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HPR 1213 Final

The term morbidity refers to
illness and disease
The traditional American approach to health care is
episodic
The goal of prevention medicine is to
identify and reduce risk factors in the patient’s life.
Which term BEST describes the process in which individuals or groups gain increasing control over their health?
empowerment
Which of the following BEST illustrates group – oriented health promotion as described in your text?
An inner – city neighborhood creates volunteer group to clean up parks, organize a crime watch program, and offer youth sports leagues.
According to the text, to define health,
it is important to look past illness prevention and the postponement of death.
Unlike most other concepts of health, holistic health considers ______ to be part of overall heath.
intellectual and spiritual dimensions
Your body weight, visual ability, strength, and level of susceptibility to disease are components of which dimension of health?
physical
Your ability to cope with stress, remain flexible, and compromise to resolve conflict encompasses which dimension of health?
emotional
People who have good emotional health tend to
enjoy life more
Your ability to process information, clarify values and beliefs, and exercise decision-making ability lies primarily in which dimension of health?
intellectual
The dimension of health that focuses on your relation to others, the nature of human behavior, and your willingness to serve others is the ____ dimension.
spiritual
This dimension of health encompasses the ability to interact comfortably in diverse settings.
social
The significant contribution the the occupational dimension makes to the wellness movement is that it
defines for many the importance of the workplace to their sense of well being
Which of the following is an important principle for effective verbal communication?
Start on a positive note.
Which of the following has been cited as one of the MOST important sources of nonverbal communication?
facial expressions
Abraham Maslow proposed that spiritual and creative growth after one’s ____ are satisfied.
basic needs
Which of the following people is most likely to be labeled creative? One who
likes to solve problems.
People with spiritual helath
seek meaning and purpose in their lives.
Pessimism and low self-esteem tend to result from
personalization
When an individual views a task as being hard, anticipates failing at that task, a subsequently performs poorly, they are experiencing which of the following
learned helplessness
Which of the following chemical is said to be deficient in people with depression?
serotonin
Your roommate Celine is normally an active person, but over the last two weeks she has remained in the apartment for several days. She won’t talk to her friends when they call, and she seems to have no appetite. Celine is most likely suffering from
clinical depression.
Mel was recently found on a rooftop claiming that he could fly. The next time you saw him, he did not even get out of bed, claiming he was worthless and would be better off dead. Several days later, police catch Mel driving at high speeds in the wrong direction on a freeway. Mel’s behavior is MOST characteristic of
bipolar disorder
Your friend Sue is talking about committing suicide. Which intervention strategy should you use to help her? You should
stay with her until you can get further assistance.
Cary has experienced intense and frequent bouts of excessive worrying over anything for the past six months. She is an individual with
generalized anxiety disorder.
An emotional episode that features rapid pulse, heavy sweating, shortness of breath, nausea, and the feeling of being out of control is probably a(n)
panic attack
A person who does unreasonable things like constantly washing his hands or constantly checking door locks and MOST likely showing signs of
obsessive – compulsive disorder.
Aleesha was suffering form obsessive – compulsive disorder, but recently has been doing much better. Which of the following is MOST likely? She
is receiving behavioral and drug therapy.
Michael believes he was kidnapped by aliens. He said he reported his kidnapping to the FBI, but they ignored him. Much of his conversation is impossible to understand. Michael is MOST likely suffering from
schizophrenia
Which of the following statements about the treatment of schizophrenia is MOST accurate?
There is no cure for schizophrenia.
Unlike other mental health professionals, psychiatrists are
medical doctors
Psychodynamic therapy is based upon the belief that
effective treatment must focus on psychological forces underlying a patient’s problems
The therapy that is based upon the belief that people, left to their own devices, will naturally grow in positive and constructive ways is termed
humanistic therapy
Which of the following is TRUE regarding stress?
It is a physiological or psychological response to a significant or unexpected change or disruption in one’s life.
The biggest factor in determining whether you experience stress as positive or negative is
how you respond to it.
Selye used the term eustress to describe
stress resulting from pleasant events in one’s life.
The fight or flight response occurs during which stage of Selye’s general adaption syndrome?
alarm
The body’s attempt to reestablish internal equilibrium occurs in which stage of Selye’s general adaptation syndrome?
resistance
What is the name of the body structure that initiates the stress response for the hormonal and nervous systems?
hypothalamus
The hormone that prepares the body for the stress response by increasing metabolic rate, cardiac function, and muscular tension, is called
epinephrine
Which of the following is the BEST example of a stressor?
Margo starting a new job
Which of the following questions is MOST clearly stated in the realm of psychoneuroimmunology?
How does my reaction to stress affect my immune response?
