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Health 101 – Chapters 1-4

Life Span (Pg 2)
The maximum number of years that humans are capable of living. The maximum appears to be 120.
Life Expectancy (Pg 2)
The average number of years that members of a cohort can expect to live.
Cohort
A group of people who share a particular experience or time lived together, such as people who are under-graduates between 2008-2012.
Life Course
The path that people follow through life, or a road map or blueprint of that path. Life course is shaped by the various developmental tasks and roles that society expects of people at each chronological life stage.
Lifestyle
A personalized version of the life course of a cohort or generation. It is also the expression of an individual’s behavioral choices such as eating healthy and incorporating physical activity into daily life.
Life fable
The story of a persons life as written and directed by that person. The picture we have in our head about our life.
Adulthood age groups
Young adulthood 18-24, middle young adulthood 25-33 and later young adulthood 34-39.
Traditional age students
Are early young adults 18-24.
Nontraditional age students
Are students of all other ages-middle young adults,later young adults, and individuals in middle or older adulthood.
Young Adult Developmental Expectations
Growth and development do not end with the maturation of the body. It shifts to the development of the attitudes that foster the assumption of an array of roles.
Initial Adult Identity
Transformation from adolescence into early young adulthood. Internally they are constructing perceptions of themselves as the adults they wish to be.
Establishing indepedence
Society expects by the time a young adult completes their college education they should be moving away from dependent relationships. Includes: travel, new relationships, military, marriage, and college studies.
Preventative/prospective medicine
Physician centered medical care in which areas of risk for chronic illnesses are identified so that they might be lowered.
Risk factor
A bio-medical index such as serum cholesterol level or a behavioral pattern such as smoking associated with chronic illness.
High-risk health behavior
A behavioral pattern such as smoking associated with a high risk of developing a chronic illness.
Morbidy
Pertains to illness and disease.
Mortality
Pertains to death.
Empowerment
The nurturing of an individual’s or groups ability to be responsible for their own health and well-being.
Personalized medicine
Uses the newly established understanding of the human genome and associated technology to identify genetic markers that suggest predispositions for future illnesses.
Regenerative medicine
Uses stem cell technology to grow replacement body tissues and structures.
Health promotion
A movement in which knowledge practices and values are transmitted to people for use in lengthening their lives, reducing the incidence of illness and feeling better.
Wellness
A process intended to aid individuals in unlocking their full potential through the development of an overall wellness lifestyle.
Trans-theoretical Model
The process of behavioral change unfolds over time and progresses through defined stages. Predictable stages: Pre-contemplation stage, contemplation stage, preparation stage, action stage, maintenance stage, termination stage, people go through in establishing new habits and patterns of behavior.
Precontemplation Stage
The first stage of change during which a person is not thinking about making a change and may not be aware there is a problem.
Contemplation Stage
Progress toward change begins as they move into a contemplation stage during which they might develop the desire to change but has little understanding of how to go about it.
Preparation Stage
Following the contemplation stage a preparation stage begins during which the change begins to appear to be not only desirable, but possible.
Action Stage
Plans for change are implemented during the action stage which changes are made and sustained for a period of about six months.
Maintenance Stage
The fifth stage is the maintenance stage during which new habits are consolidated and practiced for an additional six months.
Termination Stage
The sixth and final stage refers to the point at which new habits are well established and so efforts to change are complete.
Holistic health (Pg 14)
A view of health in terms of its physical, emotional, social, intellectual, spiritual, and occupational makeup. Health that moves beyond the cure/prevention of illness and the postponement of death.
Health
A reflection of the ability to use and apply both the intrinsic and extrinsic resources related to each dimension of our holistic make-up to participate full in the activities that sustain role fulfillment, foster the mastery of developmental expectations and experience a sense of well-being as we evaluate our progress through life.
The difference between emotional wellness and psychological health is that psychological health is
related to how people express their emotions.
Psychologically healthy people tend
to accept life’s disappointments.
It is generally accepted that self-esteem comes from
within ourselves.
The term self-concept refers to
an individual’s internal picture of himself.
The cornerstone of emotional intelligence is
knowing your emotions.
Which of the following BEST illustrates an emotionally healthy response?
When your cat dies, you think it might be silly to cry, but you cry anyway.
According to Abraham Maslow, before the basic needs of belonging and love can be met, which other needs must to be satisfied first?
physiological needs, safety and security
Individuals who allow others to mistreat them, don’t take care of themselves, and have difficulty being by themselves, tend to have low
Self-esteem.
