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HIST 1378 (CH. 17-19)

In the late nineteenth century, industry in the US…
saw the federal government eager to assist in its growth
Prior to the civil war, the steel industry in the US…
barely developed at all
The process of making steel developed by Henry Bessemer
included both blowing air through and adding ingredients to molten iron
In the US, the steel industry first emerged in
Pennsylvania and Ohio
In the late nineteenth century, the needs of the american steel industry directly contributed to the further development of all of the following except:
the automobile industry
The first significant oil production in the US occurred in
Pennsylvania
in the 1870s, the internal combustion engine was developed in
europe
orville and wilbur wright’s first successful airplane flight in 1903
took place near kitty hawk, north carolina
in 1900, the emergence of research laboratories in the american corporations
led to a diversification of research interests
in the early twentieth century, a principle goal of “Taylorism” was to
organize industrial production into many simple tasks
a key to henry ford’s success in mass production of automobiles was
the use of interchangeable parts
which of the following statements about the american railroad industry in the late nineteenth century is FALSE
it saw congress outlaw railroad combinations
during the late nineteenth century, the growth of large corporations was helped by
-sales of company stock to the public
-“limited liability” laws.
-the realization that great ventures could not be financed by any single person.
the business structure of carnegie steel was a good example of
vertical and horizontal integration
who among the following began to develop an oil empire by taking control of competing oil companies in ohio?
john d. rockefeller
to john d. rockefeller, the great “curse” of business in the late nineteenth century was
cutthroat competition
in the late nineteenth century, most american business millionairs
began their careers from positions of wealth and privilege
in the late nineteenth century, social darwinists argued that people who failed economically in the IS did so because
they had poor individual character
in the late nineteenth century, the first and most important promoter of social darwinism was
herbert spencer
in his books, horatio alger
paid tribute to the possibility of social mobility in america
the late nineteenth-century sociologist lester frank ward
believed that human intelligence, not natural selection, shaped society.
in the late nineteenth century, daniel de leon
founded the socialist labor party in the US
in the late nineteenth century, the social writer henry george argued in favor of
a single land tax to replace all other taxes
edward bellamy’s 1888 book, looking backward,
imagined an ideal future in which all corporations were combined into one great trust
in the late nineteenth century, due to the growth of industrial capitalism, american workers
-saw rise in their standard of living
-experienced a loss in their control over their own work
-were forced to contend with arduous and dangerous working conditions
during the 1870s and 1880s, most of the immigrants to the US came from
Great britain and northern europe
which of the following is true regarding work conditions in american factories in 1900?
Laborers could expect to work at least sixty hours a week
the molly maguires were a militant
labor union in the coal industry
the great railroad strike of 1877
was launched in response to a wage cut
the knights of labor
began as a secret fraternal organization
at its height in 1886, the knights of labor were led by
terence v. powderly
samuel gompers was the leader of the
american federation of labor
the haymarket square riot of 1886
resulted in the convition and execution of several anarchists
during the late nineteenth century, anarchists in the US
-were relatively peaceful
-were linked with violence and terrorism in the public mind
-became tied to the labor movement in the public mind
in what industry did the homestead strike of 1892 occur?
steel
the pullman strike of 1894 began when george pullman, owner of the company
cut wages by 25% due to a slumping economy
eugene v. debs played a leading role in what labor event?