A moderate level of stress in our lives
is positive and beneficial
The bell – shaped curve demonstrating that there is an optimal level of stress for peak performance is the
Yerkes – Dodson Law
You have studied for the test and feel you are prepared. You look at the first question and suddenly your mind goes blank. The harder you try to think, they more stressed you get. You are experiencing
test anxiety
An individual procrastinates because he or she
is delaying the task because he or she dreads doing it
The goal of coping techniques is to
resolve the impact of stressors.
Which of the following is TRUE regarding sleep and stress?
Normal circadian rhythms are important aspects to effective stress management.
Which of the following best describes why exercise is an effective stress management technique?
Exercise can alleviate stress thorough the release of endorphins
Physical fitness is defined in your text is
a set of attributes that relates to the ability to perform physical activity
Anaerobic literally means
without oxygen
The strength – building exercise method that involves exerting force against immovable objects called
isometric
Dumbbells and barbells are used in which form of strength training?
isotonic
Muscular endurance is BEST developed by increasing
repetitions.
Maintaining a healthy body composition is an important concern because
of the high incidence of obesity in the United States.
According to the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) recommendations for achieving cardiorespiratory fitness, the mod of activity should be
any continuous physical activity that uses large muscles.
One of the recommendations for helping you to continue with an exercise program is to
make it enjoyable.
To improve your cardiorespiratory fitness, you should exercise at least ____ times per week.
three to five
Training at a level above your target heart rate will probably
produce fatigue before much cardiorespiratory benefit occurs.
The ACSM recommends that exercise periods should last at least ____ minutes.
20 – 90
Stretching should occur
after warming up and after cooling down
One of the main benefits of a cool down period after exercise is to
reduce the risk of sore muscles
Although the exact mechanism is unknown, osteoporosis occurs when
The bones lose calcium
Osteoarthritits
is a form of arthritis that develops as we age.
According to the United States Department of Health and Human Services’ policy on physical activity, which of the following statements is the most TRUE?
An equivalent combination of moderate and vigorous physical activity can be used to achieve significant health benefits.
The improvement of your aerobic fitness capacity has been associated with a decreased risk of developing which types of cancer?
breast and colon
The main role of carbohydrates is to
provide energy
What are starches? They are
complex carbohydrates that represent an important energy source.
Which fats are suspected of contributing to heart disease?
saturated
Which of the following is TRUE of cholesterol? It
is produced by our own bodies.
Protein’s primary role is to
promote tissue growth and maintenance
The best way to ensure adequate intake of vitamins is to
eat a variety of foods.
What is the function of the minerals you consume in your diet?
They serve both as structural elements and to regulate some body processes.
We can survive for months without most nutrients, but without water we can live only
less that one week.
What are the major benefits of fiber in your diet?
improves the passage of food through the digestive tract and lowers blood cholesterol.
Of the following, which is the MOST important contribution of fruits and vegetables to our diets? They provide
complex carbohydrates
Prevention of certain cancers can be gained by consuming a diet rich in
fruits and vegetables.
The recommended number of daily servings from the milk group for adults is ____.
three
The USDA’s recommended daily serving of meat is ____ ounces.
5.5
How many ounces of grains should adults eat daily?
six
The most effective source of dietary iron is
red meat
In the United States, nutritional information labels are required on all
food products for which nutritional claims are made or to which nutrients are added.
Which of the following should NOT be done if you suspect foo poisoning?
Wait a few hours to see if you feel better
People gain weight when they
consume more calories than they need.
How are the terms overweight and obesity used differently?
People who are 1 – 19 percent above their desired weight are called overweight, while those 20 percent or more above their desired weight are called obese.
The body mass index is
a height/weight index in metric units
Skinfold measurements, electrical impedance, and hydrostatic weighing are all measures of
body compostion
Which of the following methods is the MOST accurate means of determining body composition?
hydrostatic weighing
Which of the following BEST explains the causes of obesity?
Although no definitive cause is known, it is believed that several factors play a role.
Which of the following BEST summarizes the set point theory?
Each person’s body regulates its use of energy to maintain a certain weight range.
______ is second only to tobacco as the leading cause of premature death and disproportionately affects women of color and lower socioeconomic classes.
Obesity
According to weight management experts, which of the following is the most important factor leading to obesity in the United States is
inactivity
Consuming about ____ calories more than is needed results in a weight gain of one pound of fat.
3,500
The amount of energy our bodies require for the digestion, absorption, and transportation of food is known as the __________ of food.
thermic effect
Effective and lasting weight loss requires
a lifestyle change that includes healthy eating and regular exercise
The problem with the over – the – counter appetite suppressant phenylpropanolamine (PPA) is
its association with higher risk of stroke.
