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HR chap 1 – 6

CHAPTER 6
PROBLEM SOLVING AND CREATIVITY
CHAPTER OUTLINE AND LECTURE NOTES
The ability to solve problems creatively is required in many positions. A problem is a gap between what exists and what you want to exist. Decision making means selecting one alternative from the various alternative solutions that can be pursued.
I.
PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS THAT INFLUENCE YOUR PROBLEM-SOLVING ABILITY
Many personal characteristics and traits influence the type of problem solver and decision maker a person is now or is capable of becoming. Some of these attributes can be improved through conscious effort.
A.
Cognitive Intelligence, Education, and Experience. In general, if you are intelligent, well educated, and well experienced, you will make better decisions than people without these attributes.
B.
Emotional Intelligence. Being able to deal effectively with your feelings and emotions, and those of others, can help you make better decisions. Emotional intelligence refers to qualities such as understand one’s own feelings, empathy for others, and the regulation of emotion to enhance living.
C.
Flexibility versus Rigidity. Flexible thinking enables the problem solver to think of original—and therefore creative—alternative solutions to solving a problem.
D.
Intuition. Effective decision makers rely on careful analysis and intuition, an experience-based way of knowing or reasoning in which weighing and balance of evidence are done automatically. Intuition takes place when the brain gathers information stored in memory and packages it as a new insight or solution. Developing good intuition may take a long time because so much information has to be stored.
E.
Concentration. Mental concentration is an important contributor to making good decisions. Effective problem solvers often achieve the flow experience, total absorption in one’s work.
F.
Decisiveness and Perfectionism. Being fearful of committing oneself to any course of action can impede decision making. Another impediment is perfectionism. The perfectionist keeps searching for more information before making a decision. The combination of being indecisive and a perfectionist can lead to procrastination.
G.
Risk Taking and Thrill Seeking. For some types of problems, the high risk taker and thrill seeker is at an advantage. Risk taking and thrill seeking can also lead to poor problem solving and decision making, such as betting on a huge inventory of merchandise that fails to sell.
H.
Values of the Decision-Maker. Values influence decision making at every step. The right values for the situation will improve problem solving and decision making, whereas the wrong values will lead to poor decisions.
I.
Gender Differences in Decision Making. Even if gender does not influence the quality of decisions, it is a possible source of difference in the types of decisions people make. Women give the most weight to how a decision will affect the team and short-term goals. Men focus more on the competitive environment and long-term results.
II.
PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING STEPS
A highly recommended way of solving problems and making decisions is to use the decision-making steps shown in Figure 6-2. Be aware – despite the fact that the problem-solving and decision making steps appear logical, people are frequently not entirely rational when making decisions. Emotions and personality traits can cloud decision making.
A.
Awareness of the Problem. First you need to be aware that a problem exists, then recognize that it may represent an important opportunity for you.
B.
Identify Causes of the Problem. The causes of problems should be diagnosed and clarified before any action is taken because the causes are not always what they seem to be on the surface. Five key elements about the possible causes of a problem are:
1.
people
2.
materials
3.
machines and facilities
4.
physical environment
5.
methods
The approach to analyzing causes is often placed in a cause-and-effect diagram, as shown in figure 6-3. This approach is sometimes referred to as a fishbone diagram.
In searching for when a particular problem did not occur, it is helpful to ask a few “but not” questions. An example is, “But have you ever not been afraid of speaking to a group of people?”
C.
Find Creative Alternatives. The essence of good problem solving is to search for creative (and therefore useful) alternatives.
D.
Weigh Alternatives and Make the Choice. The pros and cons of each alternative must be weighed. Next, the person chooses an alternative. Some people suffer from analysis paralysis, and thus delay decision making.
E.
Implement the Choice. The alternative chosen must now be put into action. Some decisions are more difficult to implement than others.
F.
Evaluate the Choice. Evaluating the effectiveness of your decision tells you if another alternative must be sought. A helpful decision-making aid is to visualize what you would do if the alternative you chose proved to be dreadful—the worst-case scenario. Closely related to the worst-case scenario is establishing an exit strategy that determines in advance how you will get out of a bad decision, such as having joined a failing family business.
G.
Brain Teasers for Improving Your Problem-Solving Ability. A widely accepted belief is that solving difficult problems and puzzles enhances your problem-solving ability. Among these brain teasers could be crossword puzzles, some types of video games, and various types of word puzzles. See Figures 6-4 and 6-5 for samples of word games and Sudoku.
Have Students visit the Management Help Library for much more information on Problem Solving at http://www.managementhelp.org/prsn_prd/prob_slv.htm
Visit the Mind Tools website for information on many problem solving techniques of appreciation, drill-down, cause and effect diagrams, systems diagrams, SWOT analysis, and much more at http://www.mindtools.com/pages/main/newMN_TMC.htm or the following Mind Tools website to learn more about pareto analysis, paired comparison analysis, grid analysis, decision trees, PMI, force field analysis, six thinking hats, and more at http://www.mindtools.com/pages/main/newMN_TED.htm
Have Students visit the Queendom website to take a self-assessment on Creative Problem Solving at http://www.queendom.com/tests/access_page/index.htm?idRegTest=688
IV.
CREATIVITY IN DECISION-MAKING
Creativity is the ability to develop good ideas that can be put into action. Many people think of creativity as a rarefied talent, but a more helpful perspective is to recognize than not all creativity requires wild imagination, and it is possible for the vast majority of people to improve their creativity.
A.
Measuring Your Creative Potential
The exercises in Human Relations Self-Assessment Exercise 6-1 measures creativity based on verbal ability.
B.
Characteristics of Creative Workers
Creative people are more mentally flexible than others, allowing them to overcome the traditional way of looking at problems. The characteristics of creative workers can be grouped into three broad areas, as described below.
1.
Knowledge. Creative thinking requires a broad background of information, including facts and observations. Knowledge supplies the building blocks for generating and combining ideas. Self-Assessment Quiz 6-2 will help students appreciate how possessing knowledge contributes to critical thinking.
