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History Unit #1

Edwin L. Drake
successfully used steam engine to drill for oil, removing oil from beneath earth’s surface. made it practical
Bessemer Process
a cheap and efficient process of makin steel developed around 1850
Thomas Alva Edison
became a pioneer on the new industrial fronteir when he established the world’s first research lab in New Jersey
Christopher Sholes
invented the typewriter and changed the world of work
Alexander Graham Bell
unveiled the invention of the telephone, along with thomas Watson in 1876. oped worldwide communication networks
Oliver Hudson Kelley
started the patrons of husbandary which is an organization for farmers
Grange Farmers’ Alliance
purpose was to provide a social outlet and educational forum for farmers and their families
the movement of the people was born with the founding of populist party in 1892
a monetary system in which the government would give citizens either gold or silver in exchange for paper currency or checks
gold standard
backing dollars soely with gold
William McKinley
from ohio, was nominated for president
William Jennings Bryan
the editor of omaha world herold. was nominated to run as democratic candidate and is endorsed
Homestead act
a law that provided 160 acres of land free to any citizen or intended citizen who was head of the household
african americans who moved from the post-reconstruction south to kansas
a sod house that was warm in winter and cold in sumer. small and offered little light or air
morril act
gave federal land to the states to help finance agricultural colleges
bonanza farm
created by railroad companies and investors, was an enormous single-crop spread of 15,000 – 50,000 acres
Great Plains
the grassland extending through the west central portion of the united states
Treaty of Fort Laramie
treaty in which the sioux agreed to live on the reservation along misouri river, was forced on leadership of the sious in 1868
Sitting bull
leader of hunkpapa sious, never signed treaty of fort laramie
George A. Custer
reported that the black hills had gold “from the grass roots down”
a plan under which the native americans would give up their beliefs and way of life and become part of the white culture
dawes act
aimed to “americanize” the native americans
Battle of Wounded Knee
brought the indian wars- and an entire era- to a bitter end
sturdy, short-tempered breeds accustomed to dry grasslands of southern spain (cows)
Chrisholm Trail
the major cattle route from san antonio, texas, through oklaholma to kansas
Long Drive
overland transport of the animals which ofter lasted about three months
Andrew Carnegie
private secratary to local superintendent of the pennsylvania railroad. replayed messages that unsnarled tangle of trains
vertical integration
when a company expands business into areas that are at different points of the same production path
horizontal integration
when a company expands business into different products that are the same industry
social darwinism
an economic and social philosophy- holding that a system of unrestrained competition will ensure survival of the fittest
John D. Rockfeller
corporations developed by him took a different approach to mergers. by joining with competing companies in trust agreements
steel manufacturing and processing
what business did andrew carnigie dominate?
natural selection and survival of the fittest
what does the theory of social darwinism advocate?
higher or fair wages, negotiate wages, security for workers to protect their rights, good working conditions, benefits like health insurance and sick days.
What did labor unions advocate?
eploitation and unsafe working conditions, 7-day work week, 12 or more hours a day, no vacations or sick days, no reimbursement for injuries, etc.
what conditions did many factory workers face in the late 19th century
national labor unions, knights of labor, american federation of labor, american railway union, industrial workers of the world
what different types of unions emerged during the nation’s industrial boom?
organized unions and carried on strikes, etc.
what role did women play in the labor movement?
they feared it turned to the sherman antitrust act
How did management and the government react to the union activity?
what were the characteristics of the Plains Indians culture? (where, what they did, etc. )
existed on the great plains, they hunted and planted crops, settled in small villages, gathered wild foods, hunted buffalo, traded tools and clothing
how did the culture of white settlers differ from that of the plains indians?
plains believed land couldn’t be owned, white settlers believed owning land would give them stake in the country.
streamed westward along railroad and wagon trails to claim the land
why did white settlers continue to push westward
they passed a law/act that designed entire great plains region as a reservation for native americans
how did the gov. attempt to deal with the growing conflict between native americans
it was native american land and there was also a lot of Gold and the whites wanted it
why did the black hills become contested territory between native americans and whites?
to “americanize” the native americans
what was the goal of the dawes act?
hunters were ruining their main source of food, clothing, shelter and fuel
why was the destruction of the buffalo so detrimental to the native american way of life?
great demand for beef, railroads made it easier to transport
how did the growth of railroads and cities impact the cattle business
dry summers, harsh winters, and overgrazing of the land and barbed wire was very expensive
what factors helped bring an end to open range.
