement?
Interest groups form both in response to new government policy and to create new policies.
Professional lobbyists are often:
all of the above (lawyers, former members of congress, and former employees of government agencies)
By what means can interest groups influence elections?
financial support and campaign activism
A two chamber legislature is called
bicameral
A unites States representative serves for a
two-year term
How many United states representatives are elected every two years?
all of them
How long is a senate term?
six years
Which house of congress is more responsive to interest groups?
House of Representatives
Congress’s composition is mostly:
white males
Why doesnt congress reflect the general population?
to be successful in congress, it helps to be well-financed and well-educated
why wouldnt a congress person go against the wishes of his or her district?
he or she may be fearful of losing the congressional seat & he or she probably thinks the same way as his or her constituents.
Which of the following affects who gets elected and what he or she does once in office?
all of the above (who decides to run, incumbency advantage, and the way congressional district lines are drawn)
Which of the following is not true?
political actions committees are controversial because they are legal
The incumbent is the person:
holding the political office for which he or she is running
When a legislator is prevented from running for re-election, it is done through:
term limits
redistricting occurs
every ten years after the census
patronage ensures that
politicians have loyal people working under them.
projects that benefit a congress person’s district and help him or her get reelected are called
pork barrel
what position has the most power in the House of Representatives
Speaker of the House
What position has the most power in the Senate?
Majority leader
Permanent committees that focus on a particular policy area are called:
standing committees
A temporary committee that deals with special problems that fall outside of the jurisdiction of existing committees is called:
a select committee
Which permanent committee is formed by members from both houses of congress?
Joint committee
Which committee is temporarily convened to work out the differences between the senate and the House versions of a bill?
conference committee
A congress person’s staff is important because they:
all of the above (develop policy ideas, draft legislation, and negotiate with lobbyists)
what committee determines the length of debate on a bill in the House
Rules committee
When a senator holds the floor by continually speaking to prevent a vote on a bill, he or she is carrying out a:
filibuster
what is the procedure that ends a filibuster in the senate?
cloture
A president may prevent a bill from becoming law by utilizing:
his or her veto power
A presidential veto my be overridden by:
two-thirds vote in congress
A roll-call vote means that:
each legislature’s vote is recorded by the clerk.
which sector tends to have the most influence at the committee stage?
interest groups
Article II of the constitution establishes what about the presidency?
expressed powers (enumerated powers)
Powers claimed by a president that are not expressed in the constitution but are inferred from it are called
inherent powers
what is the term for the power of the president to command the national military and state national guard?
commander in chief
what is an agreement made between the president and another country that has the force of a treaty but does not require the senates “advise and consent”?
executive agreement
The war powers resolution was passed over which president’s veto?
Nixon
Which is not a role of the president?
chief magistrate
what is the name of the speech that the president must give congress from time to time?
state of the union
the veto power of eh president is classified as what type of power?
legislative
The power of an executive to veto specific provisions of an appropriations bill is called the:
line-item veto
what term refers to the president’s ability to bring a policy agenda before congress?
legislative initiative
When the president makes rules directly without congressional approval he or she is using:
an executive order
The president appoints the heads of major departments for a group called
Cabinet
The presidential foreign policy council composed of many of the president’s closest advisers and the ‘inner cabinet’ is called the:
National Security council
The permanent agencies that perform the defined management tasks for the president are within the
Executive Office of the President
The agency that prepares the national budget and provides oversight for presidential program finances is the:
Office of management and budget
What is an enumerated function of the vice president?
presiding over the senate and casting tie-breaking votes
When does the vice president take over ruling the country?
if the president dies
What is the equivalent of the US presidency in Great Britain?
The prime minister and queen/king
What is the claim by a victorious candidate that the electorate has given him or her special authority to carry out campaign promises?
mandate
Why did presidents Nixon, Ford, Reagan, and Bush have such a low “batting average” with congress?
The opposing political party controlled congress
What is an attempt to be above partisan bickering in congress?
bipartisanship
Why does the media focus a great deal of attention on the president?
News is money, and the president is easy news
Who greatly expanded the power of the president by reaching out to the people for support?