2.
Intellectual Abilities. Creative workers tend to be bright rather than brilliant, and maintain a life-long, youthful curiosity. The key to creative intelligence is insight, an ability to know what information is relevant, to find connections between the old and the new, to combine facts that are unrelated, and to see the “big picture.” Creativity can stem from both fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence.
3.
Personality. Emotional and other nonintellectual aspects of a person heavily influence creative problem solving. Creative people are self-confident, can tolerate isolation, and are often nonconformists.
C.
The Conditions Necessary for Creativity
Creativity takes place when three components come together: expertise, creative-thinking skills, and the right type of motivation.
1.
Expertise refers to the necessary knowledge to put facts together.
2.
Creative thinking refers to how flexibly and imaginatively individuals approach problems. Persistence and seeking ideas intentionally are also important.
3.
The right type of motivation centers around fascination with, or passion for, the task rather than searching for external rewards. Passion and intrinsic motivation result in the flow experience.
Factors outside the person are also important for creativity.
1.
An environmental need must stimulate the setting of a goal. Necessity is the mother of invention.
2.
Another condition that fosters creativity is enough conflict and tension to put people on edge. Easy consensus is the enemy of ground-breaking ideas.
3.
Another external factor for creativity is encouragement, including a permissive atmosphere that welcomes new ideas. Leaders who encourage imagination and original thinking, and do not punish people for making honest mistakes are likely to receive creative ideas from people.
4.
Humor is a key environmental condition for enhancing creativity. Humor gets the creative juices flowing.
5.
A final key environmental condition to be considered here is how much time pressure the problem solver should face to trigger creativity. Conventional wisdom says that people produce the best when pressure is the highest. Some studies do show time pressure may diminish creativity because they limit a worker’s freedom to think through different options and directions.
V.
IMPROVING YOUR CREATIVITY
Many strategies and techniques can foster creativity improvement, and all of them help people move beyond intellectual constraints. The goal of these experiences is to think like a creative problem solver.
A.
Concentrate Intensely on the Task at Hand
At times, we think we are thinking intently about our problem, yet in reality we may be thinking about something that interferes with creativity. Eliminating distractions (such as office chatter) contributes mightily to generating new ideas. All of the methods that follow for creativity enhancement require concentration.
B.
Overcome Traditional Mental Sets
Mental flexibility helps a person overcome a traditional mental set, a fixed way of thinking about objects and activities. An effective way of overcoming a traditional mental set is to challenge the status quo.
C.
Discipline Yourself to Think Laterally
Vertical thinking is an analytical, logical process that results in few answers. In contrast, lateral thinking spreads out to find many different alternative solutions to a problem. Critical thinking is vertical, and creative thinking is lateral. To learn to think laterally, develop the mental set that every problem has multiple alternative solutions.
D.
Conduct Brainstorming Sessions
The best-known method of improving creativity is brainstorming, a technique by which group members think of multiple solutions to a problem. Rules and Guidelines for Brainstorming are presented in Figure 6-6. An important strategy for enhancing the outcome of brainstorming is to have intellectually and culturally diverse group members.
1.
Electronic Brainstorming. In electronic brainstorming, group members simultaneously enter their suggestions into a computer, and members can still build on each other’s ideas.
2.
Brainwriting. In many situations, brainstorming by yourself produces as many or more useful ideas as does brainstorming in groups. Brainwriting, or solo brainstorming, is arriving at creative ideas by jotting them down yourself.
3.
Borrow Creative Ideas
Copying the successful ideas of others is a legitimate form of creativity. You must be careful to give appropriate credit. Business firms often borrow ideas from each other as part of benchmarking.
E.
Establish Idea Quotas for Yourself
Establishing idea quotas is similar to brainwriting with a goal in mind. An easy way of getting started is to establish a monthly minimum quota of one creative idea to improve personal life, and one to improve school or job performance.
H.
Play the Roles of Explorer, Artist, Judge, and Lawyer.
Be an explorer by searching for ideas. Be an artist by stretching your imagination and asking “what-if” questions. Know when to be a judge by evaluating ideas at the right time. And, be a lawyer by negotiating to get your idea implemented.
Visit the Creativity and Innovation website for much more information on Creativity, Innovation, Tools, Techniques, Puzzles, Brain Teasers and more at http://www.mycoted.com/Main_Page
Find Ten Steps for Boosting Creativity at http://www.jpb.com/creative/creative.php
Find many articles on creativity at the Creativity For Life website at http://www.creativityforlife.com/
ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING
1.
What would be some of the symptoms or signs of a “rigid thinker”?
A major symptom of rigid thinking is the belief that almost everything can be looked at categorically such as yes or no, right or wrong, good or bad, and useful or not useful. Symptoms of rigidity also include almost never thinking of new ways of doing old things, or rarely having a fresh idea. Refusal to discuss an issue could also signify rigidity.
2.
Furnish an example from your own life in which you became aware of a problem. What led to this awareness?
A common student answer to this question could relate to problems with a relationship or problems with money. Awareness often results when the problem becomes difficult to fix or manage, such as when their significant other wants to break up with them or they cannot pay their rent.
3.
Why does concentration improve problem solving?
Concentration improves problem solving because concentration allows the problem solver to focus on core issues and minimize distracting elements to a problem. At a deeper level, concentration helps a person achieve flow and peak performance. Concentration also reduces tension that puts some people in a better frame of mind for problem solving.
4.
Why is intuition often referred to as a “sixth sense”?
One connotation of intuition as a sixth sense is that it is somewhat magical because it extends beyond ordinary human capability. People are generally thought to have five senses, thus the sixth sense is a bonus.
5.
Why does knowledge lead to creativity?
Knowledge supplies the building blocks for generating and combining ideas. This is particularly important because, according to some experts, creativity always comes down to combining things in new and different ways.
6.
How can a person still be creative in his or her work without having much talent?