the pullman strike
organized labor in the late nineteenth century failed to make great gains due to all the following factors except:
he absence of state and federal laws to protect the rights of workers
the 1920 census of the US revealed that
a majority of americans lived in “urban” areas
the largest number of immigrants to the US in the late nineteenth century came from
southern and eastern europe
by 1890, the percentage of the populations of chicago, new york, and detroit that were made up of immigrants was roughly
80-85%
in the late nineteenth century, compared to other immigrant ethnic groups, jews
-advanced rapidly economically
-placed in a high value on education
-huddled together in ethnic neighborhoods
compared with the first generation, second generation immigrants were more likely to
break from their traditional culture
in the late nineteenth century, the assimilation of immigrants was encouraged by
-the sale of american products
-church leaders
-religious reform
-public education
the primary goal of the american protective association was to
stop immigrants from entering the US
in 1894, the immigration restriction league
proposed screening immigrants to allow only the “desirable” ones to enter
in 1882, the first group of immigrants to be excluded from the US on the basis of their nationality were
chinese
one significant innovation of urban america in the late nineteenth century was
large public parks
in the late nineteenth century, suburbs on the edges of american cities were largely populated by
moderately well-to-do people
tenement buildings in urban america were
initially praised as an improvement in housing for the poor
in the 1890s, jacob riis
reported on the living conditions of the urban poor to encourage improvements
by 1900, the transportation systems of american cities included
-elevated railroads
-subways
-electric trolleys and cable cars
-suspension bridges
in the late nineteenth century, crime in large american urban centers
-led many city governments to create professional public police departments
-swelled in the twenty years between 1880 and 1900
– was often blamed on the violent proclivities of immigrant groups.
theodore dreiser’s 1900 novel, sister carrie, dealt with
social dislocations and injustices of the present
in the late nineteenth century, political “machines” in cities owed their existence to the
rapid growth of urban america and the influx of millions of immigrants
in the late nineteenth century, urban political bosses did all of the following except
reduce the costs of city services
in the late nineteenth century, the tammany hall political machine
saw its most famous boss, william m. tweed, sent to prison
which of the following innovations did not occur in consumer goods in the late nineteenth century?
the formation of credit card companies
in the 1890s, florence kelley and the national consumers league sought the
improve the wages and working conditions of employees of manufacturers and retailers
at the turn of the twentieth century, motion pictures
-had been invented by DW Griffith
-were the first true mass entertainment medium
-operated under strict morality codes
which american writer would be least associated with the trend toward social realism in literature in the late nineteenth century?
mark twain
accordding to the philosophy of pragmatism, society should be guided by
scientific inquiry
which statement about education in the late nineteenth century is FALSE?
funding for public education was highest in rural areas
in the late nineteenth century, american universities
-significantly grew in number due to the morrill land grant act
-had strong commitment to practical knowledge
-began to form relationships with the private sector and the government
during the late nineteenth century, college education for american women
had expanded significantly
in the late nineteenth century, the most striking feature of the american party system was its
remarkable stability
the high degree of party loyalty in the late nineteenth century is explained primarily by
a voter’s regional background
in the late 19th C. democrats tended to attract the greater numbers of
catholics
a voter’s party ID in the 19th C was usually a reflection of
cultural background
in the late 19th C., as veterans of the civil war retired,
a majority of the black and white male population in the north received federal pensions
james A. garfield
was assassinated by an unsuccessful office seeker
in the election of 1884, “mugwumps” were
unhappy republicans who threatened to vote for the democrats
as president, grover cleveland
was a fiscal conservative
the sherman antitrust act of 1890
was used by the fed gov against labor unions
in the late 19th C., the issue of primary interest to the republican party was
supporting high tariffs
in 1886, the supreme court decided in the case of wabaash, st. louis, and pacific railway co. v. illinois that an illinois granger law was
unconstitutional because it infringed on congress’s exclusive power over interstate commerce.
interstate commerce act of 1887
-put in place a series of regulations for railroad companies
-had little practical affect for decades
-created a five-person commission to oversee the act
in the late nineteenth century, the granger laws supported the interests of
farmers
compared to the grange movement, the farmers’ alliance
were far more widespread
the election of 1892
saw the debut of the people’s party
in the 1890s, populism appealed to
-the unemployed urban poor
-unskilled industrial workers
-small scale farmers
-urban middle class reformers
in 1892 the people’s party called for
a gov network of crop warehouses
the panic of 1893
triggered the nation’s most severe depression up to that point
the economic decline that followed the panic of 1893 demonstrated the
degree to which the american economy had become interconnected
in 1894, jacob coxey and his supporters
called for a public works program for the unemployed
in the 1890s, farmers favored the fed gov’s coinage of silver because
it would result in an inflation of currency
the “Cross of Gold” speech was given in 1896 by
william jennings bryan
the 1896 election results saw
the populist movement suffer a disastrous defeat

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