it gave transportation to those areas and people wanted to settle near the railroads because of that
how did the transcontinental railroad open the west for settlement
created yellowstone national park, forced railroads to give up remaining claim to western lands
what steps did the gov. take to preserve the nation’s dwindling open land space
soddies- sod houses
what forms of shelter did the plains settlers develop
built soddies, invented steel plow, mechanical reaper, made life easier on plains
what technology did the settlers rely on to help tame the prarie
education, excessive prices for farmers to ship goods, went into debt
what hardships did farmers face in the late 1800’s
east of mississippi: society stood on 3 legs (land water and timber). west of mississippi: 2 legs were removed (water and timber). was the driving force of great plains history
explain the “3 leg metaphor”
greenbacks were retired and pulled out of circulation, people weren’t in favor of that. farmers who borrowed oney had to pay back loans and were recieving less money
what economic problems did farmers face during the late 1800s
formed grange in which they fought the railroads and united together to get through to get what they asked for
how did farmers try to address their problems and grievances?
Election of McKinley
why did populist movement collapse
invention of the steam engine to drill for oil “black gold”
what led to the nation’s oil boom
made steel production cheaper and more efficient
how did the bessemer process fuel steel production
impact railroads used steel, canned goods, innovative construction, steel cables, skyscrapers
what were some new uses for steel in the US
electric power ran numerous machines, fans, printing presses, street cars for transportation
how did the harnessing of electricity transform american business
type writer and telephones were created so people could communicate and type at home and work. created new jobs for women, freed some factory workers
how did new inventions and products affect people at home and at work
It ended the Indian wars on the Great Plains. It killed many of the women and children.
What were the causes and the consequences of the Battle of Wounded Knee?
It made the Homestead Act. This gave lands to citizens as long as they produce a certain amount of land.
How did the federal government encourage settlement?
They liked “cheap money” because then the prices of crops would rise. This would mean they could get more profit and but the materials/machines they might need.
Why did farmers favor “cheap money”?
They wanted to have silver currency to increase the money supply. They wanted to have direct election of senators, presidents, and vice presidents.
What reforms did the Populist Party promote?
The railroads started losing their money and the government was running out of their gold supply. They started to buy silver. Many people became unemployed.
What were the causes and the consequences of the Panic of 1893?
Ellis Island
port of entry for European immigrants, east coast
Angel Island
port of entry for Asian immigrants, west coast
Melting Pot
represents all cultures and people conforming to one
favoritism towards native born Americans
Chinese Exclusion Act
banned Chinese immigration in US because they thought of them as threat, Allowed only Students, teachers, merchants, tourists
Gentlemen’s Agreement
Japan agreed to curb number of workers coming to US and in exchange for US to allow “de-segregate”
From which parts of the world did immigrants come to the U.S.?
Southern and Eastern Europe
For what reasons did they journey to America?
They wanted to gain more money and jobs. They wanted more religious freedom and better opportunities to have a happy life.
What difficulties did immigrants face on their journey to the U.S.?
They had to travel in steerage. Steerage was a horrible experience for the lower class people. There were diseases and sicknesses that were in the large group of people. They did not get good food so they went to the trash of the upper classes to eat that instead. Since there were so many people, it was very loud a lot of the time.
What were the similarities and differences between Ellis and Angel Islands?
Angel Island was on the coast of San Francisco, on the west coast. Ellis Island was on the New York harbor, on the east coast.
They were both immigration processes. They both had medical and legal inspections for the passengers. Most people who came got let in to the U.S.
How did many immigrants cope after arriving in American?
Look for jobs as well as people they have in common. They looked for people with the same cultures and religions. They joined together to make themselves stronger and safer in this new community. They took care of each other.
What did nativists believe?
They believed in keeping their culture the same and want the immigrants to change theirs. They favored the native born people over the immigrants. They think that since immigrant came here that they should adapt. They wanted to limit immigration.
How did the Chinese Exclusion Act and the Gentlemen’s Agreement limit Asian immigration?
It limited the Chinese immigrants from coming to US except for students, teachers, merchants, tourist, and government officials.
It limited the Asian and Japanese immigrants through a deal that the US wouldn’t segregate the Japanese immigrants in America.
Why did U.S. officials seek to limit Asian immigration?
People started to believe that immigrants were taking all of the jobs and over crowding the land.
Growth of cities
Americanization movement
education program to help immigrants assimilate to american culture
multifamily urban dwelling- overcrowded
mass transit
transportation systems designed to move large numbers of people on routes
Jane Adams
one of most influential member of social gospel movement
Why did many immigrants settle in the nation’s cities?
They could afford the hosing there better and get more jobs. Many got jobs in factories.
What was the goal of the Americanization Movement?
It was a program that helped the immigrants adapt to the American way. The Americans just wanted to make the immigrant more like them.
For what reasons did a number of Americans move from the country to the cities?