Which of the following was found in most herbal and OTC supplements until it was banned in 2003?
ephedrine
Gastroplasty achieves its effectiveness as anti – obesity surgery by
reducing the size of the stomach.
The key to maintaining a healthy weight is
caloric expenditure through regular exercise.
A characteristic of the final stage of the addiction process is performing the addictive behavior in order to
avoid withdrawal symptoms
So – called club drugs are identified by their
association with bars and raves.
When two or more drugs are taken and the result is merely a combined effect of each drug, the result is a(n) ______ effect.
addictive
The main difference between primary, secondary, and tertiary drug abuse prevention programs is
their target audiences’ experience with drugs.
Tranquilizers and barbiturates fit into which drug category?
depressants
Which of the following BEST illustrates co-dependence?
protecting an addicted son or daughter from criticism by ignoring the problem.
Drugs affect the central nervous system by
blocking the production or forcing the continued release of neurotransmitters.
A drug commonly prescribed to hyperactive children that is sometimes abused is
Ritalin
LSD is typically manufactured in
home laboratories
Drugs that change the user’s feelings, perception, or moods are called
psychoactive
The main difference between designer drugs and drugs on the FDA’s list of controlled substances is
their legal status
Every day after work, Leon has a couple of drinks to help him relax even though it upsets his stomach. This illustrates that he
is psychologically dependent on alcohol.
The strength of marijuana’s hallucinogenic effects is determined by the amount of ______ it contains.
THC
The unpleasant effects of drug withdrawal are caused by
The body’s attempt to regain homeostasis after developing a physical dependence on the drug
One of the biggest dangers of crack use is
heart failure.
Cross – tolerance when
tolerance for one drug affects tolerance for another.
Crystal methamphetamine is
a pure form of methamphetamine that produces intense physical and psychological exhilatation
The addictive effects of cocaine are
both psychological and physical.
One of the unique dangers of PCP is that
users may attack those around them.
Cocaine, caffeine, and amphetamines are all
stimulants
The most effective time to begin influencing a child NOT to smoke is
at preschool age
Which of the following best describes the effect of nicotine on the central nervous system? It
stimulates the central nervous system in low levels and depresses it in higher levels
Sam, a nonsmoker, has decided it would be cool to smoke cigars. If he begins a lifetime habit of cigar smoking, which of the following BEST describes the risk to his health?
He will run a risk of developing cancer of the mouth, throat, larynx, and esophagus, which is equal to that of smokers.
The 1999 Mater Tobacco Settlement Agreement between the states and the tobacco industry included payment of $246 billion over 25 years to the state fro
reimbursement of smoking related Medicaid costs.
A regular smoker in her forties has just been told by her doctor that she has chronic bronchitis. Frightened, she has decided to quit smoking. What are her chances for recovery? She
could recover completely.
Smoking affects men’s fertility by
causing changes in sperm number, mobility, and shape
Emphysema is
a disease caused by the destruction of alveoli in the lungs.
According to the self – medication theory, which mood – enhancing substance is released during smoking?
dopamine
A psychosocial incentive to smoke is the comfort smokers get from handling a cigarette, pipe, or cigar. This is called
manipulation
When segments of a college community are studied, there is a direct relationship between cigarette smoking and
level of alcohol use
The cancer – causing substances in tobacco smoke are carried into the body by
both the gases and the particles.
Of all the gases released by tobacco smoke, the most harmful to smokers is
carbon monoxide
The main concept of the boules theory of nicotine addiction is that
people smoke to keep the brain stimulated with batches of nicotine.
Which of the following is TRUE regarding chronic obstructive lung disease?
Patients who have it tend to die an unpleasant, prolonged death.
The dependency – producing substance found in cigarettes is
nicotine
It is possible for someone who has acute alcohol intoxication to have all of the following problems occur EXCEPT
anxiety
Acute alcohol intoxication should be suspected in an individual if his
skin is clammy and blush
Corey has passed out on the couch after participating in a drinking contest. His friends cannot wake him. What should they do?
Seek emergency medical help.
Which of the following is TRUE regarding alcohol and violent crimes?
Alcohol use has been reported in more than 50 percent of all homicides.
Most of the alcohol that you drink is removed from your body by the process of
oxidation
Which of the following characterizes fetal alcohol syndrome?
children born with congenital damage attributable to the mother’s use of alcohol
An inability to remember events that occurred during a period of alcohol use is called a
blackout.
Which of the following organizations is known for promoting the use of a contract between parents and teenagers to provide transportation for each other if one has had too much to drink?