The person without much talent can gravitate toward adaptive creativity, which often requires less raw talent than innovative creativity. The person can search for successful ideas used by other people and adapt these ideas to the problem at hand. Also, by being persistent in the pursuit of creative ideas, the person with average talent may find creative alternatives.
7.
Provide an example of how a supervisor or teacher of yours encouraged you to be creative. How effective was this encouragement.
If you decide to use either the Team Teach-to-Learn project or the Personally Designed final project (both described in Chapter 1), you students may refer to those examples as both projects strongly encourage, and reward creativity.
8.
Give an example of one work problem and one personal problem for which brainstorming might be useful.
Brainstorming is well suited to generating a bunch of alternatives for a wide variety of problems. Brainstorming was first used to uncover advertising themes, and is widely used to come up with alternatives for improving a product or saving money. At the personal level, brainstorming is well suited for such purposes as identifying ways of finding new friends, and uncovering expense-reducing techniques.
9.
Why is being passionate about the task at hand almost essential for being creative?
Passion gives one the motivation to keep trying to find creative solutions to the task at hand. Also, if you are passionate about your work it is easier to concentrate because you do not lose interest. Concentration, in turn, is essential for effective problem solving.
10.
Ask an experienced manager or professional how important creative thinking has been in his her career. Be prepared to report back to class with your findings.
If creativity is conceptualized as thinking of novel and useful ideas, most managers and professionals will acknowledge the contribution of creative thinking to enhancing their performance. Good job performance, in turn, usually helps a person’s career.
COMMENTS ON EXERCISES AND CASES
Human Relations Self-Assessment Quiz 6-1: Creative Personality Test
The Creative Personality Test measures self-perceptions of attitudes and behaviors that are likely to be associated with creative problem solving. In turn, many of the attitudes and behaviors are most likely associated with personality traits. A good example here would be statement 5, “I enjoy it when my boss hands me vague instructions.” Creative individuals tend to enjoy ambiguity because they like to create their own structure. Another example is statement 14, “Detective work would have some appeal to me.” Creative people tend to score higher than average on risk taking and thrill seeking, and detective work satisfies that need. Also, solving crime (or tracking down embezzlers and adulterers) often requires imaginative thinking.
Human Relations Self-Assessment Quiz 6-2: Rhyme and Reason
The Rhyme and Reason test is both a measuring instrument and an opportunity to practice creative thinking. The student is required to think imaginatively because he or she will not have memorized information that is the correct answer to each question. Furthermore, two or more students could have different creative solutions to the same definition. It might prove fun, and also illustrate the nature of creativity, to look for two or more different rhymes in response to the same definition. Students can volunteer their answers. To illustrate, a television might be a “boob tube” or a “lean screen.”
A constructive activity is to ask volunteers what they think of the accuracy of the two creativity tests. (How does your score fit your self-evaluation of your creativity, or feedback from others about your creative-thinking ability?)
Human Relations Skill-Building Exercise 6.1: Using the Problem-Solving Process
A benefit of going through the problem-solving process with an inherently enjoyable problem (starting an enterprise with a gift of $2,000,000) is that it retards impulsiveness. Instead of blurting an answer to the problem, the student is encouraged to evaluate various opportunities.
Students may need to use their imagination to identify some of the advantages and disadvantages to various alternatives, unless they have time to do considerable research.
One alternative that emerges about investing the $2 million is top purchase a franchise such as Denny’s or Dunkin Donuts. The more adventurous and risk taking students will sometimes note that the potential payoff from a franchise is smaller than from starting a new venture. In contrast the more risk-averse groups will point out that a franchise is not such a high-risk investment.
The results of the Problem-Solving Process can also be used to illustrate how values shape decision making. The more altruistic students are more likely to use the money to invest in a charitable foundation.
Human Relations Skill-Building Exercise 6.2: Choose an Effective Domain Name
Most students will perceive this exercise to be highly relevant because cyber-squatters have made millions of dollars making up, the selling, domain names with little more equipment than a laptop computer and cell phone. A key mental set the students will have to overcome in developing domain names is that they are not creating catchy Website names for a specific product. Using the illustration in the game, www.dogfood.com is a domain name but www.dogfooddelish.com might be a brand name.
My experience has been that students are a little skeptical that they can accomplish in fifteen minutes with might take a professional in the field two hours to do. Yet students can be counted on to arrive at some quite sensible solutions. The creativity challenge here is to stay focused on titles consumers are likely to type into their search engines. About 25 percent of people searching for a product on the Internet will enter the generic name into the browser—not the search engine. Here is an example of a small industry based on misinformation. In this case people do not know how to search directly for a product or service on the Internet.
Human Relations Case Problem 6.1: L. L. Bean Changes its Mind
Although the main theme of this case is reversing a decision, the case also illustrates how executives have to weigh new information before implementing a planned decision. A decision with major implications requires weighing of alternatives or options as late as possible.
1.
To what extent did McCormick use the problem-solving and decision-making steps described in the chapter?
McCormick gives explicit evidence of using the problem-solving and decision making step 3, “find creative alternatives.” However, this step was called into play after a big decision had already been made of constructing a call center near Waterville, Maine. McCormick appears also to have used Step 3, “find creative alternatives” when he decided that L. L. Bean should leave the old call center. By deciding to build a call center site in Bangor, McCormick used Step 4, “weigh alternatives and make a decision.”
2.
How will CEO McCormick know if he made a good decision?
The major decision criterion for McCormick was whether the company would be able to attract the workforce it needed to handle the peak season. So an employment analysis will needed to be made for at least two consecutive years to ascertain if a high quality and stable workforce can be recruited from the Bangor location. McCormick might also consider sales and profit figures because L. L. Bean is so dependent on catalog and telephone sales. If the expanded headquarters appear to lead to more business, that would be a positive indicator of the merits of the decision to build a call center in Bangor.
3.
What is your opinion of the ethics of McCormick backing off on the deal to construct a call center in Waterville?
