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HEA 191 Chapter 6

What does successful management of body composition require?
Long-term, consistent coordination of many aspects of a wellness program
Why do women have a higher proportion of essential fat than men?
Women have essential deposited in the breasts, uterus, and other sex specific sites
Which is a definition of essential fat?
Fat incorporated into the organs and tissues
Upon which do height and weight tables rely?
Insurance company mortality statistics
What is the approximate percentage of Americans classified as obese?
30%
What is one possible explanation for the increase in obesity among Americans over the past 40 years?
Increased portion sizes
What condition do obese people develop at three times the rate of non-obese people?
Diabetes
Which is a symptom of metabolic syndrome?
Resistance to the effects of insulin
For which group of people does metabolic syndrome increase the risk of heart disease?
Men and women
Since 1970, how much has the daily caloric intake among Americans risen?
500 calories
Which is true about type 1 diabetes?
It accounts for 5% to 10% of all cases of diabetes
Which factor can lead to the development of type 2 diabetes?
Age
Which is true for type 2 diabetes?
It is best prevented through a healthy diet and regular physical activity
Which lifestyle change can benefit a person with diabetes?
Increasing daily physical activity
People who gain weight in which body area are at greater risk for early onset heart disease?
Abdomen
Which condition are people who tend to gain weight in the abdominal area at a greater risk for developing?
Diabetes
What level of body fat in women may signal amenorrhea and loss of body mass?
8-12%
What level of body fat in a man may signal muscle wasting and fatigue?
3-5%
What makes up the condition called the “female athlete triad”?
Abnormal eating patterns, premature osteoporosis, and amenorrhea
Which technique for evaluating health risks associated with body weight is based on the concept that a person’s weight should be proportional to his or her height?
Body mass index
What BMI range is considered healthy according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the World Health Organization (WHO)?
Between 18.5 and 24.9
For which condition does a BMI value of 17.5 or less become a diagnostic criterion?
Anorexia nervosa
How is a person with a body mass index of 26.5 classified?
Overweight
How is a person with a body mass index of 31.2 classified?
Obese
What is the error range for skin-fold measurements?
+/- 4%
Hydrostatic weighing uses which statistic to predict the percentage of body fat?
Body density
Which statement about skin-fold measurements is true?
They are a practical way to assess body composition
Which approach helps avoid errors in bioelectrical impedance analysis?
Avoiding under hydration prior to the measurement
Which method of body composition assessment involves passing the body through a magnetic field?
TOBEC
Which association is accurate for people with a waist-to-hip ratio above 1.0?
Associated with a significantly increased risk of disease
Essential body fat is located just below the skin
False
Men have a higher percentage of essential fat than women
False
Most of the fat in the body is stored in fat cells called adipose tissue
True
Body fat located under the skin is called subcutaneous fat
True
Body fat located under the skin is called intra-abdominal fat
False
Regular physical activity and exercise have no effect on many of the destructive effects of obesity
False
Two people of the same body weight may have different values of percent body fat
True
For a person who is overweight, increasing physical activity can benefit health even if it doesn’t result in a change in body weight or percent body fat
True
Fifty percent of Americans are obese
False
Nearly 90% of type 2 diabetes cases are preventable with healthy lifestyle choices
True
The cause of type 2 diabetes is that the pancreas produces little or no insulin
False
The majority of people with pre-diabetes will develop type 2 diabetes unless they make lifestyle changes
True
For people with pre-diabetes, lifestyle measures are more effective medication for preventing the development of type 2 diabetes
True
People who tend to gain weight in the hip area have a higher incidence of coronary heart disease wham do people who gain weight in the abdominal area
False
A women with approximately 22% of total body weight as fat is at risk of amenorrhea and loss of bone mass
False
Prolonged amenorrhea can lead to osteoporosis
True
Body mass index is a measure of a person’s percentage of body fat
False
A body max index of 28.5 is classified as normal weight
False
Muscle mass has a higher density than fat mass
True
The Bod Pod estimates percent body fat through water displacement
False

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