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Howard Police Systems and Practices

Began as early Roman firefighters and eventually became the first civil police force designed to protect citizens
Frank pledge or mutual pledge
created in the 19th century by King Alfred the Great of England and King Cnute II of Denmark, a form of community self-protection
The Watch and Ward
The Hue and Cry
The Parish Constable
Availability of Arms for men
Established in 1285 the Statute of Winchester
The Parish Constable
law enforcement officer usually unpaid and part-time serving a parish – known as high constable
Henry Fielding
Bow Street Runners
Robert Peel
credited with establishing the first police department in London, England
Robert Peels 9 Principles
1. prevent crime and disorder
2. perform duties dependent on the public approval of police actions
3. secure the willing cooperation of the public in voluntary observance of the law to be able to secure and maintain the respect of the public
4. cooperation of the public that can be secured diminishes proportionately to the necessity of the use of physical force
5. seek and preserve public favor not by catering to public opinion but by constantly demonstrating absolute impartial service to the law
6. use physical force to the extent necessary to secure observance of the law
7. maintains relationships with the public the gives reality to the historic tradition that police are the public and the public are the police.
8. police should always direct their action strictly towards their functions and never appear to usurp the power of the judiciary
9. test of police efficiency is the absence of crime and disorder, not visible evidence of police action in dealing with it.
the first American police Department was organized in 1838
Slave Patrols
the precursor to the American system of policing
County Sheriff, town marshal
only law enforcement officers available on the American frontier
Posse Comitatus
Power of the Country
Corpus Delicti
concrete evidence of the crime
Texas Rangers
first state police agency
Wickersham Commission
1929, President Herbert Hoover created the National Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement
Knapp Commission
Commission to investigate alleged police corruption
Kerner Commission
The National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, released a report stating, “Our nation is moving toward two societies, one black, one white, separate and unequal
August Vollmer
Chief of police in Berkeley and instituted many practices that started to professionalize the U.S. police, including incorporating university training as a part of police training
O.W. Wilson
noted for developing modern management and administrative techniques for policing
The majority of law enforcement agencies in America are..
Nationwide, 2008, the sworn law enforcement employee average was ___ law enforcement employees per 1,000 Citizens
Edgar Hoover
the first director of the FBI
Chain of Command
the management concept that says each individual in an organization is supervised by one immediate supervisor who in turn reports to a higher supervisor
Span of control
the number of officers or subordinates a supervisor can supervise effectively
Pendleton Act
civil service system was created
the civil service system
the process of removing sworn officers from non-enforcement jobs and replacing then by non sworn personnel
an example of an operations unit in a police department
an example of an administrative unit in a police department
an example of an auxiliary unit in a police department
job analysis
identifies the important tasks performed by police officers and the identifies the knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary to perform those tasks
job related
a proper job analysis is done, tests in the police screening process are considered to be ___
Hard Saxenian says is the single most important criterion in the police selection process
physical agility testing has been criticized for discriminating against this group
written entrance exam
the stage of the police selection process receives the most litigation
Candidates who cannot perform the required job tasks
Medical examination screens out what group
The Sherman Report criticized current police higher education and suffused that higher education programs for the police should offer a what kind of experience
The Sherman Report suggested recruiting police applicants from what college programs
Height and weight requirements for candidates
The U.S. Supreme Court case of Southward v. Rawlinson (1977) dealt with what
police agencies require a vision of a police applicant to be correctable to what
10 years; 5 years
According to John Firman, the research director for the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP), the most common retraction on hiring applicant for police service with a history of drug use has to be how many years clean of hard drugs and how long clean from marijuana
psychological and medical evaluation
after the conditional offer of employment has been made to a potential police applicant the final stage of the selection process is
oral board
can be used to examine a candidate’s characteristics that might be otherwise difficult to assess, including poise, presence, and communication skills
Tennessee v. Garner
1985, the fleeing felon rule was declared unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court in what case
police make more arrests for what crimes than any other types
motor vehicle or traffic related issues
most police contracts involve
Tainted Occupation
Egon Bittner has stated that police work has, from its earliest origins have been
maintaining order, and protecting life and property
Sheehan and Cordner state that the two primary goals and objectives of police departments are
Broderick’s police operational styles
NOT of of James Q. Wilson’s operating styles
The police want to show they have a caring attitude toward the community
not one of the reason police exercise discretion
The Blue Wall of Silence
refusal of some police officers to report fellow officer’s misconduct
Characteristics of Police culture
Isolation from the public
Police personality
Danger, Isolation from the Public, and Authority
Elizabeth Burbeck and Adrian Furnham identified three important features of an officer’s working personality
law enforcement “working personality”
stems from socialization process in the training academy, field training, and patrol experience
the moral dilemma of using evil means to achieve good ends
