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HIS-202 Midterm

Who led the American Federation of Labor as it became the largest organizer of workers in the United States?
Samuel Gompers
The Great Uprising of 1877 was a general strike against the nation’s:
Railway Companies
In an 1884 editorial, pro-labor newspaper editor John Swinton argued that:
Poor working conditions would be much worse without unions and strikes
The American Federation of Labor (AFL) excluded unskilled workers from its membership rolls because AFL leaders believed unskilled workers:
Were weak and unreliable
After the Civil War, a leading trend in business was the increase in exports of
Manufactured goods
The press stirred up rage over what aspect of the Haymarket Riot?
The death of seven policemen
How did the Knights of Labor differ from other nineteenth-century labor organization?
It was inclusive in its membership
Which of the following most likely would have helped to prevent injuries and deaths in factories in the late nineteenth century?
Greater government regulation, which would have prevented negligence
Which of the following business tactics was not employed by Andrew Carnegie?
He aimed to appease labor unions
Laissez-faire was a philosophy typically held by:
Conservative capitalist
An immigrant of African and Dutch heritage name Jan Matzeliger invented a machine that helped to mechanize the:
Manufacture of shoes.
The first big business in the United States was the:
Railroad industry
The workplace of the late 1800s included all of the following EXCEPT:
Increasing numbers of skilled craftsmen
In the nineteenth century, how did rural customers typically differ from urban customers?
They had less access to stores than urban customers
When female workers at the Mundell Company in Philadelphia faced wage cuts like the ones that male workers at the company had successfully resisted, the workers opted:
To have both the men and women strike together
What is one way that the American Federation of Labor (AFL) differed from the Knights of Labor?
The AFL did not welcome African Americans
The “Great Uprising” of 1877 was a general strike against the nation’s:
Railroad companies
Andrew Carnegie became representative of those in big business who believed that:
The affluent should return some wealth to the public through philanthropy
Founded in 1887, the Interstate Commerce Commission could initially best be described as:
Unsubstantial and ineffectual
Two cases, Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway Co. vs. Illinois and Santa Clara County vs. Southern Pacific Railroad, demonstrated that the Supreme Court in 1886 was:
Primarily conservative and supported big business
Why did advertisements increasingly need to be eye-catching and memorable?
to stand out among the growing number of advertisements
Which statement would most likely have been said by a believer in social Darwinism?
“The wealthy and powerful are those who are fittest for survival.”
What did the fate of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890 demonstrate?
Congress was in league with big business
Which headline would most likely have appeared during the Great Upheaval of 1886?
“Seven Policemen Slaughtered by Rioting Radicals!”
A Scribner’s Monthly editorial on the 1877 Great Uprising alleged each of the following EXCEPT that:
socialist infiltrators instigate strikes
Which of the following best describes Andrew Carnegie’s “Gospel of Wealth”?
the belief that a free market creates opportunities and benefits for all
By 1900, all of the following were true of the railroad industry EXCEPT that:
the shipment of goods by rail was more costly than other forms of transportation.
In writing about “the modern emblem of motion and power—the pulse of the continent,” Walt Whitman was celebrating late nineteenth-century
railroads
Many members of the Workingmen’s Benevolent Association were
Irish immigrants
Which statement about women and children in the work force is not true?
Women and children were typically paid the same as men in similar occupations.
What is the difference between vertical integration and horizontal integration?
Vertical integration involves control of all phases of production whereas horizontal integration involves buying out rival companies producing the same product.
Which of the following best characterizes the stories of Horatio Alger?
They reinforced the ideal of the self-made man
The mass market that emerged in the late nineteenth century could best be described as:
a shared consumer culture
What was one disadvantage of the rise of industrialization for American workers?
Corporations came to control the conditions and nature of work
What was the significance of the adoption of a standard gauge?
It allowed all trains to travel on any tracks, integrating the entire system
The Populist Party supported which of the following policies?
all of the above
As the leader of the American Railway Union, Eugene Debs led:
a strike against the Pullman Palace Car Company
William Jennings Bryan’s famous “cross of gold” speech addressed which issue?
currency reform
To entrepreneurs, such pastimes as baseball were business. What does this fact reveal about the new concept of leisure time?
It provided opportunities for some to make money
How did the women who ran settlement houses differ from elite women from earlier generations who also helped the poor?