Because of an increase in the use of farming machines they weren’t needed as much for manual labor. this forced them back to the cities to find other jobs,
What were the housing problems that many poor city dwellers faced?
They couldn’t pay for their houses or any of their bills. They could have an okay house but deal with transportation issues or have a cheap crowded rooms closer to the city.
What other difficulties did immigrants and poor residents encounter?
They had to try to get food and water on barely any money. They were discriminated against. Many had crowded and dirty living spaces.
What was the Social Gospel Movement?
It was a religious movement against the sudden decrease in the qualities of working conditions. They wanted to gain power as members of the society to get rid of poverty.
What was the purpose of settlement houses?
It was like a community center for the poor immigrants in the city. It was where they could all gather to support and live with each other. It helped the immigrants to live closer with the upper classes.
illegal use of political influence for personal gain
power to appoint people to positions of government
Pendleton Civil Service Act
established bipartisan civil service commission to make appointments to government jobs through merit system
What was a political machine?
They were groups of people that controlled the actions of a political party. They did this sometimes in exchange for political/financial support.
What was the role of the political boss?
He controlled the city jobs and had an influence on courts. He also controlled new building projects.
What role did immigrants play in the politics of many big cities?
They worked their way up to be political bosses. Those political bosses then would help other immigrants on their journey in America.
What means did many political machines use to maintain power?
They tricked the people into thinking that they need them. The people would start to believe that they had more power and rights with the political machines helping them.
For what reasons was the Tweed Ring so notorious?
He ended up causing tax payers to pay millions of dollars. He cheated his way into doing this.
What were the consequences of the patronage system?
People were being hired who were not well prepared just because they had friends there. They were educated enough and were not qualified for these jobs
What political reform did Hayes, Garfield, and Arthur undertake?
They worked to reform the government’s civil services. These had become very corrupt recently.
What was the Pendleton Civil Service Act?
It was an act passed Chester Arthur that reformed the government’s civil service system. This was mainly based on the system of job opportunities.
How did the government facilitate the expansion of the railroads?
the government influence a national network, creating the first transcontinental railroad: at the start of Civil War, nation had about 30,000 miles of track and by 1890, nearly 6x greater
What were the positive and negative aspects of railroad expansion?
(+) allowing a huge communication network, the railroads also brought the dreams of available land, adventure.
(-)caused harsh lives for the railroad workers, accidents, and diseases disabled and killed thousands of men each year.
How did railroad time work?
due to time differences around the nation, in 1869, the earth’s surface was divided into 24 time zones, the US contains 4 zones, railroad crews and towns across the country synchronized their watches.
How did the growth of railroad lines promote the growth of cities and trade?
The railroad lines gave an easier way to travel and an easier way to send people’s goods to trade
with other people
What was the Credit Mobilier scandal?
Ames let Congressmen buy shares at something other than market value. It damaged the careers
of politicians.
For what reasons were farmers angry at railroad companies?
People became more and more dependent on the railroads over the farmers. They wanted the
railroads’ goods. Railroads also took some of the land for crops.
How did the Granger Laws help farmers?
in response to these abuses by the railroads, the Granger laws help establish an important principle, the federal government’s right to regulate private industry to serve the public interest.
What was the Interstate Commerce Act?
a law enacted in 1887, that established the federal government’s right to supervise railroad activities and created a five-member Interstate Commerce Commission to do so.
transcontinental railroad
railroad line linking Atlantic and pacific coasts
george pullman
built factory for manufacturing sleepers and railroad cars, built town for employees
credit mobilier
construction company, lay track at 2-3 times more $
munn vs. illinois
supreme court upheld granger laws, won right to regulate railroads (help farmers)
interstate commerce act
reestablished right of federal government to supervise railroad activities with ICC
How did farmers try to address their problems and grievances?
They arranged organizations that would help them to pass laws that they wanted. Some of which,
involved the railroads.
What methods did ruthless business operators use to eliminate their competition?
they would offer a trust. They used horizontal and vertical integration. They created monopolies
to defeat their competition.
Why did the nation’s business boom bypass the south?
They were still caught up in using slaves so this didn’t affect them. They were also still trying to
recover form the Civil War.
What is the difference between vertical and horizontal integration?
Vertical integration is when the person own all steps of the process which means he has a lot of control and can choose his own prices for each step. Horizontal integration is when the person
own just one step of the process which means he has a lot of power and dad chose the prices but only in his own step.
Sherman Antitrust Act
prevent monopolies, illegal to make trusts involving free trade
Samuel Gompers
jewish immigrant, led cigar makers union
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
focused on bargaining
Eugene V. Debs
unions should include all laborers
Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)
radical unionists and socialists, included unskilled workers
Mary Harris Jones
organized UMW, organized strikes

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