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History CH 19 & 20 Test

Money supply
capital
Production method using rural at-home workers
cottage industry
Invention that improved thread production
spinning jenny
Governmental ownership and control of production
socialism
Seekers of new business opportunities
entrepreneurs
The Industrial Revolution created new jobs in ____________
coal mining, railroad construction, and factory production
The spread of the factory system resulted in increased exports of ____________
British cotton goods
The steam engine, used to drive machinery, was improved by _______________
James Watt
The textile industry met its last major challenge to full mechanization with the development of ______________
improvements to the steam engine
__________, an economic system based on industrial production, rose during the Industrial Revolution and produced an industrial middle class
Industrial capitalism
Henry Cort developed a process for making a better quality of iron. This process was known as ________
puddling
Public ownership of the means of production under socialism was meant to result in an equitable distribution of __________
wealth
The _______ was the most important innovation of the Industrial Revolution because it transformed both farm production and the transportation system
steam engine
The world’s first industrial nation was ______
Great Britain
Right of powerful countries to maintain order throughout Europe
principle of intervention
Voting rights for all adult men
universal male suffrage
Collection of different peoples under the same government, as in the Austrian Empire
multinational state
Belief that people should be as free as possible from government restraint
liberalism
Belief in tradition and social stability
conservatism
After Napoleon, France was governed until 1830 by ___________
a king
In 1848 revolutions took place in _________, ___________, and __________
France, The German States, and Italy
Metternich claimed, after Napoleon’s defeat, that ____________
lawful monarchs should be restored
The peace settlement that followed the defeat of Napoleon was developed at the ___________
Congress of Vienna
Who was the first president of the Second Republic in France?
Louis-Napoleon
In March 1848, demonstrations in the major cities of the Austrian Empire led to the dismissal of Klemens von ___________
Metternich
Liberals believed that freedoms should be guaranteed by a written document like the American Bill of __________
Rights
The Congress of Vienna recognized the existence of 38 independent states called the German ___________
Confederation
The meeting of the great powers to maintain peace after Napoleon’s defeat came to be called the ____________ of Europe
Concert
The provisional government, after the French monarchy was overthrown in 1848, called for a Constituent ____________
Assembly
Withdraw from or choose not to be part of
secede
Emperor
kaiser
Law that freed Russian serfs
emancipation edict
Reliance on military strength
militarism
Bismarck’s theory of practical, as opposed to idealistic, governance
realpolitik
Bismarck faced opposition from ______________
the legislature
Britain avoided any form of revolution in 1848 by ____________
giving the industrial middle class the vote
Louis-Napoleon assumed the title of Napoleon III, Emperor of France, and at first he ___________
limited civil liberties
What did The Compromise of 1867 do?
allow Germans within the empire to vote
What was a major threat to American national unity during the nineteenth century?
slavery
After the Franco-Prussian War, France gave the provinces of ____________ and Lorraine to the new German state
Alsace
The economy of the Southern states in the U.S. before the 1860s was dependent on ___________ labor
slave
The longest reign in English history was that of Queen _____________ from 1837 to 1901
Victoria
The Russian peasants, “freed” by Alexander II’s emancipation edict, soon discovered that they did not have enough good ____________
land
The U.S. Constitution committed the United States to the principles of _____________ and liberalism
nationalism
Literary movement that stressed ordinary characters and precise description
realism
Indifference to religion in the affairs of the world
secularization
Theory that life forms develop from simpler forms
organic evolution
Theory that some organisms are more adaptable
natural selection
Emphasis on using feelings and emotions over reason
romanticism
Louis Pasteur proposed the _________
germ theory of disease
Romantic painters aimed to mirror ___________
the artist’s imagination
The realist novels of Flaubert and Dickens criticized aspects of ____________
nineteenth-century life
Through music, literature, and painting, the romantic artists attempted to ____________
stir the emotions
What do the writers Walter Scott, Mary Shelley, Edgar Allen Poe, and William Wordsworth have in common?
