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Government Review Test 1

Which goal stated in the Preamble to the U.S. Constitution does the government fulfill when it builds roads and schools?
“promote the general Welfare”
In the United States, what check does the President have on the power of the legislative branch?
The President can reject a proposed law.
Which role does the government play in a free enterprise system?
It passes economic laws and regulations.
Which is an example of a citizen’s responsibility?
voting in elections
Which is one reason that some people don’t like the seniority rule?
It discourages new ideas.
What is the main job of Congress?
to pass laws
The chair position of the Joint Committee on Taxation rotates between the chairs of what two committees?
the Senate Finance and the House Ways and Means
What type of committee includes members from both houses of Congress?
a joint committee
Who decides which bills are important enough to send to the House for all members to consider?
a standing committee
What are bills?
Bills are proposed laws.
Congress considers thousands of bills and resolutions.
The process of making laws is complicated.
The President must approve all proposed laws.
What did Congress authorize in 1996, which was later declared unconstitutional, in order to let the President reject specific parts of a bill?
the line-item veto
What is a filibuster?
an effort to talk long enough to prevent a vote on a bill
In which role does the President serve as the head of the military?
commander in chief
In the United States, which is the President’s role as the chief of state?
The President both symbolizes and rules government.
According to the Constitution, which procedure is followed if the office of the Vice President becomes vacant?
The President nominates a new Vice President.
What does it mean that the Vice President is “only a heartbeat away” from the presidency?
The Vice President is first in the order of succession.
In the Framers’ plan, the candidate with the second highest number of electoral votes would become _____.
Vice President
Which method of selecting a President did many of the Framers initially favor?
Congress chooses the President.
In the recent past, primaries were used both to select delegates and to _____.
allow party members to express their nominee preferences
The number of delegates from each state is determined by _____.
the state’s electoral vote
Which candidate’s performance in the first televised debate helped his campaign?
John F. Kennedy
Which political element was introduced in the 1960 presidential campaign?
televised debates
Sometimes people worry that the President will make decisions _____.
in secret or illegally
According to Article II, what is the President’s main duty?
to carry out laws that have been passed
The term executive privilege originated with _____.
President Eisenhower
The ordinance power refers to the power of the President to _____.
issue executive orders
The President recalling an American ambassador often is the first step _____.
to a war
A person who helps manage relations between countries is known as _____.
a diplomat
Which action can Congress take to check the power of a presidential veto of a bill?
override the President’s veto
How can the President check the actions of the legislative branch?
veto a bill passed by Congress
FBI, IRS, FCC, and CIA are all abbreviations for _____.
federal agencies
Authority in a bureaucracy is structured in _____ way.
a hierarchical
The Office of Management and Budget helps determine _____.
how much money to give federal agencies
The President’s closest advisors within the Executive Office of the President work in _____.
the White House Office
Which is true about the Cabinet?
Most members come from the President’s political party.
Which was not one of the original executive departments?
the Department of Agriculture
Why was the passage of the Pendleton Act historically significant?
It made the quality of someone’s work the basis for hiring.
A _____ is a document that allows a traveler to stay in a country for a specific period of time.
visa
Which international organization helps the United States conduct its foreign policy?
the United Nations
Which marked the end of the U.S. policy of avoiding involvement in the affairs of other countries?
World War II
Which U.S. government department is responsible for carrying out foreign affairs and diplomacy?
the State Department
Which is responsible for securing U.S. borders and ports?
the Department of Homeland Security
_____ uses violence or force to achieve political goals.
Terrorism
What is the main purpose of the National Security Council?
to advise the President about the safety of the country
What was the cause of the first Gulf War in 1991?
Iraq had invaded the country of Kuwait.
Which President ended American involvement in the Vietnam War?
Richard Nixon
The Cold War was a prolonged period of military competition and tension between the United States and which nation?
the Soviet Union
Beginning in 1899, the Open Door policy increased trade between the United States and which nation?
China
Why did George Washington encourage a policy of isolationism for the United States?
He wanted the nation to concentrate on domestic affairs.
What has sometimes occurred as a result of disagreements between the United States and the United Nations (UN)?
The United States has withheld funds from the UN.
Which division of the United Nations has the main responsibility for keeping international peace?
the Security Council
The United States, Australia, and New Zealand signed the ANZUS Pact in 1951 to provide security for which part of the world?
South Pacific
The _____ is responsible for handling U.S. foreign aid programs.
U.S. Agency for International Development
President Franklin Roosevelt started the Lend-Lease program to help which nation?
Great Britain
Constitutional courts and special courts are the two types of _____.
federal courts
What court is concerned with appeals of decisions in patent, copyright, and international trade cases?
the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit
A kidnapping case is an example of a _____.
criminal case
What is a concurring opinion?
the statement written that adds information or facts to the majority opinion
Which is required for the Supreme Court to reach a decision?
a majority vote of the nine justices
The Supreme Court’s decision in the case Marbury v. Madison is important because _____.
it allowed the Supreme Court to overrule an unconstitutional law
The Supreme Court declares an executive order unconstitutional. This is an example of _____.
judicial review
The Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution to limit the power of _____.
the national government
Which is an example of the constitutionally guaranteed freedom of assembly?
A group gathers to pursue a common purpose.