They lived among those whom they helped
Tammany Hall operatives worked to win the support of immigrants by:
denouncing nativism and blocking anti-immigrant legislation
Whom did the People’s Party hope to represent?
all struggling laborers
Which of the following forms of leisure and entertainment did not emerge as popular during the Gilded Age?
radio serials
Who did the Populists nominate as their presidential candidate in 1892?
James B. Weaver
Who won the presidency in 1896?
William McKinley
In 1890, in conjunction with the Sherman Silver Purchase Act, Congress passed a bill:
creating higher tariffs
A vaudeville show could BEST be described as:
a type of variety show
What attitude toward the company town was expressed by the Pullman worker who said, “We are born in a Pullman house, fed from the Pullman shop, taught in the Pullman school, catechized in the Pullman church, and when we die we shall be buried in the Pullman cemetery and go to the Pullman Hell”?
Resentment
Urban tenement districts were associated with:
Filth and disease
After 1880, immigrants from which of the following regions began to dominate the numbers of those coming to the United States?
Southern and Eastern Europe
Which movement most clearly benefited from the rising level of women’s education?
the women’s suffrage movement
Why did many conservative Americans condemn bicycling?
It enabled young people to go out unchaperoned
Institutions established in the 1880s to provide social and educational services for the poor were called:
settlement houses
With the 1896 presidential election, the Republicans became the party representing:
economic and international power
The City Beautiful Movement was comprised of:
architects and urban planners hoping to improve urban life through design
The National Alliance was formed from a coalition of:
Farmers’ organizations
“The half that was on top cared little for the struggles, and less for the fate, of those who were underneath, so long as it was able to hold them there and keep its own seat.” This statement would most likely have been made by:
Jacob A. Riis
John Roebling was a German immigrant who:
designed the Brooklyn Bridge
Which of the following best characterizes the political machines of the late nineteenth century?
They were corrupt political organizations
Which of the following groups would not have been affiliated with the new People’s Party in 1892?
the mass movement of African Americans from the rural South to the urban North
What was most likely a result of the involvement of all American Railway Union members in the Pullman strike?
The heads of railroads across the nation became interested in its outcome
What resulted from the protests of Coxey’s Army and other similar activists?
more inaction by the government
Residential suburbs primarily attracted:
middle-class families
Who was a reformer dedicated to improving the lives of the poor and the working class?
Jane Addams
Who managed Andrew Carnegie’s steel plant during the contentious Homestead strike?
Henry Clay Frick
The central business districts of cities tended to include:
ethnic neighborhoods for new immigrants
What did proponents of “soft money” advocate?
issuing more currency
How did many conservative politicians view government regulation of business during the late nineteenth century?
as a dangerous form of socialism
According to the text, the word gild in the term Gilded Age accurately describes the time because:
its dazzling accomplishments were like a thin veneer when compared with its many social problems
Baseball cards were originally produced to market:
tobacco products
In response to the Pullman strike, President Cleveland opted to:
send in federal troops to back a court order and end the strike
The “progressive movement” was driven by:
a general belief that moderate reforms were needed to help end social disorder
What was the effect on workers of the establishment of an “open shop” at a company?
Workers could choose to join a union, but might face harassment and other discriminatory practices
The Progressive movement was driven by:
a general belief that moderate reforms were needed to help cure social ills
The Progressive agenda mainly reflected the values of:
the middle class
In his 1895 “Atlanta Exposition Address,” Booker T. Washington claimed to accept segregation if:
it did not impede the economic progress of African Americans
What was the Federal Reserve?
a bank that held funds in reserve for times of crisis
Why did the National Consumers’ League create “whitelists” of approved stores as a part of organizing consumer boycotts?
Making “blacklists” of stores to boycott was against the law
Why were some feminists disappointed with the Supreme Court ruling in Muller vs. Oregon?
They were upset that the ruling depended on a view of women as inferior to men
What did the popularity of Carry A. Nation reveal about early twentieth-century American culture?
There was growing concern about the effects of the increase in alcohol consumption
What event led to the death of thirteen women and children in the Ludlow Massacre?
the governor of Colorado’s sending state troops to remove striking miners’ camps
Booker T. Washington believed that race relations would improve:
if African Americans focused on economic advancement and remained patient
Which of the following was not a candidate for president in 1912?
William Jennings Bryan
What did the Seventeenth Amendment do?
It provided for the direct popular election of U.S. senators
As a result of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire:
women across all classes fought for city safety regulations
What prevented workers from escaping when a fire broke out at the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory?