SADD
If you host a party at which alcohol is served, you should be prepared to
assume responsibility for all guests’ health and saftey
Moderate drinking for men is defined as no more that ______ drinks a day
two
All of the following factors influence the absorption of alcohol. Which one CANNOT be modified by the user?
body chemistry
Jose has uncontrollable shakes, nausea, and vomiting when he does not drink. He would be classified as
alcohol dependent
Alcoholics drink
to escape the stress and pain in their lives
Why does eating a meal before drinking reduce the effects of alcohol?
Food competes with the alcohol for absorption into the bloodstream slowing the rate at which alcohol is absorbed.
During the week, Alicia studies hard, works out, eats well, and gets plenty of sleep. She only drinks once or twice a week, at weekend parties, where she typically has five or six drinks each time. What kind of drinker is she
heavy
When regulatory genes in cells fail to function properly and allow cancer to develop, they are called
oncogenes
One of the dangerous properties of cancer cells is that they
have an infinite life expectancy.
When doctors use terms such as carcinoma, sarcoma, and melanoma to describe cancers, they are naming them according to the
basis of their cell type.
A tumor that does not spread to other sites in the body is labeled
benign
The most effective tool for identifying breast cancer is
mammography
You can reduce your risk of developing melanoma by
protecting yourself from excessive exposure to the sun
Women in whom ovarian cancer has been diagnosed often report that the only symptoms were
digestive distrubances
Which of the following types of solid tumors are most common among young men?
testicular
Uterine cancer is cancer of the
wall of the uterus
The principle risk factor related to the development of uterine cancer is
high estrogen levels
The most effective and currently available screening method for cervical cancer is
the Pap test
Which of the following is an effective method of preventing lymphoma?
Little can be done to prevent lymphoma.
Blood clots, endometrial cancer, stroke, and cataracts are all possible side effects of which class of drugs that is used to treat breast cancer?
estrogen receptor modulators
Vaginal cancer is most likely to occur among
daughters of mothers who took the drug DES during pregancy
Which of the following is NOT a risk factor for developing breast cancer?
women whose menstrual period began at a later age
Which of the following is FALSE of women with Turner’s syndrome? They
are born with two X chromosomes.
Klinefelter’s syndrome occurs when
and extra sex chromosome occurs in a fertilized ovum.
Type 1 (insulin – dependent) diabetes occurs when the
body loses its ability to produce insulin
A chromosome profile of 44XX indicates which of the following?
a normal female
Your cousin has a chronic disorder that requires daily respiratory therapy, drugs, and a special diet. He most likely has
cystic fibrosis.
In human embryos, most development and differentiation of tissues and organs is complete by ______ after fertilization
three months
The cause of type 1 diabetes is the destruction of insulin – producing sites by
one’s own immune system
Which of the following is the BEST example of a congenital abnormality
a cleft palate
Which organ produces insulin?
pancreas
A chronic condition of low blood sugar that is not caused by diabetes is called
hypoglycemia
Which of the following is NOT a serous medical problem associated with sickle – cell disease?
abdominal bloating
Your aches and pains will be diagnosed as fibromyalgia if
they occur at certain specific locations
Which of the following is NOT a symptom related to cystic fibrosis?
enlarged fingerprints
A form of dementia caused by the gradual loss of brain function is referred to as
Alzheimer’s disease.
One of the major warning signs of type 2 diabetes is
increased thirst.
Which of the following is FALSE regarding congenital abnormalities?
They are solely caused by environmental factors.
Tuberculosis is a
bacterial lung infection that creates a chronic cough and endangers health.
The West Nile virus is transmitted to human via
mosquitoes
Macrophages are a form of
white blood cells.
Which of the following is the BEST defense against Lyme disease?
Check yourself thoroughly for ticks after being outdoors
Which of the following is an acute infection of the lungs that progresses rapidly and often kills the victim?
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome
The most common approach to treating influenza is to
take aspirin, rest and drink plenty of fluids.
You have just taken your roommate to the hospital. She came down with what appeared to be flu two days ago, but you suspected meningitis when she complained of
a severe headache and stiff neck
Most HIV infections occur through the exchange of blood, semen, or
vaginal secreations
The mode of transmission fro Lyme disease is
vector – based
To avoid catching another cold, which of the following will be the mos useful strategy?
Wash your hands periodically when you are with groups of people.
An example of you body’s so – called first line of defense against infections would be
skin
Many people are concerned that there is a relationship between the development of autism and which childhood immunization?
IMMR
Which of the following is the most effective way to avoid HIV infection
Avoid sexual activity
The transmission of Hepatitis C is NOT caused by
sharing a beverage
The general term for a disease – causing agent is
pathogen
Adults are particularly under protected in regards to
tetanus and diphtheria.

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