Many students will see no ethical problems in McCormick reversing his decision to build a new call center in Waterville. Yet several groups of stakeholders could be adversely affected by the decision. The L. L. Bean employees who were looking forward to working Waterville will be disappointed, and many of them inconvenienced. The town will be losing out on some anticipated taxes. It is unclear whether the same construction firms will be hired to build the Bangor site, or the same suppliers will be used. If there are changes here, more people will be disappointed. If L. L. Bean had a kill fee with respect to changing their mind, then the last-minute decision to cancel construction would be much more ethical.
Human Relations Case Problem 6.2: Hanging One to a Vulnerable Account
This case illustrates how brainstorming is used to solve an urgent business problem. The group members involved went
a little beyond ordinary brainstorming on the first go-around because they incorporated some actions plans with their search for creative alternatives.
1.
In what way did the Mercury group make effective use of brainstorming?
The Mercury group made effective use of brainstorming in two stages. First, they developed a list of effective list of possibilities for serving the customer better. The suggestions ran from being quite specific, such as “creating a roles and responsibilities document” to the more general, “improve overall customer service.” The second phase of brainstorming was the three solutions presentations.
2.
In what way did the Mercury group deviate from traditional brainstorming?
As indicated above, the group presented actions plans for a couple of their alternatives, particularly in the alternative solution, “give more value to the customer.” For example, part of the action plan was to specify that the leader of the sales team would determine the appropriate new equipment for the account.
3.
What advice can you offer Sanderson when he conducts his next brainstorming session?
It appears that an editing session is needed to makes some of the alternatives more specific, or to develop action plans for all the alternatives. For example, in a second go around the group should specify what they mean by “improve customer service” and “take the misery out of billing.” Although these criticisms are offered, it must still be acknowledged that Sanderson and his team attained their goal—the signing of a new contract.
CLASS ACTIVITY
Visit the Mind Tools website for an excellent class activity on de Bono’s Six Thinking Hats at http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTED_07.htm. The Six Thinking Hats helps people to use six different perspectives to solve problems and make decisions. The typical approach to problem solving and decision making is rational. This approach also views problems from emotional, intuitive, and creative points of view. The hats represent:
White Data
Red Intuition and emotion
Black Possible bad points of a decision
Yellow Optimistic viewpoint
Green Creativity
Blue Process Control
Assign students to groups of four to six students. You can either present problems to the groups for analysis, or have them propose their own problems. Have the students examine their problem from the six different perspectives of the hats. There is a free downloadable worksheet for this activity at the website.
Debrief the activity by having the groups present their solutions to the problems, and how they arrived at the decisions using the six hats.
EXAMINATION QUESTIONS
Multiple-Choice
(a)
1. A person makes a decision when he or she
a.
chooses one alternative from among several.
b.
faces a crisis.
c.
identifies a gap between the real and the ideal.
d.
engages in creative effort.
(d)
2. Emotional intelligence contributes to effective decision making because it
a.
focuses on increasing your creative output.
b.
takes the feelings out of decision making.
c.
allows you to vent your anger freely.
d.
helps you regulate your emotions to make a good decision.
(b)
3 Some people are successful problem solvers and decision makers because they approach every problem
a.
the same way.
b.
with a fresh outlook.
c.
with fear.
d.
carelessly.
(d)
4. June relies on stored information that is repackaged as insight to make decisions. This is referred to as
a.
long forgotten information.
b.
accessible only to highly creative people.
c.
long-term memory.
d.
intuition.
(a)
5. The flow experience occurs when someone
a.
is totally absorbed in his or her work.
b.
allows his or her concentration to wander.
c.
gets the creative juices flowing.
d.
is under heavy pressure.
(c)
6. A notable consequence of perfectionism is that it often leads to a(n)
a.
sudden increase in satisfaction with the task.
b.
feelings of euphoria while solving a problem
c.
delay in making decisions.
d.
lack of concern for details.
(d)
7. With respect to problem solving, the need for risk taking and thrill seeking
a.
leads to procrastination.
b.
leads to perfectionism.
c.
is almost always a liability.
d.
is sometimes an asset.
(a)
8. An example of a value that influences decision-making is
a.
the pursuit of excellence.
b.
intuition.
c.
euphoria.
d.
emotional intelligence.
(a)
9. Three of the key elements to ask questions about when identifying the root cause of a problem are
a.
people, materials, and methods.
b.
effects, consequences, and results.
c.
machines and facilities, attitudes, and motivations.
d.
qualitative, quantitative, and neutral factors.
(a)
10. The purpose of developing a worst-case scenario is to help the decision maker avoid
a.
being overwhelmed by a bad decision.
b.
becoming too self-confident.
c.
being wrong too often.
d.
analysis paralysis.
(d)
11. According to the definition of creativity present in the human relations text, a creative idea
a.
must be capable of being patented.
b.
deals with a major problem.
c.
is worthy of a suggestion award.
d.
can be put into action.
(d)
12. The characteristics of creative workers include
a.
personality.
b.
knowledge.
c.
intellectual abilities.
d.
all of the above.
(b)
13. Robin has an ability to know what information is relevant, to find connections between the old and the new, to combine facts that are unrelated, and to see the “big picture.” Another way to say this would be to say Robin has
a.
problems.
b.
insight.
c.
a lack of concern for details.
d.
a strong personality.
(b)
14. The accumulation of knowledge contributes to creativity because knowledge
a.
can be substituted for intuition.
b.
supplies the building blocks for generating and combining ideas.
c.
prevents too much mental flexibility.
d.
allows for the development of a traditional mental set.
(b)
15. Ephram, an 18-year-old computer hacker, most likely possesses a high degree of
a.
crystallized intelligence.
b.
fluid intelligence.
c.
intuition.
d.
emotional intelligence.
(d)
16. Intrinsic motivation contributes to creativity because it
a.
satisfies the need for recognition and other awards.
b.
helps the problem-solver conform to the right way of thinking.
c.
provides the facts needed for creativity.
d.
enables the problem-solver to be fascinated with the task.