Employers had locked the factory doors from the outside
Which statement best describes Woodrow Wilson’s style as president?
He built upon Theodore Roosevelt’s model of strong executive authority
What ultimately resulted in a decline in child labor?
mandatory school attendance
Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle focused on the problems of immigrants who worked:
in the meatpacking industry
What did John D. Rockefeller and other members of the upper class believe was the source of poverty?
individual failures
What did W. E. B. Du Bois mean by the “Talented Tenth”?
an educated elite of African-American professionals and teachers
Which best describes the middle-class view on childhood?
a period for education and play
How did the 1916 law banning the interstate sale of products made by child labor affect children in the workplace?
The law protected fewer than one out of every ten child laborers
Child labor affected many recently arrived immigrant men because:
their English-speaking children could often get jobs more easily than they could
The temperance movement attracted all of the following EXCEPT:
working-class men
The Industrial Workers of the World differed from the American Federation of Labor AFL in that they:
rejected the idea of working within the free market system
Who inadvertently coined the term “muckraker?”
Theodore Roosevelt
What portion of American workers were wage-earning manual laborers?
more than half
What might have been the result if the Supreme Court in Lochner v. New York had ruled that a state could use its police powers to protect workers’ health and safety?
More states would have passed and enforced maximum hour laws for both male and female workers.
In campaigning for president, Woodrow Wilson promised “New Freedom,” which prioritized:
competition in the marketplace
President Wilson offset lost tariff revenues by relying on:
revenue created by the first federal income tax
Which Republican incumbent was defeated in 1912 when his party split into Progressive and conservative factions?
William Howard Taft
Reform efforts to improve the lives of children included all of the following EXCEPT:
sending children to farms so that they could spend more time outdoors
At the turn of the twentieth century, what factor made it increasingly difficult for small businesses to succeed?
the dominance of huge conglomerates
What factors constrained the Progressive agenda?
The Supreme Court limited or struck down many protections for workers won by Progressives, and many workers themselves believed that unions and strikes were better means to improving their situation.
Edward Curtis considered himself a “friend” to the Indian and advocated that:
they assimilate into American society
A nationwide ban on child labor was enacted:
as part of the New Deal
In Lochner v. New York the Supreme Court ruled that:
the government should not interfere with an employee’s negotiating his own work schedule unless the hours jeopardized health
The Harlem Renaissance:
featured some of the greatest literature, music, and visual art of the era.
In the 1920 presidential election, Warren Harding called for:
a return to “normalcy.”
Who were referred to as “wets”?
those who opposed Prohibition
Which of the following was NOT a writer associated with the Lost Generation?
Sigmund Freud
What was one major effect of the widespread acquisition of radios in American homes during the 1920s?
the development of mass culture
In the 1920s, American women were primarily employed as:
secretaries and telephone operators
One of the most dramatic moments of the Scopes Trial occurred when:
Darrow called Bryan to the stand
Who was the African-American leader who rejected integration in favor of establishing an independent nation in Africa?
Marcus Garvey
The Dawes Plan resulted in the United States’ loaning Germany:
millions of dollars
President Coolidge was asked to sign a treaty with France renouncing war, and decided to:
negotiate a nonaggression pact with multiple nations instead
The passage of the Nineteenth Amendment
gave women the right to vote
Charles Lindbergh became a celebrity when he:
completed the first nonstop, solo flight across the Atlantic
Suburbanization in the 1920s:
was made possible by the success of the automobile
Proponents of welfare capitalism believed that:
corporations could build a loyal workforce by providing certain benefits
During World War I, the government provided protections for industrial workers, but after the war:
workers lost those gains when the government was no longer motivated to help them
What attitude toward birth control did Margaret Sanger encounter in her work?
the idea that birth control and the women who used it were indecent
According to the text, Warren Harding’s victory in the election of 1920 was largely due to the public’s:
fatigue with war and Wilson’s leadership style
The Teapot Dome scandal involved:
the accepting of bribes by a member of President Harding’s cabinet
Proponents of welfare capitalism pushed for all of the following EXCEPT:
gender parity
President Harding’s foreign policy can best be characterized by which of the following statements?
Harding wanted to use dollars and disarmament to secure peace
With regard to the issue of wartime debts, most Americans believed that:
all European nations needed to repay their debts
The Immigration Act of 1924 significantly restricted emigration from:
Eastern Europe
In the 1920s, President Coolidge famously said that “the business of America is business.” How did contemporary trends reflect this statement?