The Dirty Harry dilemma
External Stress
Stress produced by real threats and dangers, such as responding to gun runs and other dangerous assignments
Personal Stress
Stress produced by the interpersonal characteristics of belonging to the police organization, such
Organizational Stress
Stress produced by element inherent in the quasi-biliary character of the police service, such as adjusting to changing tours of duty, odd working hours, and working holidays
Operational Stress
Stress produced by the daily need to confront the tragedies of urban life, such as the need to deal with derelicts, criminals, and the mentally disturbed, and the need to engage in dangerous activity to protect a public that appears to be unappreciative of the police
New Orleans
The first African-American police officers were appointed here
Los Angeles
First officially appointed policewoman in here
The Civil Rights Act of 1964
A possible cause for the acceptance of women in police departments in the late 1960s and early 1970s
1968, first police department to assign women to patrol duties where they wore a uniform and drove a marked police patrol vehicle
National Origin
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was designed to prohibit job discrimination based on what class
Disparate Treatment
most prevalent early form of discrimination
Griggs v. Duke Power Company (1971), Supreme Court established job requirements must be
Affirmative Action
requires employers to take active steps to ensure equal employment opportunity and to redress past discrimination
Organizational value systems of ethics
The Law Enforcement Code of Ethics
An Oath of Office
an example of the ethical standards established to determine how police officers should act
an administrative action coordinated through a state police standards organization that will determine whether cause exists to strip an officer of his or her certification to be a police officer
Noble Cause Corruption
The most prevalent type of corruption in law enforcement
When excessive force is used with the public and there is a significant disparity between the level of compliance by the person and the level of force used by the officer
The investigation turned up insufficient evidence to prove the allegation
According to a Department of Justice study to most common disposition of 26,000 complaints of excessive force against police officers was
Citizen Review Boards
Better Applicant Screening
Improved Training of Cadets and Officers
Proposals as a solution to police brutality
42 U.S.C. 1983
Police officers who violate a person’s civil rights can be sued in federal court under what act
It improves public trust and confidence in law enforcement
it can monitor and review departmental policies that lead to citizen complaints
hit can provide an independent evaluation of citizen complaints
Arguments in favor of citizen review boards
Officers who participate in more passive types of police corruption
Officers who participate in more aggressive types of corruption by seeking and taking advantage of opportunities for corruption
Biased-Based Policing
Any police-initiated activity that relies on a person’s race or ethnic background as a basis for suspicion in involvement in criminal activity
Retroactive investigation of past crimes by detectives
not one of the three traditional ways to do police work in the US
Random patrolling is commonly believed by police to create a sense of what
human relations
everything done with each other as human being in all kinds of relationships is the definition of
riots and civil disorders of the 1960s
the police-community relations movement (PCR) developed out of
sensitivity training
The human relations training program that is designed to provide participants an opportunity to learn more about themselves and their impact on others
James Q. Wilson said the single most striking fact about the attitudes of citizens, both black and white, towards police is that these attitudes are generally
does not support the police
most police officers feel that the public
Ensure that minority groups are adequately represented in a jurisdiction’s police department
one of the best ways to improve relationships between the police and minority groups is
police departments have created numerous special programs to assist with the challenges faced by the aging population
The mentally ill
U.S. Supreme Court case Zinermon v. Burch dealt with
Ask television and radio stations to publicize a “crime of the week” so citizens can call tips into special police phone numbers
Crime stoppers is a program in which police
Community policing
The Executive Sessions on Policing focused and debated on the use and price of
foot patrol
1960s changes in police management led to the abandonment of
Broken Windows: The Police and Neighborhood Safety
Modern community policing began with James Q. Wilson and George L. Kelling’s article
Public drinking
Commercial Sex
Street Harassment
the human behaviors found by Wesly Skogan to be extremely disruptive to the community
More realistic knowledge of police functions
recognition of the interrelationships among police functions
acknowledgment of the limited capacity of the police to accomplish their jobs on their own and of the importance of an alliance between the police and the public
most important benefits of community policing, according to Herman Goldstein
Numerous Times
With incident-driven policing officers tend to respond to similar incidents at the same location how often
Herman Goldstein
The concept of problem-solving policing can be attributed to who
Underlying causes of incidents
Problem-Oriented policing involves officers dealign with what
Scanning, Analysis, Response, Assessment
SARA problem solving model
Strategic Policing
a continued reliance on tradition policing operations
Achieving Community Together (ACT)
Texas State University worked with the San Marcos, Texas, Police Department to develop what campaign
Disallowed the “silver platter Doctrine”
Week v. US (1914) – warrantless seizure of items from a private residence constitutes a violation of the 4th Amendment
Establishes what later became known as the “fruit of the poisonous tree” doctrine
Silver throne Lumber Co v. US (1920) – to permit into evidence derivatives from illegally seized evidence would encourage police to circumvent the 4th Amendment
That evidence obtained in violation of the 4th Amendment may not be used in state law criminal prosecutions in state courts
Mapp v. Ohio

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