(b)
17. People are the most likely to be creative when they are motivated primarily by the
a.
potential financial reward for being creative.
b.
satisfaction and challenge of the work itself.
c.
fear of job loss for not being creative.
d.
opportunity to obtain recognition for the creative idea.
(d)
18. The saying, “Necessity is the mother of invention,” emphasizes the contribution of ________ to creativity.
a.
certain mental activities
b.
ability
c.
intrinsic motivation.
d.
environmental conditions.
(c)
19. Jerry has become much more intellectually flexible since beginning his job with a jewelry company, which is very helpful in his overcoming a fixed way of thinking. This is also referred to as the ability to overcome
a.
intrinsic motivation.
b.
emotional intelligence.
c.
a traditional mental set.
d.
a job loss.
(a)
20. A vertical thinker looks for one best solution to a problem. In contrast, a(n) ____________ seeks to find many possible solutions to a problem.
a.
lateral thinker
b.
intelligent thinker
c.
emotionally intelligent person
d.
environmental thinker
(b)
21. During electronic brainstorming, suggestions from group members are
a.
stored in a file for review at a later time.
b.
entered into the computer and seen by other group members.
c.
edited automatically for spelling and grammar.
d.
processed through the cellular phone.
(c)
22. The lawyer role in the technique, “Play the roles of explorer, artist, judge, and lawyer” involves
a.
collecting as much evidence as you can before offering a suggestion.
b.
judging whether an idea has merit.
c.
getting your creative idea implemented.
d.
searching through documents for a good idea.
(a)
23. When you cannot seem to find a creative solution to a problem despite concentrated effort, a recommended tactic is to
a.
take a brief break from problem solving.
b.
lock yourself in the work area until the problem is resolved.
c.
drop the problem, and look for another problem to solve.
d.
engage in brainwriting.
True/False
(T)
24. Personal characteristics that influence decision-making ability can often be improved through conscious effort.
(F)
25. High emotional intelligence is important because it helps managers and professionals keep emotions out of decision making.
(F)
26. Clinging to the status quo is a value that is widely recognized for improving decision-making.
(F)
27. Rigid thinking helps the problem-solver approach problems with a fresh outlook.
(F)
28. It takes most professional-level workers about one year of experience to develop good intuition into business problems.
(F)
29. The flow experience occurs when the problem-solver allows his or her concentration to wander.
(F)
30. Perfectionism not only brings about excellent work results, it has a positive impact on mental health.
(T)
31. Being a high risk taker and thrill seeker is an asset for some kinds of work related to business.
(T)
32. Gender is a possible source of differences in decision making.
(F)
33. An exit strategy is figuring out the closest exit in the room.
(F)
34. An important part of identifying the cause of a problem is to ask questions about one key element of the problem.
(F)
35. Creativity boils down to coming up with wild ideas to solve problems.
(T)
36. Creative people are frequently nonconformists and do not need strong approval from others.
(F)
37. Innovative creativity involves adapting a system already in place, such as improving a customer service department.
(T)
38. According to the Encyclopedia of Creativity most people can be taught to become more creative.
(T)
39. Two components of creativity are finding connections between the old and the new and being able to see the “big picture.”
(F)
40. Creative workers focus much more on external rewards such as money rather than on internal rewards such as the joy of performing their work well.
(T)
41. An important condition for bringing about creativity is an environmental need that stimulates setting a goal.
(F)
42. In most situations when workers are heavily pressed for time, and working on several tasks at the same time, creativity is more likely to surface.
(F)
43. Concentrating intently on a problem tends to reduce a person’s ability to think creatively because he or she develops a rigid thinking pattern.
(F)
44. To use electronic brainstorming, the team leader records the meeting with a camcorder and later plays it back for group criticism.
(F)
45. Getting into ruts is helpful for being creative because it makes us comfortable
and relaxed.
(T)
46. An important strategy for enhancing the outcome of brainstorming is to have intellectually and culturally diverse group members.
(T)
47. The artist role in being creative involves stretching your imagination and asking “what-if” questions.
48.
DuBrin presented a process of steps to follow for problem solving and decision making. Apply the first four steps to a current problem you are facing or decision you have to make. The steps are:
1.
Gain awareness of the problem
2.
Identify causes of the problem
3.
Find creative alternatives
4.
Weigh alternatives and make the choice
5.
Implement the choice
6.
Evaluate the choice
Answer: Answers should include examples of how the student will apply steps 1-4 to a current problem they are facing or decision they have to make.
49.
There were five external factors that foster creativity presented in the DuBrin text. Choose two to describe. Tell about a time that each of your two examples were a factor in your workplace or classroom.
Answer: Answers should include an explanation of two of the factors and personal examples from the student. The five factors are:
1.
An environmental need that stimulates the setting of a goal
2.
Enough conflict and tension to put people on edge
3.
Encouragement and a permissive atmosphere that welcomes new ideas
4.
Humor
5.
Time pressure
50.
There were several suggestions for improving your creativity presented in the DuBrin text. Choose two to describe, and give examples of how you will use the suggestions to improve your creativity at work or in school.
Answer: Answers should include descriptions of two of the suggestions and examples of how the student will apply the suggestions. Suggestions include:
1.
Concentrate intensely on the task at hand
2.
Overcome traditional mental sets
3.
Discipline yourself to think laterally
4.
Conduct brainstorming sessions
5.
Borrow creative ideas
6.
Establish idea quotas for yourself
7.
Play the roles of explorer, artist, judge, and lawyer
CHAPTER 5
VALUES AND ETHICS
CHAPTER OUTLINE AND LECTURE NOTES
Values and ethics are foundation topics in human relations because our values and ethics influence how we treat others, and how we are treated in return. A value is the importance a person attaches to something. Values are also tied to the enduring belief that one’s mode of conduct is better than another mode of conduct. Ethics are moral choices a person makes.
I.
HOW VALUES ARE LEARNED
People are not born with a certain set of values, but rather they acquire them in the process of growing up.
A.
Acquiring Values
Many values are learned by the age of four. They are acquired through:
1.