FDR
What is the general trend of presidential approval ratings?
a tendency to decline over time
What is the generally favorable reaction of the public to presidential actions taken in foreign policy cises?
rallying effect
What is the term for the complex hierarchical structure of offices, tasks, and rules used by large scale institutions?
bureaucracy
which of the following is not a function of the bureaucracy?
appropriations
The carrying out of policy decisions is left to the
bureaucracy
why do bureaucrats, an unelected group of people, essentially make law?
all of the above
When departments and agencies put policies into action it is called:
implementation
Why do we have a merit system in the bureaucracy?
to prevent partisan firings
What is the largest subunit of the executive branch?
department
What is an “independent agency”?
an agency that is not part of a cabinet department
why is it important to have independent agencies?
to insulate the organization from partisan influence
the head of a department is called a
secretary
which agency is not an independent agency?
State Department
what type of agency is delegated by congress to have broad powers over a sector of the economy or a type of commercial activity?
regulatory agency
what is the term for an agency that is responsible for collecting taxes?
revenue agency
what is the largest unit of the justice department
criminal division
which is a division of the justice department that handles no litigation?
Federal Bureau of Investigation
Which is not a division of the Justice Department?
Federal Reserve Board
Which department is concerned with external national security?
State and Defense
What is the center of military and policy management in the United States?
Joint Chiefs of Staff
What is the use of taxing and spending powers to manipulate the economy called?
fiscal policy
Which is the primary department administering fiscal policy?
Treasury
Which institution facilitates the exchange of cash, checks, and credits among member banks?
Federal Reserve System
What is the Federal Reserve Board’s most powerful tool?
raising and lowering interest rates
Many of the tax exemptions can be attributed to what insitution?
congress
Which term is policy of reducing or eliminating restraints on the conduct of private institutions?
deregulation
If a program formerly controlled by the public sector is picked up by the private sector, this is called:
privatization
Who is the individual or organization that brings a complaint in court?
plaintiff
The individual or organization against whom a complaint is brought in a criminal or civil case is called a:
defendant
A system of jurisprudence, including private law, used to settle disputes that so not involve criminal penalties is called:
civil law
A precedent allows a judge
to use prior court decisions as a basis for deciding present cases
What term is used for the category of law encompassing private law, civil law, and criminal law in which one party argues that a license is unfair?
public law
Which of the following is the first court to hear a criminal or civil case?
trial court
The highest court in a particular state or in the United States is the
Supreme court
Appellate courts
do not hear new evidence and witnesses
What are the negotiated agreement in criminal cases between the state and a defendant?
plea bargains
Which court can hear cases involving treaties with other nations?
Federal courts
Why are federal court rulings important?
They interpret ultimately what the constitution means
What is the sphere of a court’s power and authority called?
jurisdiction
The constitution gives what court the final say in all litigation?
the supreme court
The justice on the supreme court who presides over the writing of opinions is
the chief justice
how many justices serve on the supreme court?
nine
which of the following is a true statement?
The constitution made no provisions regarding the court’s size.
How are federal judges appointed?
The president nominates a candidate
The practice of asking approval of the senators from a federal judge nominee’s state before an official nomination is made by the president is called:
senatorial courtesy
The person who acts as the government lawyer before the supreme court is the
solicitor general
A brief that is filed not by the direct participants in a case is called a
friend of the court
the individuals that federal judges employ to research legal issues are called:
law clerks
The power of the Supreme court to rule the acts of the other two branches unconstitutional is called:
judicial review
What supreme court case established Judicial review?
Marbury v Madison
The clause that states that all government activities must comply with the consitution is called the:
supremacy clause
The requirement that every police officer informs a person of his or her rights when being arrested is called:
the Miranda rule
When nominating a justice to the U S supreme court, presidents:
Have sole authority to appoint the person to the judgeship with approval of any other political body
Which of the following is not an accurate description of appointees to the US Supreme court?
they are typically representative of he public at large
A supreme court Justice who votes with the majority but does so for different constitutional reasons may write a:
concurring opinion
the constitution gives congress power over the supreme court to:
rewrite legislation it feels the court has misinterpreted
What can influence major shifts in the supreme court position on broad issues?
change in membership of the court & political trends & public opinion
The federal district courts are:
All of the above
The highest law in the land in the United States is
the constitution
The primary funtion of the judiciary is to
interpret law
the judiciary in the United States
is a co-equal branch of government with the legislative and executive branches
In the case Bush V Gore over the issue of whether to count “undervotes” in Florida, the Supreme Court:
ended the 2000 presidential elections by not permitting the manual recount of “undervotes”

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