Which of the following has been shown to have a positive effect on reducing coronary heart disease and increase longevity?
spiritual health.
The effect that the environment has on personality refers to
nurture.
The biopsychological model addresses how biological, psychological, and social factors interact and affect psychological health.
True
The psychologically healthy person accepts himself and others.
True
People with low self-esteem have no difficulty being by themselves.
False
Genetic factors do not influence personality.
False
Maintaining a sense of humor is an important part of emotional health.
True
Research shows that a sense of humor has no effect on physical healing.
False
When people find it difficult to initiate or participate in conversation with others, it is likely that they have not developed some of their communication skills.
True
When you have something negative to say to someone, it is best to start the conversation with the negative message.
False
Verbal communication requires that you function skillfully both as a listener and a sender of spoken ideas.
True
There are no cultural differences regarding personal space or distance between individuals.
False
A technique in which people are taught to improve their health and performance by using signals from their own bodies.
biofeedback.
Guided imagery is a form of
visualization.
The goal of many meditation techniques is to
clear the mind of conscious thoughts.
Which of the following is FALSE regarding hypnosis? It
is perhaps the oldest and most understood type of relaxation technique.
Exposing an individual to specific stressful situations a little at a time, under controlled and safe conditions, is known as stress
inoculation.
Stress inoculation teaches individuals to relax using deep breathing and
progressive muscle relaxation.
In addition to stress management, stress inoculation has been helpful in
anger management.
The tendency to make something more likely to happen as a result of your own expectations and attitudes is referred to as
self-fulfilling prophecy.
To make more time in your busy day, you decide to cut your sleep time from seven hours a night to four. Why is this a bad idea?
Your health will deteriorate over time.
Which of the following will promote a good night’s sleep? You should
take a bath or shower.
Research has shown that there is a correlation between stress and inadequate social relationships.
True
Studies have shown that aromatherapy can lower stress levels.
True
Most people react similarly to the same stressor.
False
Selye’s general adaptation syndrome describes how the human body responds to stressors.
True
Eustress is a type of stress that enhances the quality of life.
True
Stress is actually unhealthy and abnormal at any level.
False
Many of our responses to stress are innate, basic, human survival mechanisms.
True
During the fight or flight response, the body attempts to reestablish its equilibrium.
False
Remaining in a constant state of physiological arousal for an extended period of time is called chronic stress.
True
The second stage of the general adaptation syndrome is marked by a rapid increase in the intensity of the body’s response to stress.
False
The use of multiple activities to achieve cardiorespiratory fitness is called
cross-training.
What is most likely to happen to Neda if she changes some of her running workouts for other activities such as cycling or swimming?
She will most likely enjoy her fitness routine more.
Drugs that function like testosterone to produce increases in weight, strength, endurance, and aggression are called
anabolic steroids.
Many athletes illegally use anabolic steroids in order to gain
muscle mass.
Which of the following BEST describes the damage caused by long-term illegal use of anabolic steroids?
It has multiple negative effects on both the body and the mind.
An individual’s peak bone mass is obtained by the age of
20
Which of the following BEST describes a hamstring pull? It is
a strained muscle on the back of the upper thigh.
Delina is a collegiate gymnast. She suffers from bulimia, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Her condition is known as
the female triad.
Why is it important for children to participate in fitness activities?Why is it important for children to participate in fitness activities?
Most children who are obese during childhood become obese adults.
Of the following, the BEST way to make sure your children become physically fit is to
model a physically active lifestyle.
The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans recommends at least 150 minutes per month of moderate intensity exercise to achieve substantial health benefits.
False
Achilles tendinitis is only a risk for elite runners.
False
Pain, when exercising, is a sign that something is wrong, and you should stop and assess the situation.
True
Regular aerobic exercise not only strengthens the heart and lungs, but can also help your body to resist infections.
True
The oxygen-deprived form of energy production that fuels many intense, short-duration activities is a life-threatening condition.
False
Anaerobic literally means “without oxygen.”
True
Muscular fitness is the term used to represent the capabilities of the skeletal muscles to perform contractions.
True
The popular forms of resistance training are all based on the overload principle.
True
The terms isotonic and isometric describe the same type of resistance training.