Three years after its original ruling, the Supreme Court reversed its opinion about which law?
a law requiring students to salute the flag
Which kind of speech does the government limit on radio and television broadcasts?
obscene language
When someone knowingly says untrue and harmful remarks about another person in public, the speaker may be guilty of _____.
slander
American citizens’ right to free speech is guaranteed by _____.
the 1st Amendment
What did the Supreme Court’s decision in Boy Scouts of America v. Dale, 2000, rule about the right of association?
States cannot force associations to accept members.
How do the rights of assembly and petition apply to private property?
People cannot trespass, even to express political views.
The government may prohibit an assembly for any of the following reasons:
when it occurs
where it takes place
how it is conducted
The government can stop a public protest of its policies if _____.
the demonstrators endanger public safety
In the case of Rochin v. California, the Supreme Court ruled that the _____.
14th Amendment was violated
Which constitutional amendment introduced the right of due process?
the 5th Amendment
How did the Revolutionary War influence the inclusion of the 2nd Amendment in the Constitution?
The British had tried to take weapons away from colonists.
Until the Civil War, the protection of civil rights had been left mostly to _____.
individual states
What does the Miranda rule say?
Police must explain a suspect’s rights before questioning.
To ensure a fair and impartial jury in a federal case, the jury members must _____.
come from the state or district where the crime took place
If it determines that there is enough evidence to go to trial, a grand jury makes _____.
an indictment
Which is considered an act of treason against the United States?
giving aid to the enemies of the United States
Which is a judge most likely to do when concerned that a defendant will commit another serious crime if released on bail?
have the defendant held without the option of bail
What happens when an accused person pays bail to the court?
The defendant is temporarily released from prison.
In the late 1800s, the government banned immigration through _____.
the Chinese Exclusion Act
People who flee from other countries seeking protection from war or persecution are called _____.
refugees
Which is true about the population of the United States over time?
The white population has always been the largest group.
A heterogeneous society is made up of _____.
different kinds of diverse people
According to the Supreme Court, how should men and women be treated?
Some laws that discriminate between men and women are constitutional.
In the 1950s, how did some southern states respond to the Supreme Court’s order to end segregation in the public schools?
Some southern states passed more laws to block integration.
Title IX was largely responsible for the growth of _____.
women’s sports at the high school and college levels
The federal government did not pass civil rights laws until the late 1950s because from the 1870s until the 1950s, _____.
few people in the federal government were concerned with the rights of minorities
The _____ have the power to decide whether or not an action of the government violates the Constitution.
courts
Which principle expresses the idea that government is bound by the rule of law?
limited government
Which statement explains the principle of federalism?
The powers of government are divided between the federal government and the states.
In 1804, the 12th Amendment changed the way the United States _____.
elects the President and Vice President
How can a President send troops into combat without congressional approval?
as commander in chief of the armed forces
Which power is held only by state governments?
establishing public schools
What is the main purpose of a political party?
to control government by getting its candidates elected
In the United States, minor political parties are also called _____.
third parties
A _____ is an election that is part of the process for choosing presidential candidates.
presidential primary
What potential problems with online voting do critics fear?
digital disasters and violations of security
Absentee voting is the process by which _____.
people can vote without going to polling places
The Presidential Election Campaign Fund was created in 1971 to provide _____.
public funds for presidential campaigns
How is campaign funding regulated in state elections?
by the states
What is the main source of campaign funds?
private donations
What limits the impact of public opinion on public policy?
the interests of the minority
The sophisticated and rigorous nature of _____ makes them the best way to collect information by asking people questions.
scientific polls
Which is the main concern of an interest group as compared to a political party?
to shape public policy
Which is the largest agricultural interest group?
American Farm Bureau Federation
Interest groups help elect politicians by contributing funds to which organizations?
political action committees
Which interest group is thought to run the most effective grass-roots lobbying campaigns?
American Association of Retired Persons (AARP)
People who contact public officials to express the wishes of an interest group are called _____.
lobbyists
In which chamber does each state have the same number of votes, no matter how large or small its population?
the Senate
The number of House members for each state is determined by that state’s _____.
population
How long is one term for a member of the House of Representatives?
two years
When can a bill be sent to the President for approval?
after both the House and Senate pass the bill
To avoid punishment for serious crimes, House members will sometimes _____.
resign from office
Drawing voting district boundaries within a state to favor one party or group over another is called _____.
gerrymandering
What is determined by the census that is taken every ten years?
the number of House seats per state
Aside from a salary, what is a benefit that members of Congress enjoy as a part of their compensation as elected federal officials?
low insurance costs
When members of Congress vote with their political party, they are acting as _____.
partisans
A suggested new law is called a _____.
bill
A tax on _____ is an indirect tax.
gasoline
A copyright is good for what length of time?
the life of the artist plus 70 years
Which judicial power does the Constitution give to Congress?
defining federal crimes and punishments
A person can protect the right to manufacture and sell an invention that he or she has made with _____.
a patent
Why did Congress pass the War Powers Resolution after the Vietnam War?
to limit the President’s war-making powers
One example of Congress using implied powers in education is the rise in _____.
women’s athletic programs
A congressional power that is implied by the expressed power to regulate commerce is the power to _____.
ban discrimination in the workplace
Congressional powers not expressly stated in the Constitution but suggested by the enumerated powers that are written there are called _____.
a. delegated powers
implied powers
How did President Richard Nixon avoid being impeached?
He resigned from the presidency.

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