The Harding and Coolidge administrations generally favored industrial and business interests
According to philosopher Alain Locke, the “New Negro” embodied:
black racial pride
What was the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier intended to represent?
all World War I soldiers who went missing or unidentified
The Kellogg-Briand Pact provided for all of the following EXCEPT that it:
guaranteed that other nations would provide military aid to the United States
To what aspect of modern life were both the Lost Generation and Christian fundamentalists responding?
its apparent inability to meet the needs of the human spirit
Who was the novelist whose Home to Harlem was labeled as harmful and exploitive by W. E. B. Du Bois?
Claude McKay
In what sense did Charles Lindbergh’s achievement represent traditional values to some Americans?
His achievement recalled the pioneers’ independence and spirit of adventure
The First Red Scare was caused by all of the following EXCEPT:
Russia’s open threats against the American government
Why did crime and illicit drinking flourish despite Prohibition?
Enforcement was weak and underfunded
In the 1920s, the best predictor of how a woman would vote was:
how her husband voted
Jazz could best be described as a melding of European musical traditions and:
African-American music
When was Prohibition repealed?
during the Great Depression
The Scopes Trial revealed Fundamentalists’ rejection of:
evolution
Members of the African-American elite accused Marcus Garvey of all of the following EXCEPT:
using skin lighteners and hair straighteners
Politicians stopped supporting women’s reform issues:
when it became apparent that women were not voting as a bloc
Even before direct American involvement, the United States was linked to the Allies’ cause:
because of the valuable loans that banks had issued to Allied nations
Government propaganda did all of the following EXCEPT:
discourage prejudice against German-Americans
The government funded the war effort primarily by:
selling war bonds
How did the federal government ensure the smooth transport of war-related freight during the war?
by taking over management of the railroads
Scientists at the time did not know that the Spanish Influenza was spread by:
an airborne virus
Which act prohibited anti-government speech during the war?
the Sedition Act
Which nation was excluded from the Paris Peace Conference?
Germany
In defending the League of Nations, President Wilson argued all of the following positions EXCEPT that:
leaving the power to declare war to Congress alone was dangerous
President Wilson promoted all of the following in his Fourteen Points speech to Congress EXCEPT:
U.S. territorial expansion
Shell shock was caused by:
the strain of artillery bombardments
During World War I, the women’s suffrage movement:
tied its cause to democracy and peace
Germany’s Arabic Pledge stated that the nation would not sink:
passenger ships without warning
The main effect of the Espionage Act was to:
discourage free speech
In deciding whether or not to fight, eventual war hero Alvin C. York faced an agonizing conflict in reconciling:
his patriotism with his pacifist religious beliefs
Soon after the United States entered the war, American forces helped stop the German drive toward:
Paris
Which nation did Austria-Hungary hold responsible for the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand?
Serbia
All of the following nations were among the Central Powers EXCEPT:
Japan
During the war, most enlisted African Americans worked:
as laborers
The leader of the American Expeditionary Forces was:
John J. Pershing
Throughout World War I, the Food Administration:
avoided rationing by raising prices and appealing to patriotism
The Spanish Influenza actually originated:
in the American Midwest
President Wilson’s primary opponent on the matter of the League of Nations was:
Henry Cabot Lodge
The Sedition Act differed from the Espionage Act in that it:
targeted anyone who spoke against the government
In the Zimmerman Telegram, German foreign minister Arthur Zimmermann negotiated in support of:
a border war between Mexico and the United States
Which of the following is an accurate statement regarding advancements in technology during World War I?
Poison gas added to the threat of artillery fire
The Western Front was characterized by a complex system of trenches that ran for over 400 miles from the North Sea to:
Switzerland
The White House reacted to President Wilson’s stroke by:
keeping it a secret
The War Industries Board was established to:
allocate scarce materials to American industries
What weakened President Wilson’s negotiating position at the Paris Peace Conference?
the loss of Democratic control of Congress
One effect of German U-boat attacks on British passenger ships was:
a modest, yet controversial, expansion of the American armed forces
What effect did the Bolshevik revolution have on World War I?
Russia made peace with the Central Powers
The primary focus of the Committee on Public Information was:
serving as the government’s pro-war propaganda machine
Most drafted conscientious objectors:
eventually decided to fight
Eugene Debs was arrested and imprisoned for:
criticizing the war as being fought for the master class
Why was Article X of the League Covenant controversial?