they were all romantic writers
T/F Beethoven was clearly a devotee of the classical, as opposed to the romantic, framework of music
False
T/F Darwin argued that human beings had their origins in simpler animal forms of life
True
T/F Many romantics felt that industrialization would bring people closer to nature
False
T/F Romanticism was a reaction against the Enlightenment’s emphasis on reason
True
T/F The neo-Gothic style was a romantic revival of medieval architecture
True
T/F Alexander Graham Bell sent the first radio waves across the Atlantic
False
One form of Marxist socialism was eventually called ____________
communism
The Second International was an _____________
association of socialist groups
T/F Electric lights helped increase factory production by allowing night shifts
True
Organized work stoppages called by unions
strikes
Engine type fired by oil and gasoline
internal-combustion
Absolute governmental power by an individual or a group
dictatorship
Marxists who rejected violent revolution
revisionists
The working class
proletariat
According to Marx, the means of production were owned by the _____________
ruling class oppressors
The Second Industrial Revolution was made possible by __________, _________, __________, and ___________
steel, chemicals, electricity, and petroleum
T/F Wilbur and Orville Wright made the first flight in a fixed-wing airplane
True
T/F By 1914, unions had improved the lives and working conditions of the working classes
True
T/F Marx championed the cause of the bourgeoisie, or middle, class
False
The little-industrialized nations of southern and eastern Europe provided __________ and ___________ for the industrial countries
food and raw materials
Workers without training or experience
unskilled labor
The right to vote
suffrage
Movement for women’s rights
feminism
The ability to read
literacy
Central institution of middle-class life
the family
Compulsory elementary education eventually created a new demand for __________, ___________, and _____________
newspapers, teachers, and female colleges
Public education helped make people
more patriotic
The European middle classes tended to believe in the ideals of _____________ and ________________
hard work and moral etiquette
The new wealthy elite in Europe consisted of aristocrats, _____________, ______________, and ______________
industrialists, bankers, and merchants
Urban populations grew for
a. improved living conditions helped people survive living close together
b. medical workers and building inspectors watched for hazards
c. more jobs brought people to the cities
Between 1890 and 1914, higher-paying jobs in industry made it possible for working-class families to depend on the income of ____________ alone
husbands
Florence Nightingale and Clara Barton transformed ___________ into a profession of trained, middle-class women
nursing
The ______________ opened the door to new jobs for women
Second Industrial Revolution
The _____________ created customs surrounding the family Christmas, including the Yule log, tree, songs, and gift exchange
Victorians
Throughout the 1800s, the _____________ declined, proving to be the most significant development in the modern family
birthrate
Site of the “Bloody Sunday” Russian massacre
St. Petersburg
French lower house
Chamber of Deputies
Russian legislative assembly
Duma
1907 alliance among Great Britain, France, and Russia
Triple Entente
German lower house
Reichstag
Great Britain had a two-party system by the late nineteenth century. What were the parties?
Liberals and Conservatives
Russia opposed Austria-Hungary over the 1908 annexation of ___________
Bosnia
The members of the Triple Alliance were _____________, ______________, and ____________
Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy
The principle of ministerial responsibility states that the prime minister is responsible to the ____________
legislative, not executive, body
The strongest power in Europe by 1888 was __________
Germany
T/F By the end of 1918, all British adult males and women over age 21 could vote
False
T/F Conservative forces during the reign of German emperor William II supported democratic reforms
False
T/F In 1875, a new constitution created France’s Second Republic
False
T/F Russia’s Nicholas II was a devout reformer and democratic champion of his people
False
T/F The working class in Great Britain tended to support the Liberal Party
True
Art movement that rejected traditional styles
modernism
Hostility and discrimination directed at Jews
anti-Semitism
Idea that social progress comes from survival of the strong and fit
Social Darwinism
Scientific method pioneered by Freud
psychoanalysis
Organized massacres
pogroms
According to Freud, human experience was strongly determined by __________
past experiences
Einstein’s theories led to what conclusions?:
a. time and space depend on matter
b. matter is a form of energy
c. the atom contains vast energies
Einstein’s theory of relativity stated that ___________
space and time are relative to the observer
Scientific discoveries in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries increased ________________
uncertainty about the universe
What do Monet, Renoir, Morisot, and van Gogh have in common?
They were all impressionist or postimpressionist painters
_________ concluded that matter is just another form of energy
Einstein
Anti-Semitic feelings surfaced during the trial of French Captain Alfred ___________
Dreyfus
Freud used ______________ to probe the past experiences and memories of a patient
psychoanalysis
Marie Curie discovered that an element called ___________ gave off atomic energy
radium
The ideas of Social Darwinism led Houston Stewart Chamberlain to believe that Germans were the only pure descendants of the ____________
Aryans
______ is a system in which a society owns and controls some means of production, utilities, factories, and so forth
socialism
The first public railway line ran for 32 miles from liverpool to _________
Manchester
The Industrial Revolution began in _______ in the 1780s
Great Britain
The Industrial Revolution brought with it _________, an economic system based on industrial production that created a new middle class
industrial capitalism
The United States was a large country in the 1800s, and the development of _______ was most important for a good transportation system
railroads
Henry Cort developed a process called puddling that was used to _________
produce high-quality iron
When __________ made improvements to the steam engine, engines no longer needed to be located near rivers
James Watt
In the 18th century, the weaving of cotton was done by individuals in their rural homes in a production method known as ___________
cottage industry
When revolutionary forces in the Austrian Empire demanded a liberal constitution in 1848, _________
within a year Austria had crushed all revolutions
______ is a political philosophy based on tradition and social stability
conservatism
Nationalism became a popular force after the French Revolution, and from then on nationalists believed that ___________
each nationality should have its own government
An all-German parliament, called the __________, was held to prepare a constitution for a new united Germany
Frankfurt Assembly
What stated that lawful monarchs who had ruled before Napoleon would be restored to the throne?