False
All joints can be equally flexible, if properly stretched
False
empowerment
The nurturing of an individual’s or group’s ability to be responsible for their own health and well-being.
health
A reflection of the ability to use the intrinsic and extrinsic resources related to each dimension of our holistic makeup to participate fully in the role-related activities that contribute to growth and development, with the goal of feeling a sense of well-being as we evaluate our progress through life.
health promotion
A movement in which knowledge, practices, and values are transmitted to people for use in lengthening their lives, reducing the incidence of illness, and feeling better.
high-risk health behavior
A behavioral pattern, such as smoking, associated with a high risk of developing a chronic illness.
holistic health
A view of health in terms of its physical, emotional, social, intellectual, spiritual, and occupational makeup.
morbidity
Pertaining to illness and disease.
mortality
Pertaining to death.
nontraditional-age students
An administrative term used by colleges and universities for students who, for whatever reason, are pursuing undergraduate work at an age other than that associated with the traditional college years (18-24).
preventive or prospective medicine
Physician-centered medical care in which areas of risk for chronic illnesses are identified so that they might be lowered.
risk factor
A biomedical index such as serum cholesterol level or a behavioral pattern such as smoking associated with a chronic illness.
traditional-age students
College students between the ages of 18 and 24.
wellness
A process intended to aid individuals in unlocking their full potential through the development of an overall wellness lifestyle.
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
Inability to concentrate well on a specified task; often accompanied by above-normal physical movement.
basic needs
Deficiency needs that are viewed as essential and fundamental, including physiological, safety and security, belonging and love, and esteem needs.
biopsychological model
A model that addresses how biological, psychological, and social factors interact and affect psychological health.
bipolar disorder
A mood disorder characterized by alternating episodes of depression and mania.
clinical depression
A psychological disorder in which individuals experience a lack of motivation, decreased energy level, fatigue, social withdrawal, sleep disturbance, disturbance in appetite, diminished sex drive, feelings of worthlessness, and despair.
emotional intelligence
The ability to understand others and act wisely in human relations and measure how well one knows one’s emotions, manages one’s emotions, motivates oneself, recognizes emotions in others, and handles relationships.
generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
An anxiety disorder that involves experiencing intense and nonspecific anxiety for at least six months, in which the intensity and frequency of worry is excessive and out of proportion to the situation.
learned helplessness
A theory of motivation explaining how individuals can learn to feel powerless, trapped, and defeated.
learned optimism
An attribution style regarding permanence, pervasiveness, and personalization; how people explain both positive and negative events in their lives, accounting for success and failure.
mania
An extremely excitable state characterized by excessive energy, racing thoughts, impulsive and/or reckless behavior, irritability, and being prone to distraction.
metaneeds
Secondary concerns, such as spirituality, creativity, curiosity, beauty, philosophy, and justice, that can be addressed only after the basic needs are met.
nature
The innate factors that genetically determine personality traits.
neurotransmitters
Chemical messengers that transfer electrical impulses across the synapses between nerve cells.
nurture
The effects that the environment, people, and external factors have on personality.
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
An anxiety disorder characterized by obsessions (intrusive thoughts, images, or impulses causing a great deal of distress) and compulsions (repetitive behaviors aimed at reducing anxiety or stress that is associated with the obsessive thoughts).
panic disorder
An anxiety disorder characterized by panic attacks, in which individuals experience severe physical symptoms. These episodes can seemingly occur “out of the blue” or because of some trigger and can last for a few minutes or for hours.
permanence
The first dimension of learned optimism, related to whether certain events are perceived as temporary or long lasting.
personalization
The third dimension of learned optimism, related to whether an individual takes things personally or is more balanced in accepting responsibility for positive and negative events.
pervasiveness
The second dimension of learned optimism, related to whether events are perceived as specific or general.
psychological health
A broadly based concept pertaining to cognitive functioning in conjunction with the way people express their emotions; cope with stress, adversity, and success; and adapt to changes in themselves and their environment.
schizophrenia
One of the most severe mental disorders, characterized by profound distortions in one’s thought processes, emotions, perceptions, and behavior. Symptoms may include hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thinking, and maintaining a rigid posture or not moving for hours.
seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
A type of depression that develops in relation to the changes in the seasons.
self-actualization
The highest level of psychological health, at which one reaches his or her highest potential and values truth, beauty, goodness, faith, love, humor, and ingenuity.
self-concept
An individual’s internal picture of himself or herself; the way one sees oneself.
self-esteem
An individual’s sense of pride, self-respect, value, and worth.
social phobia
A phobia characterized by feelings of extreme dread and embarrassment in situations in which public speaking or social interaction is involved.
