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govt test 2 question

may involve a second or runoff primary
primary election voting
who elects state level party officers
conventions
at which level can conventions select party leaders chosen by delegates elected at local levee.
state level
done by passing resolutions in local and state conventions and adopting a platform at the state convention
determining party policy
where are candidates chosen to run for president and vp?
national convention
lowest level of temporary party organizations
precinct conventions
elect delegates to county or district convention
main business of precinct convention
held in heavily populated counties that have more than one state senatorial district
district conventions
elect delegates to state convention
main business of district conventions
certify to secretary of state names of party members nominated in the march and april primaries, write rules that will govern party, draft and adopt platform, adopt resolutions regarding issues too specific to be included in platform, select members of partys state executive committee
delegates of state conventions
states electoral vote equals
number of members in US congress
selection of national conventional delegates
chosen acceding to results of primary vote
parties select delegates to a national convention in
caucuses
combine the two delegate selection plans in a primary caucus described as the
texas two step
super delegates
unpledged
selects national deletes from results of presidential preference primary
republican selection
selects all at large delegates
nominating committee
these executive committees nationwide are linked
only nominaly
highest level, national committee precinct chairs, count, district, and state executive committees, comprise
the permanent organization of the state parties.
recruit candidates, devise srategies, raise funds, distribute candidate literature and info, register voters, and turn out voters on election day
role of permanent party organization
basic party official in both the temporary and permanent party structure
precinct chair
elected by precinct voters in party primaries for a two year term
precinct chair
duties include registeringa nd canvassing voters within precinct, distributing candidate literature and info, operating phone banks within precinct on behalf of party, get people to polls
precinct chair
unpaid party official who arranges for precinct convention and serves on county executive committee
precinct chair
composed of all precinct chairs and county chair who are elected by county party members in primaries
county and district executive committee
conduct primaries and arrange for county conventions
county executive committees
key party official and serves as the chief strategist within that county
county chair at local level
recruiting local candidate for office raising funds, establishing and staffing partys camping headquarters within county, and serving as local spokesperson for party.
dues of county chair
composed of county chairs from each county in a given district
distrit executive committe
rarely meet
district executive committees
highest permanent party organization in the state
state executive commitee
composed of one man and one women from each of 31 senatorial districts plus chair and vice chair
state executive committee
serves as state executive committees chief strategist and spokesperson
state chair
may represent statewide auxiliary organizations within party like women’s groups racial groups etc.
state executive committee
because of influences of individualistic and traditionalistic cultures, both democrats and republicans tend to be
conservative
give highest priority to reduced taxing and spending
fiscal conservatives
stress importance of their family values
social conservatives
fiscally conservative but allows for limited govt. role in solving social problems
neoconservatism
in response to emergency economic stabilization act an american recovery and reinvestment act
tea party movement
favor regulation of economy to achieve more equitable distribution of wealth
liberalism
claim govt. is obligated to aid unemployed, alleviate poverty and guarantee equal rights
liberalism
incorporates philosophy of less govt regulation of business and the economy while adopting more liberal view of greater govt involvement in social programs
neoliberal
who controlled politics during civil war
democrats
who controlled politics during reconstruction
republicans
with republican victory of senatorial candidate kay bailey hutchison
texas GOP began a series of firsts
republican primaries conducted in all 254 counties
1996
demonstrated the acceptance by national democratic candidates that texas was s republican state and that its electoral votes were not needed for a democratic presidential victory
clinton focused on closely contested states where he was more likely to win
gave republicans control of all statewide offices but one
1998 elections
established the Century COuncil
rick perry
first gubernatorial candidate of a political party to be elected with less than 40% of vote
perry
perry portrayed hutchison as a
washington insider
wrote “Fed up! our fight to save america from washington”
perry
has brought more women latinos and blacks into state political system
competition between democratic and republican parties
result of bringing more latinos blacka and women into state political system
politics has become more competitive and more nationalized
texas politics today is
more partisan
any political party other than republican or democrat
third party
successfully promoted agricultural issues and displaced republicans as the sec on party in texas
populist party
advocates minimizing govt involvement at all levels while maximizing individual freedom and rights
libertarian party
applies to candidates who have no party affiliation
independents
lack a ready made campaign organization and fundraising abilities
independents-makes their success less likely
one tough grandma
carolene strayhorn, competitor with perry, announced she would be independent
gives texans an opportunity to influence public policymaking by expression preferences for candidates and issues when they vote
democratic election process
platform was the ten commandments and golden rule and won election in landslide
o’daniel, pass the biscuits pappy
brief statement of candidate campaign theme on tv
sound bite
allow structuring their messages and avoiding possible misstatements
ads
usually wants the debate
the underdog
reaction of many citizens who were disappointed by candidates’ low ethical level of campaigning and by their avoidance of critical public issues
mudslide campaigns
corrective force for reform
voters
most important and expensive communication tool
TV
group supporting media access reform
campaign legal center
relatively weak, tend to reemphasize reporting of contributions
texas laws
more restrictive, reporting requirements and limits on contributions to campaign by individual citizens and PACs
federal laws
requires financial disclosure from public officials
texas ethics commission
further restricting amy of money that can be contributed
another area of possible reform
includes prohibition of soft money, and increase of hard money contribution limits, and restriction on corporations and labor unions ability to run electioneering ads featuring names or likenesses of candidates close to election day
campaign reform act
donations to national political parties for federal elect purposes
soft money
direct contributions
hard money
upheld constitutionality of soft money ban
mcconnell v fed
overturned soft money ban
citizens united v federal election commission
strengthens texas ehtics commisison, curbs conflict of interest and requires greater disclosure of campaign contributions.