the principle of legitimacy
In _________, liberals overthrew the Bourbon monarch Charles X to establish a constitutional monarchy
France
in 1848, a revolt broke out against the ________ in Lombardy and Venetia
Austrians
After the failed revolution in Italy in 1848, people looked to the northern Italian state of ______ for leadership in achieving the unification of Italy
Piedmont
What created the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary?
the Compromise of 1867
As opinions over slavery and abolition grew more divided, on December 20, 1860, _________ became the first state to secede from the United States
South Carolina
In an attempt to unify Italy, _________ raised an army of one thousand volunteers known as the Red Shirts
Giuseppe Garibaldi
__________ issued an emancipation edict, freeing Russian Serfs
Czar Alexander II
The Crimean War destroyed the Concert of Europe by ending the ___________
alliance between Austria and Russia
_________ was the Prussian prime minister known for practicing the “politics of reality”
Otto von Bismarck
After loosing the Franco-Prussian War, France had to pay 5 billion francs and give up the provinces of _________ and Lorraine to the new German state
Alsace
Great Britain avoided revolutionary upheavals by maintaining economic growth and _________
allowing members of the industrial middle class to vote
On January 18, 1871, ________ was proclaimed kaiser of the Second German Empire
William I
Why did Europeans become increasingly secular?
a growing faith in the benefits of science
Indifference or rejection of religion or religious consideration is called ___________
secularization
The most famous artist of the realist school was _________
Gustave Courbet
What was one of the values of the romantics?
individuality
Darwin’s idea that each kind of plant and animal has evolved over a long period of time from earlier simpler forms of life is called ________
organic evolution
A British novelist who wrote realistic novels was _________
Charles Dickens
This French scientist proposed the germ theory of disease
Louis Pasteur
What artist bridged the gap between classical and romantic music?
Ludwig van Beethoven
Which area of Europe remained agricultural after the Second Industrial Revolution?
Spain
The ______ gave rise to ocean liners, airplanes, and the automobile
development of the internal-combustion engine
_______ created the light bulb in Great Britain
Joseph Swan
A _______ is a government in which a person or group has absolute power
dictatorship
According to the Marxists, the ___________ were the oppressed
proletariat
in 1903, Orville and Wilbur Wright made the first flight in a fixed-wing plane in _________
North Carolina
Second industrial Revolution gave rise to ______, _________, and ________
steel, electricity, and petroleum
The revolutionists and _______ rejected revolutionary socialism and worked for evolutionary socialism
trade unions
______ was a nursing pioneer who founded the Female Association for the Care of the Poor and Sick in Hamburg
Amalie Sieveking
The Women’s Social and Political union used __________ to call attention to its demands
unusual publicity stunts
Modern feminism is rooted in the _________, when some women advocated equality for women based on the doctrine of natural rights
Enlightenment
Following the advice of _______, city governments created boards of health to improve the quality of housing
reformers
The most significant development in the modern family was ________
the decline in the birthrate
The new wealthy elite of the 19th century included ________, ________, and __________
industrialists, bankers, and merchants
The ability to ______ was essential to the public health of the modern European City
bring in clean water and expel sewage
The population of this city grew from 960,000 to 6,500,000 between 1800 and 1900
London
Ministerial responsibility holds that the prime minister is responsible to the _________
elected legislative body
By 1877, American settlers had gained control of the _______ industry of the Hawaiian Islands
sugar
When the “Bloody Sunday” in 1905 caused workers to strike throughout Russia, Czar _________ was forced to grant civil liberties and create a legislative assembly
Nicholas II
After the Balkan provinces of the Ottoman Empire had gained their freedom, Serbia became outraged at Austria when ________
Austria annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina
By 1871, Great Britain had a working two-party parliamentary system consisting of the ___________ Party and the ____________ Party, which alternated in power over the next 50 years
Liberal Party, and the Conservative Party
An Alliance comprised of ________, _________, and _________, known as the Triple Entente, was established in 1907 to oppose the Triple Alliance
Great Britain, Russia, and France
The 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution
abolished slavery
The new French government consisted of a president and a legislature made up of two houses; the upper house was the _____a_____ and the lower house was the _____b______
a. senate
b. Chamber of Deputies
Hostility toward and discrimination against jews is called __________
anti-Semitism
Which group of writers believed that art should function for its own sake?
symbolists
__________ was an Austrian doctor who pioneered psychoanalysis, a method by which a therapist and patient can probe deeply into the patient’s memory
Sigmund Freud
Who pioneered the building of American homes with long geometric lines and overhanging roofs?
Frank Lloyd Wright
What seems to have influenced cubist artwork?
the theory of relativity
Applying Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution to the human society in a radical way is called _________
social Darwinism
__________ created a style called cubism, which used geometric designs to recreate reality in the viewer’s mind
Pablo Picasso
Who was the French scientist who discovered that the element radium gave off energy?
Marie Curie

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