alarm stage
The first stage of the stress response, involving physiological, involuntary changes that are controlled by the hormonal and the nervous systems; the fight or flight response is activated in this stage.
chronic stress
Remaining at a high level of physiological arousal for an extended period of time; it can also occur when an individual is not able to immediately react to a real or a perceived threat.
circadian rhythms
The internal, biological clock that helps coordinate physiological processes with the 24-hour light/dark cycle.
distress
Stress that diminishes the quality of life; commonly associated with disease, illness, and maladaptation.
eustress
Stress that enhances the quality of life.
exhaustion stage
The point at which the physical and the psychological resources used to deal with stress have been depleted.
fight or flight response
The physiological response to a stressor that prepares the body for confrontation or avoidance.
general adaptation syndrome (GAS)
Sequenced physiological responses to the presence of a stressor, involving the alarm, resistance, and exhaustion stages of the stress response.
intrapsychic stressors
Our internal worries, self-criticisms, and negative self-talk.
perfectionism
A tendency to expect perfection in everything one does, with little tolerance for mistakes.
procrastination
A tendency to put off completing tasks until some later time, sometimes resulting in increased stress.
resistance stage
The second stage of the stress response during which the body attempts to reestablish its equilibrium or internal balance.
self-fulfilling prophecy
The tendency to make something more likely to happen as a result of one’s own expectations and attitudes.
stress
The physiological and psychological state of disruption caused by the presence of an unanticipated, disruptive, or stimulating event.
stress response
The physiological and psychological responses to positive or negative events that are disruptive, unexpected, or stimulating.
stressors
Factors or events, real or imagined, that elicit a state of stress.
test anxiety
A form of performance anxiety that generates extreme feelings of distress in exam situations.
Yerkes-Dodson Law
A bell-shaped curve demonstrating that there is an optimal level of stress for peak performance; this law states that too little or too much stress is not helpful, whereas a moderate level of stress is positive and beneficial.
The body’s means of energy production when the respiratory and circulatory systems are able to process and transport a sufficient amount of oxygen to muscle cells.
amenorrhea
The absence of menstruation.
anabolic steroids
Drugs that function like testosterone to produce increases in muscle mass, strength, endurance, and aggressiveness.
anaerobic energy production
The body’s means of energy production when the necessary amount of oxygen is not available.
ballistic stretching
A “bouncing” form of stretching in which a muscle group is lengthened repetitively to produce multiple quick, forceful stretches.
cardiorespiratory endurance
The ability of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels to process and transport oxygen required by muscle cells so that they can contract over a period of time.
duration
The length of time one needs to exercise at the THR to produce a cardiorespiratory training effect.
ergogenic aids
Supplements that are taken to improve athletic performance.
exercise
A subcategory of physical activity; it is planned, structured, repetitive, and purposive in the sense that an improvement or maintenance of physical fitness is an objective.5
flexibility
The ability of joints to function through an intended range of motion.
frequency
The number of exercise sessions per week; for aerobic fitness, three to five days are recommended.
intensity
The level of effort put into an activity.
isokinetic exercises
Muscular strength training exercises in which machines are used to provide variable resistances throughout the full range of motion at a fixed speed.
isometric exercises
Muscular strength training exercises in which the resistance is so great that the object cannot be moved.
isotonic resistance exercises
Muscular strength training exercises in which traditional barbells and dumbbells with fixed resistances are used.
muscular endurance
The aspect of muscular fitness that deals with the ability of a muscle or muscle group to repeatedly contract over a long period of time.
muscular fitness
The ability of skeletal muscles to perform contractions; includes muscular strength and muscular endurance.
muscular strength
The component of physical fitness that deals with the ability to contract skeletal muscles to a maximal level; the maximal force that a muscle can exert.
osteoarthritis
Arthritis that develops with age; largely caused by weight bearing and deterioration of the joints.
osteoporosis
A decrease in bone mass that leads to increased incidence of fracture, primarily in postmenopausal women.
overload principle
The principle whereby a person exercises at a level above which he or she is normally accustomed to.
physical activity
Any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure. 5
physical fitness
A set of attributes that people have or achieve that relates to the ability to perform physical activity. 5
sarcopenia
A reduction in the size of the muscle fibers, related to the aging process.
static stretching
The slow lengthening of a muscle group to an extended stretch; followed by holding the extended position for 15 to 60 seconds.
target heart rate (THR)
The number of times per minute the heart must contract to produce a training effect.

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