It stated that member nations would protect other members
What linked the United States to the Allies’ cause even before direct American involvement in the war?
American trade with and loans to Allied nations
The mandate system was theoretically intended to:
establish former colonies as self-governing
The primary goal of the American government’s imperialistic policies during the late 1800s was:
commercial expansion
Manifest Destiny refers to:
American expansionism
What was the effect of Filipino rebels’ efforts to attract African-American soldiers to their cause?
Only a few soldiers joined the Filipinos to fight against the United States
Major outcomes of the Spanish-American War included which of the following?
the emergence of the United States as a world power
How did descriptions of life in China affect American foreign policy?
U.S. leaders became interested in gaining access to Chinese markets, and tried to restrict Europeans from building colonies there through the Open Door Policy
The 1890 book, The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, influenced the United States to invest in
its naval power
By the end of the nineteenth century, the world’s preeminent imperial power was:
Great Britain
Why did President Roosevelt refer to Colombia’s rulers as “contemptible little creatures”?
Roosevelt was angry that they refused his offer of $10 million for American control of the Panama Canal.
What was reconcentration?
the policy of removing Cuban peasants to camps and destroying their crops
Which statement might a believer in social Darwinism have made regarding U.S. imperialism?
“We must promote the superiority of our culture in an effort to ensure world stability.”
Why did anti-imperialist William Jennings Bryan support the Treaty of Paris?
so that the U.S. could grant the Philippines its independence
The main Asian imperialist power around the turn of the twentieth century was:
Japan
The primary goal of the American government’s imperialistic policies was:
economic opportunity
What were spheres of influence?
exclusive political and trading rights within another nation’s territory
What was the Boxer Rebellion?
a nationalist uprising against foreigners in China
Why did Theodore Roosevelt worry that there could be a European invasion of the Caribbean during his presidency?
The Dominican Republic and Venezuela were indebted to European nations
In deciding whether Japanese immigrant Takao Ozawa was “white” enough to become an American citizen, the Supreme Court ruled that whiteness was:
based on physical and facial features
Who was Emilio Aguinaldo?
the Filipino leader who declared independence from Spain
Which of the following was NOT relinquished by Spain as a result of the Spanish-American War?
Panama
Why did the federal government institute the Dollar Diplomacy policy?
to maintain U.S. economic dominance in Latin America
In the Gentlemen’s Agreement, Japan agreed to:
deny passports to workers seeking to immigrate to the United States
How was American imperialism in Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines different from the informal economic empire it established in the Caribbean?
The three countries became actual colonies of the United States as a result of the Spanish-American War
The overall effect of the Platt Amendment was to:
restrict Cuba’s autonomy at home and abroad
“Picture brides” were:
Japanese women in long-distance, arranged marriages to men in the United States
What was ironic about the dispute in the United States about whether Americans needed the consent of colonized peoples to govern them?
The American Revolution had started because of colonists’ resentment over the injustice of being governed without representation
How did American engineers solve the challenge of flooding in the route designated for the Panama Canal?
The Chagres River was dammed
What is a protectorate?
a country or territory under the protective authority of a stronger nation
Leading up to the Spanish-American War, the yellow press:
used sensationalism to stir up war fever
After buying the project from the Panama Canal Company, how did the United States gain control of the region where the Panama Canal was built?
U.S. naval forces supported the Panamanian revolt against Colombia
Critics compared American tactics in the Philippines with those of Spain in Cuba because American troops:
burned Filipino villages and crops
Which one of the following statements BEST describes the relationship between advances in technology and American imperialism, according to the textbook?
On the one hand, advances in transportation and communication made the world seem smaller and more dangerous, but on the other hand, these advances made reaching out to global markets easier and thus more compelling
Three months after ruling in Takao Ozawa v. United States, the Supreme Court:
rejected the argument that Asian Indians were Caucasian
According to the British poet Rudyard Kipling, the “white man’s burden” was the responsibility to:
civilize so-called racially inferior peoples
Which resulted from the Spanish-American War?
Cuba became a de facto protectorate of the United States
Why was Angel Island a place of sorrow for some Japanese and Chinese immigrants?
Asian immigrants were detained there and often interrogated while American authorities attempted to verify their identities
For what reason did Americans pursue westward expansion in the nineteenth century?
to increase economic opportunities
What effect did the Insular Cases have on constitutional rights for colonial populations?
The rulings protected their rights to free speech and religion, but did not protect their rights to a fair trial

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