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Health & Wellness ch. 6

body composition
the body’s relative amounts of fat and fat-free mass
Successful management of body composition requires
a. a very low calorie diet.
b. an active lifestyle only.
c. a very low calorie diet and an active lifestyle.
d. long-term, consistent coordination of many aspects of a wellness program.
Women have a higher proportion of essential fat than men primarily, because women
a. have essential fat deposited in the breasts, uterus, and other sex specific sites.
b. have lower metabolic rates.
c. have less muscle tissue.
d. tend to expend less energy in physical activity.
Essential fat is best defined as
a. fat primarily within fat cells.
b. fat found incorporated into muscle.
c. fat incorporated into the organs and tissues.
d. fat found primarily under the skin.
Height and weight tables rely on
a. insurance company mortality statistics.
b. national fitness data.
c. individual fitness assessments.
d. body density information.
The percentage of Americans who are classified as obese is approximately
a. 5%.
b. 15%.
c. 30%.
d. 60%.
One possible explanation for the increase in obesity among Americans over the past 40 years is
a. fewer meals eaten outside the home.
b. less time spent in sedentary work.
c. lower consumption of fast food.
d. increased portion sizes.
Obese people are more than three times as likely as non-obese people to develop
a. pneumonia.
b. hypertension.
c. diabetes.
d. influenza.
Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of symptoms present in many overweight and obese people. Symptoms for this syndrome do NOT include
a. resistance to the effects of insulin.
b. low blood pressure.
c. high blood glucose levels.
d. abnormal blood fat levels.
Metabolic syndrome increases the risk of heart disease for
a. men and women.
b. men but not women.
c. women but not men.
d. children only.
Since 1970, the daily caloric intake among Americans has risen by at least
a. 100 calories.
b. 250 calories.
c. 500 calories.
d. 1000 calories.
Type 1 diabetes
a. accounts for 5-10% of all cases of diabetes.
b. may often be completely controlled through diet and exercise.
c. often goes undiagnosed.
d. usually develops after age 40.
Which of the following is not a factor in the development of type 2 diabetes?
a. age
b. obesity
c. a diet high in monounsaturated fat
d. physical inactivity
Type 2 diabetes
a. occurs in 50% of people diagnosed with diabetes.
b. is best prevented by eating a healthy diet and physical activity.
c. always requires insulin injections as a method of treatment.
d. has obvious symptoms in the early stages.
A person with diabetes may NOT benefit from the following lifestyle change.
a. increasing intake of refined carbohydrates
b. increasing daily physical activity
c. choosing monounsaturated fats in place of saturated fats
d. increasing fiber intake
People are at greater risk for early onset heart disease if they tend to gain weight in the
a. thighs.
b. hips.
c. abdomen.
d. buttocks.
People who tend to gain weight in the abdominal area are NOT at greater risk for developing
a. early-onset heart disease.
b. muscle wasting.
c. diabetes.
d. stroke.
A woman may experience amenorrhea and loss of body mass if her percentage of body fat is less than
a. 3-5%.
b. 8-12%.
c. 15-20%.
d. 20-25%.
A man may experience muscle wasting and fatigue if his percentage of body fat is less than
a. 3-5%.
b. 8-12%.
c. 15-20%.
d. 20-25%.
A condition called the “female athlete triad” consists of
a. abnormal eating patterns, premature osteoporosis, and amenorrhea.
b. abnormal eating patterns, premature osteoporosis, and insulin sensitivity.
c. abnormal eating patterns, premature osteoporosis, and dysmenorrhea
d. premature osteoporosis, insulin sensitivity, and dysmenorrhea.
Which technique for evaluating health risks associated with body weight is based on the concept that a person’s weight should be proportional to his or her height?
a. underwater weighing
b. body mass index
c. skinfold measurement
d. bioelectrical impedance analysis
According to standards issued by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the World Health Organization (WHO), a healthy BMI is between
a. 12.5 and 17.5.
b. 15.5 and 20.5.
c. 18.5 and 24.9.
d. 22.5 and 27.5.
A BMI value of 17.5 or less may be used as a diagnostic criterion for
a. obesity.
b. fat-weight.
c. pre-diabetes.
d. anorexia nervosa.
A person with a body mass index of 26.5 is classified as
a. underweight.
b. normal weight.
c. overweight.
d. obese.
A person with a body mass index of 31.2 is classified as
a. underweight.
b. normal weight.
c. overweight.
d. obese.
There is an error range of ±__________ for skin-fold measurements.
a. 2%
b. 11%
c. 4%
d. 7%
Hydrostatic weighing is used to predict percent body fat based on
a. body mass index.
b. body density.
c. fat weight.
d. height and total body weight.
Skin-fold measurements are:
a. difficult to perform on a normal weight individual.
b. an expensive mode of assessing body composition.
c. a practical way to assess body composition.
d. not very precise.
Which of the following is NOT a recommendation for avoiding errors in bioelectrical impedance analysis?
a. Use the same instruments to compare measures over time.
b. Avoid overhydration prior to the measurement.
c. Avoid underhydration prior to the measurement.
d. Avoid deep breathing during the measurement.
Which method of body composition assessment involves passing the body through a magnetic field?
a. skin-folds
d. Bod Pod
A waist to hip ratio above 1.0 is
a. associated with a significantly increased risk of disease.
b. acceptable for both men and women.
c. acceptable for men only.
d. acceptable for women only.
Essential body fat is located just below the skin.
Men have a higher percentage of essential fat than women.
Most of the fat in the body is stored in fat cells called adipose tissue.
Body fat located under the skin is called subcutaneous fat.
Body fat located under the skin is called intra-abdominal fat.
Regular physical activity and exercise have no effect on many of the destructive effects of obesity.
Two people of the same body weight may have different values of percent body fat.
For a person who is overweight, increasing physical activity can benefit health even if it doesn’t result in a change in body weight or percent body fat.
50 percent of Americans are obese.
Nearly 90% of cases of type 2 diabetes could have been prevented with healthy lifestyle choices.
In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas produces little or no insulin.
For people with pre-diabetes, lifestyle measures are more effective than medication for preventing the development of type 2 diabetes.
The majority of people with pre-diabetes will develop type 2 diabetes unless they make lifestyle changes.
People who tend to gain weight in the hip area have a higher incidence of coronary heart disease than those people who gain weight in the abdominal area.
A woman with less than 22% of total body weight as fat is at risk for amenorrhea and loss of bone mass.
Prolonged amenorrhea can lead to osteoporosis.
Body mass index is a measure of a person’s percentage of body fat.
A body mass index of 28.5 is classified as normal weight.
Muscle mass has a higher density than fat mass.
The Bod Pod estimates percent body fat through water displacement.
Bioelectrical impedance analysis estimates percent of body fat by sending a small electrical current through the body.
A total waist measurement over 37.5 inches is associated with an increased risk of disease for men.
Obese people are 3x more likely to get diabetes
What are the 2 body types
apple, pear
what is a glycemic index?
essential fat makes up what % of the body
3-5% men, 8-12%women
what is adipose tissue
fat in the body is stored in fat cells
what is subcutaneous fat
fat located under the skin
what is visceral or intra-abdominal fat
fat around major organs
what is the population that is obese today?
what is the population that is overweight today?
what is BMI
a measure of your height to weight ratio
what is the most effective way to measure body fat percentage?
hydro static weighing, under water
what are all the ways to measure body fat %
hydro static weighting, bod pod, impedance machine, skin fold measurement,
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