Observing other or modeling
2.
Communication of attitudes
3.
Unstated by implied attitudes
4.
Religion
B.
Later Life Influences on Values
Although many core values are learned early in life, one’s values continue to be shaped by events late in life through:
1.
Dissemination of information through the media
2.
Advertisements and other media messages
3.
Changes in technology
C.
The Influence of Company Values
It is possible that the teaching and demands of an employer will help us acquire new values. An example of a company value would be corporate spiritualism, which results when management is just as concerned about nurturing employee well being as they are about profits.
II.
CLASSIFICATION AND CLARIFICATION OF VALUES
A large number of values exist because values can be related to anything we believe in. Values can be classified by linking them to psychological needs. The following classification of values involves needs and is linked to both career and personal life.
A.
Humanists
Driven by a need for self-awareness, personal growth, and a sense of being individual and unique
B.
Strategists
Highly value a sense of mastery and personal achievement
C.
Pragmatists
Strive for a corner in the world anchored by power, influence, stability, and control
D.
Adventurers
Have a powerful drive for excitement and adventure.
Another key value that influences both work and personal life is conscientiousness. Conscientious workers strive to be industrious, well organized, self-controlling, responsible, traditional, and virtuous.
Differences in values among people often stem from age, or generational differences. See Figure 5-2 for a chart on the value stereotypes for several generations of workers.
Have student visit the following website to complete a Career Values Assessment at http://www.pepjob.com/jobseekers/tools/valuestest.htm
Students can also visit http://www.quintcareers.com/workplace_values.html to complete A Quintessential Careers Quiz – Workplace Values Assessment: Do You Know the Work Values You Most Want in a Job and an Employer — and Does Your Current Employment Reflect Those Values?
III.
THE MESH BETWEEN INDIVIDUAL AND JOB VALUES
In ideal circumstances, the values of employees mesh with those required on the job. When this state of congruence occurs, job performance is likely to be high.
When the demands made by the organization or a superior clash with the basic values of the individual, he or she suffers from person-role conflict.
IV.
WHY BE CONCERNED ABOUT BUSINESS ETHICS?
People are motivated by both self-interest and moral commitments. Most people want to maximize their personal gains, but are also motivated to do something morally right. Reasons companies are concerned about their employees behaving ethically include:
1.
Business executives want employees to behave ethically because a good reputation can enhance business.
2.
Unethical acts can be illegal, which can lead to financial loss and imprisonment.
3.
Extreme acts of unethical behavior can lead a company into bankruptcy.
4.
High ethics increases the quality of work life.
Students can complete the Ethical Reasoning Inventory self-assessment quiz 5-1 for an indication of how ethical they are.
Being ethical is not always easy because ethical decisions are complex, people do not always recognize the moral issues involved in a decision, and people have different levels of moral development. A survey of the extent of ethical problems found:
1.
36% of employees call in sick when they are well
2.
34% of employees keep quiet when they see coworker misconduct
3.
19% of employees see coworkers lie to customers, vendors, and the public
4.
12% of employees steal from customers or the company
5.
12% of resumes contain at least some false information
V.
FREQUENT ETHICAL DILEMMAS
Certain ethical mistakes, including illegal actions, recur in the workplace. These mistakes include:
A.
The Temptation to Illegally Copy Software
Approximately 35% of software applications used in businesses are illegal according to the Business Software Alliance.
B.
Treating People Unfairly
Being fair to people means equity, reciprocity, and impartiality. A fair working environment is
1.
Where performance is the only factor that counts (equity)
2.
Employer-employee expectations are understood and met (reciprocity)
3.
Prejudice and bias are eliminated (impartiality)
C.
Sexual Harassment
Sexual harassment is a source of conflict, an illegal act, and a moral issue because it is morally wrong and unfair.
D.
Conflict of Interest
Conflicts of interest occur when one’s judgment or objectivity is compromised.
E.
Dealing With Confidential Information
An ethical person can be trusted by others not to divulge confidential information unless the welfare of others is at stake.
F.
Presentation of Employment History
Distortion, or lying, on a resume, job application form, or during an interview is unethical.
G.
Possible Ethical Violations With Computers and Information Technology
Ethical dilemmas include issues such as the fairness of tracking websites visited by an employee, the fairness of having an employee work at a keyboard for 60 hours per week, and the fairness of shopping or placing bets online while at work.
VI.
GUIDELINES FOR MAKING ETHICAL DECISIONS AND BEHAVING ETHICALLY
Following guidelines for ethical behavior is the heart of being ethical. Ethical guidelines are approached from the following six perspectives:
A.
Developing the Right Character Traits
A character trait is an enduring characteristic of a person that is related to moral and ethical behavior that shows up consistently. Ten key guidelines for character development are:
1.
Be honest
2.
Demonstrate Integrity
3.
Keep promises
4.
Be loyal
5.
Be responsible
6.
Pursue excellence
7.
Be kind and caring
8.
Treat all people with respect
9.
Be fair
10.
Be a good citizen
B.
Using a Guide to Ethical Decision Making
Such a guide for making contemplated decisions includes running the decision or action through an ethics test or ethical screening. Six questions that can be used include:
1.
Is it right?
2.
Is it fair?
3.
Who gets hurt?
4.
Would you be comfortable if the details of your decision or actions were made public?
5.
What would you tell your child, sibling, or young relative to do?
6.
How does it smell?
C.
Developing Strong Relationships with Work Associates
If you build strong relationships with work associates, you are likely to behave more ethically toward them, and they toward you.
D.
Using Corporate Ethics Programs
Examples of company programs and procedures for promoting ethical behavior include committees that monitor ethical behavior, training programs in ethics, and vehicles for reporting ethical violations.
E.
Follow an Ethical Role Model in the Company
Four general categories of attitudes and behaviors are characterized by ethical role models in organizations including:
1.
Everyday interpersonal behaviors, such as taking responsibility for others
2.
High ethical expectations for oneself, such as working extra hours simply to make sure performance evaluations of group members were completed on time
3.