prohibits lawmakers from lobbying for clients before state agencies
house bill 1606
shape political campaigns
racial/ethnic politics
founded in 1969 by jose angel gutierrez
raza unida party
maturity of democratic party to accept hispanics
main reason raza unida party didn’t survive as meaningful voice
latinos respond to
candidates and issues, not to a particular party
diluted influence of latinos and was unconstitutional under the 1965 voting rights act
irving’s method of choosing council members through citywide at large elctions
can represent margin of victory for candidate
latinos
first black to serve on court
justice jefferson
80% identify with democrats
blacks
first openly gay mayor of major city
annise parker
combine to deny women their rightful place in govt
parental obligations and age old prejudices
principle political activity
voting
preservative of all other rights
voting
focus of KKK
north east texas
declared the grandfather clause unconstitutional
Guinn v united states
abolished poll tax as a prerequisite to vote
24th amendment
invalidated all state laws of poll tax being prerequisite
harper v virginia state board of elections
designed to deny blacks and latinos access to democratic primary
al white primaries
sate democratic executive committee adopted resolution allowing only whites to vote in democratic primaries until
smith v allwright
manipulating district lines to underrepresent persons of a political party of group
gerrymandering
packing blacks into a given district
racial gerrymandering
purpose to increase number of republican representatives in congress, contended it dilutd minority voting strength
controversial redistricting plan in 2003
can prevent an area with significant minority population from electing representative of their choice
at large minority districts
expanded electorate and encouraged voting
voting rights act of 1965
abolishes literacy tests, prohibits residency requirements, requires states to provide early voting, allows individuals to sue fed court
voting rights act of 1965
national voter restoration act
motor law
simplified voter registration
motor law
prohibits denial of voting rites b/c of race
15th amendment
precludes denial of suffrage on basis of gender
19th amendment
prohibits states from requiring payment of poll tax
24th amendment
forbids setting minimum voting age to greater than 18
26th amendment
voter turnout in texas is greater in
presdential elections than in nonpresidential
influence of pollsters and media consultants, voter fatigue from too many elections, negative campaigning, lack of info, and feelings of isolation from govt.
attribution of low participation
strongest socioeconomic influences on voting
education
middle aged americans 40-64
highest voter turnout
determining voting procedure
state responsibility
chief elections officer for texas
secretary of state
has all state law concerning parties, primaries, and elections
texas election code
intended to determine in advance whether prospective voters meet all qualifications
voter registration
voting early
limited to in person, by mail, and facsimile machine voting
ends four days before election/primary
early voting
states with longer early voting period
less turnout
basic geographic area for conducting national, state, district, and county elections
voting precincts
conduct primary elections
party officials
prepares general and special election ballots
county clerk or elections administrator
election administration
tax assessor-collector or county clerk
also a county election commission
county judge, clerk or elections administrator, sheriff, and chairs of two major parties
polling places, printing ballots, providing supplies/voting equipment
responsibilities of election commission
appoints one election judge and one alternate judge each from different parties to administer elections in each precinct for max term two years also canvasses and certifies election results
county commissioners court
selects as many clerks as needed
judge
appoints election judges
city secretary
five voting systems
general election
cheap and easy to use but counting is slow
paper ballots
sparsely populated counties use it sometimes
paper ballots
over votes
chose more than one candidate
more over votes and undervotes
punch cards
replace old technology with direct recording electronic devices
help americans vote act
registration and election materials in texas must be printed in english and spanish
result of 1975 extension of federal voting rights act
select nominees for office
primaries
designed to provide nominating method that avoids domination by party bosses and allow wider participation by members
direct primaries
give voters of one party an opportunity to sabotage primary of another party
criticism of open blanket and jungle primaries
requires voters declare a party affiliation when registering to vote show party ID when voting in primary and can vote only in primary registered.
closed primary
doesn’t require party ID can choose ballot for any party
open primary
all voters same ballot, with all names of nominees and independent candidates
nonpartisan blanket primary
louisiana blanket primary
jungle primary
conduct primaries with enactment of terrell election law of 1905
texas primaries
bonds of party loyalty loosen at
general election time
evidence of a long term trend toward voter independence of traditional party ties
crossover voting
more likely to crossover
republicans
closed primary and open primary state
texas
requires voters identify party affiliation
texas election code
sponsor and administer primaries
political parties
administer election
county elections administrator or clerk
add to formal system of geographic representation used for electing officeholders
interest groups: economic and professional
right of association as party of right of asebmly
NAACP v alabama
increases ability of interest groups to influence governmental activities
decentralized government
interest groups continue to exert heavy influence over
state officials
spurred political activism among conservatives
christian coalition
highly centralized organization that takes form of single controlling body without affiliated local or regional units
national rifle association
composed of active minority and passive majority
interest groups
among first to organize and press national state and local govt. to adopt favorable public policies
business groups
typically advocate lower taxes, lessening or elimination of prize and quality controls by govt, and minimal concessions to labor unions
business groups
standards of admission to a profession and licensing of practitioners are of concern
professional groups
authorized state legislature impose a $250,000 cap for noneconomic damages in medical malpractice cses.
amendment proposition 12
better working conniptions, higher wages, more fringe benefits, and better retirement packages.
government employee groups
intervention to increase wages,obtain adequate health insurance coverage, provide unemployment insurance, and promote safe working conditions
labor groups
successful in influencing public policies relating to school integration and local govt. redistricting
naacp
nonpartisan organization advocating greater political participation and public understanding of government issues. publishes the texas voters guide
league of women’s voters of texas
partisan interest group provides resources for women to influence govt actions/policies
texas federation of republican women
major role in organizing texas freedom network
cecile richards-oppose christian coalition
supports increased funding for parent training
texas industrial areas foundation
lobbied brownsville school district to increase wages for employees and indirectly influenced other public institutions and companies to provide a living wage for their workers in order to live above poverty rate
valley interfaith
focuses on governmental and institutional reform
common cause of texas
business oriented trade associations, professional associations, and labor unions
texas power groups
maintain strong linkages with legislators and with bureaucrats, and are often repeat players in politics
traits of power groups
one of most influential texas power groups
texas medican association
oldest and best known tactic for interest groups
lobbying
one way to determine which interests are being represented before state legislature and which are not
identifying interest groups that hire lobbyists
gain access to legislators and other government decision makers
first task of lobbyists
one of the main interest group techniques
personal communication
to inform legislators of their groups positions on an issue
immediate goal of lobbyists
attempt to create an image of brad public support for a groups goals
grassroots lobbying
direct mailings, tv and newspaper ads, rallies and local group action
grassroots techniques
participating in political campaign activities
electioneering
publishing political records of incumbent candidates
one of the simplest and most common forms of interest group participation
task or raising funds and distributing financial contributes to candidates who are sympathetic to their cause
pac’s
connection between election campaign contributions of PACs and lobbying activities
best indication of power among groups
conspiracy to accept bribes for passing deposit insurance bills
sharpstown bank scandal
enforce new legal standards for lobbyists and pubic officials.
texas ethics commission-by 72nd amendment
commission members appointed by
governor, lieutenant governor, and house speaker
initially designed to increase power of public prosecutors to use evidence that contributions to lawmakers by lobbyists and other individuals are more than mere campaign donations
texas ethics commission
gratuitous payments in recognition of professional services for which there is no legally enforceable obligation to pay
honoraria
requiring amount to be reported
80th legislature passed a law
system set up to support
incumbents
renewed ethics commission until 2015
78th legislature passed H.B. 1606
strengthened enforcement powers of the ethics commission, provides stricter disclosure requirements, broadened requirements for disclosing conflicts of interest
H.B. 1606
structure of weak government will ordinarily produce
strong interest groups
states with high population levels, advanced industrialization, significant per capita wealth, and high levels formal eductation
likely to product weak interest grouse and strong political parties
strong interest groups and weak parties despite wealth
texas
ascertaining which groups have greatest influence depends on
issues involved
interest groups in texas often put the unorganized citizenry at a great disadvantage when
public issues are at stake
constitute county executive committee
precinct chairs and county chairperson
state convention elects
state chair and vice chair and state executive committee
precinct convention elects delegates to
county or senatorial district convention
county or district convention elect delegates to
state convention

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