High ethical expectations for others, such as expecting others to behave ethically
4.
Fairness in dealing with others, such as getting their input on a problem situation involving them
F.
Follow an Applicable Code of Professional Conduct
Professional codes of conduct are prescribed for many occupational groups including physicians, nurses, lawyers, psychologists, and real estate agents. Figure 5-3 presents a sampling of provisions from codes of conduct.
Have students visit the Monster Career Advice website to complete the Test Your Business Ethics self assessment at http://resources.monster.com/tools/quizzes/bizethics/
Have students visit the Free Management Library for the Complete Guide to Ethics Management: An Ethics Toolkit for Managers at http://www.managementhelp.org/ethics/ethxgde.htm
ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING
1.
Identify several of your values that you think will help you succeed. Why do you think these values will help you?
Student answer will vary widely, often depending on their career objectives. For example, common values for a nurse could include compassion, accuracy, and respectfulness.
2.
What evidence would you need to conclude that there was a good fit between your values and those of your employer?
Student answers will vary, but possible answers might include by comparing one’s values to company vision and mission statements, comparing one’s values to company policies, and finding a job that would be meaningful.
3.
Get together in a brainstorming group to identify what you think might be a few values important to (a) Wal-Mart and (b) Starbucks. Support your reasoning.
(a) Possible values of Wal-Mart are providing extensive merchandise at low prices, in a uniform manner, over extended hours of the day based on what you see about the company.
(b) Possible values of Starbucks are providing a quality specialty product, providing extensive employee benefits, and saving the environment based on what you see and hear about the company.
4.
Assume that company management brags about its values of being altruistic and humanitarian. Should such a company then shelter the homeless at night on company premises? Why or why not?
Unless the facilities of the company are appropriate for sheltering the homeless, this would not be the best way to demonstrate values of being altruistic and humanitarian. Values may be better demonstrated through donating money, conducting fundraisers, or encouraging employees to volunteer their time.
5.
Give an example of an action in business that might be unethical but not illegal.
Examples might include offering discounts to customers who ask for them, but not to all customers; treating some employees better than others, and making decisions in cases where there is a conflict of interest.
6.
Based on your knowledge of human behavior, why do professional codes of conduct – such as those for doctors, paralegals, and realtors – not prevent all unethical behavior of the part of members?
Codes of conduct do not prevent all unethical behaviors from all members because being ethical is not always easy. Ethical decisions are complex, people do not always recognize the moral issues involved in a decision, and people have different levels of moral development.
7.
What decision of ethical consequence have you made in the past year that you would not mind having publicly disclosed?
Student answers will vary widely. Some common examples could be making the decision not to cheat on a test, deciding to help a fellow student study material they already knew well, or choosing to pay all of their bills on time even if it meant they could not participate in all of the social events they would have liked to.
8.
If so many successful business executives and people in public office have been charged with ethical violations, why should you worry about being ethical?
Everyone has to live with their own conscience, so many people would choose to behave ethically even though others around them are not doing the same. Other reasons for behaving ethically include to avoid punishment, to increase the quality of one’s life, and in hopes that others will behave ethically toward you in return.
9.
Is it ethical for companies to sell rubber cement in retail stores even though many young people become addicted to glue sniffing?
It would be impossible to remove every product that can be misused from retail store shelves. For example, many people have suffered severe physical harm as a result of purposely overdosing on Tylenol, but most people use the product safely and would be upset if it were not available. One step companies can take is to put warning labels on products that can be dangerous or misused.
10.
Some hospitals prohibit doctors from accepting any gift but a free lunch from pharmaceutical companies. Are these hospitals going overboard on ethics? Explain your reasoning.
As professionals, most doctors could be trusted to select the pharmaceuticals they prescribe based on the needs of their patients. One benefit to a policy such as this is that it could remove questions about unethical behavior from some patients’ minds. The truth is, if someone is really unethical, they find ways to circumvent rules and policies anyway.
COMMENTS ON EXERCISES AND CASES
Human Relations Self-Assessment Quiz 5-1: The Ethical Reasoning Inventory
The Ethical Reasoning Inventory provides a list of job-related and personal-life related ethical challenges, so it is it does not require much hypothetical and abstract reasoning to respond to the statements. A key message conveyed by the quiz is that ethical behavior relates to a wide variety of day-by-day incidents, not just mammoth corporate scandals.
The statements vary in moral intensity, or impact of the potential ethical violation. For example, statement 10 is “I see no harm in taking home a few office supplies” (low intensity); statement number 15 is “To be successful in business, a person usually has to ignore ethics” (high moral intensity). Also of note, some of the behaviors reflected in the statement might be practiced by over 90 percent of the workforce, such as number 5, “I see no problem with conducting a little personal business on company time.”
An interesting issue to explore is whether a person might score too high on this scale, and therefore be so naïve that it would be difficult for him or her to succeed in business. The interpretation section of the quiz mentions that a very high scorer might take a little ribbing from coworkers for being too straight laced.
Human Relations Skill-building Exercise 5-1: Value Clarification
People of all ages enjoy value clarification. A point worthy of discussion is to discuss the link between these values and the workplace. Many of these values can be met or satisfied through career success. For example, the workplace encourages being neat and orderly, and if you achieve career success it is possible to help people less fortunate than yourself. Taking the questionnaire also points to the idea that everyday behaviors are driven by values, such as “watching my favorite television shows.” If Americans watch an average of 1,000 hours of television per year, it is because they value such activity. Another point to be inferred from the questionnaire is that values lead to behavior. If “having good health” is an important value, the person will emphasize proper exercise and diet in daily living.
The values in this questionnaire are personal rather than corporate values, such as treating employees fairly and providing good customer service. When corporate leaders talk about values, they usually refer to a handful of ideas relating to treatment of employees and customers.
Human Relations Skill-Building Exercise 5-2: The Ethics Game
Students should enjoy participating in the type of ethics building exercise used in many companies. As the groups work to solve the problems, it will become apparent that values shape ethics. In Scenario 1, if the group highly values helping unfortunate people, the group members might be tempted to award the bid to High-Performance Cleaners. In Scenario 2, if the group values personal convenience over corporate welfare, the group members might be tempted to choose alternative b, c, or d. In Scenario 3, if the group values total honesty, the group members will choose alternative c.
Group discussions, as required in this exercise, are particularly useful in shaping attitudes about ethics. Group members will most likely interact about the alternatives before making a decision.
Human Relations Case Problem 5.1: The Mortgage Field Services Specialist
A subtle point this case illustrates is that business firms sometimes have to take actions that appear unethical because another party is even more unethical. Specifically, if the people whose houses are foreclosed had been more ethical about paying their mortgages, foreclosures would not have been necessary.
1.
What is your evaluation of the ethics of the field-services businesses? Are they basically vultures?
The pro-business argument here is that the field-service is entirely ethical. The field services specialists are hired to protect the interests of the banks that have entered into a legal contract with individuals to grant them a mortgage. The mortgage holders who do not make payments, and the vandals who destroy properties, are the true ethical deviants. The anti-business argument here is that it is unethical to take away property from people who were unable—not simply unwilling—to make their mortgage payments. For example, job loss, illness, and divorce are three factors that create major financial problems for mortgage holders.
2.
What kind of value deficiencies (if any) do you see in the people who leave their homes in broken and filthy condition?
Among the value deficiencies of people who leave their homes in broken and filthy condition are a lack of respect for the rights of others. A person who is evicted does not really own the home; it has become the property of the mortgage lender. Other value deficiencies include a lack of respect for the environment (a broken-down house creates sight pollution), and a lack of respect for cleanliness. Leaving a wrecked and filthy house also shows a lack of respect for the rights of neighbors whose property values will become lower.) The counterargument here might be that the mortgage lenders have the value deficiencies because they are insensitive to the needs of the mortgage holders.
3.
What steps do you think banks can take to grant mortgages to people who will not make it necessary for the bank to hire field-service specialists?
A point made by many consumer advocates is that lending institutions often err on the side of making high-risk loans, thereby creating the conditions for defaults on loans. Banks that raise the criteria for credit-worthiness will lower the percentage of foreclosures. However, the banks will also reject some customers who would pay their mortgage on time. Raising the bar for granting mortgages also can lead to being charged with discriminating against some groups.
Human Relations Case Problem 5.2: The Highly Rated but Expendable Marsha
This case illustrates a representative example of unethical behavior in relation to human resource management. The scam portrayed was more widespread in the past because the hoax has been exposed so frequently.
1.
How ethical was Nicholas in giving Marsha a high performance evaluation for the
purposes of attracting her to other departments?
It would be difficult to find anything ethical in giving inflated performance
evaluations in order to make an employee more marketable to other managers. Giving workers inflated performance evaluations to make them transferable will weaken the organization in the long run. The comparison could be made to dolling up a badly maintained vehicle so it can be sold used at a reasonable price. One possible ethical interpretation is that the manager giving the inflated evaluation is helping the employee find a good career opportunity.
2.
What should the manager do who was hooked by Nicholas’s bait of the high performance evaluation?
The manager should first confront Marsha about the problem, as if she were a difficult employee. She might then give Marsha a performance contract with a time limit, detailing the improvements in behavior that are required. If this does not work, the Nicholas might be asked to take Marsha back. If Nicholas resists, the matter might be brought to both higher management and the human resources department.
3.
What might the company do to prevent more incidents of inflated performance evaluations for the purpose of transferring an unwanted employee?
Most companies have overcome the practice of inflating performance evaluations for the purpose of transferring an unwanted employee. Open discussion of this dated practice is helpful, as is a company policy forbidding the practice. The topic can also be introduced in during discussions of company ethics.
Human Relations Skill-Building Exercise 5.3: Confronting the Ethical Deviant
This role play deals with one of the most realistic approaches to maintaining an ethical environment: confronting the ethical deviant. Students should enjoy seeing Nicholas sweat, and attempting to rationalize his actions. Count on your best students to really get the point of this role play, and add some humor to the episode.
An extension of the role play is to discuss where else unethical behavior should be confronted. If you are in a grocery store and you observe another customer eating fruit (particularly grapes) not already paid for, do you confront that person? When you see a coworker interacting with eBay during working hours, do you confront him or her?
CLASS ACTIVITY
This activity will help students to clarify some of their own values for themselves, to learn a method of categorizing values, and to understand the role values play in ethical behavior. In preparation for the activity, place four flip chart pages on the walls of the room with the words Humanists, Strategists, Pragmatists, and Adventurers on them.
Step 1:
Have students imagine they have passed on, and they are reading their obituary.
They should identify what they would like to be said about them in their obituary. The obituary should include some information about the type of worker they were, or something about how they performed their career.
Step 2:
Have students determine which of the four main categories their values fit into, and which category has the most values listed under it. The categories are:
A.
Humanists
Driven by a need for self-awareness, personal growth, and a sense of being individual and unique
B.
Strategists
Highly value a sense of mastery and personal achievement
C.
Pragmatists
Strive for a corner in the world anchored by power, influence, stability, and control
D.
Adventurers
Have a powerful drive for excitement and adventure.
Refer students to the text for more information on the categories.
Step 3:
Have students work in groups of 3-4 to identify a list of values for each category. Then have students move around the room to enter their values on the corresponding flip charts. (For example, the values they associate with humanists should be recorded on the humanists’ flip chart.)
Step 4:
After all groups have posted their values on the flip charts, have the groups go around a second time and identify careers they feel would be a good fit for that category. (For example, they could find fire fighter to be a good career match for adventurers.)
Step 5:
Have students move around the flip charts a final time to predict possible ethical dilemmas for those holding the values for each category. (For example, one ethical dilemma for a fire fighter could be whether to take the risk to enter an unsafe structure against orders if he or she believes there is a child inside.)
EXAMINATION QUESTIONS
Multiple-Choice
(c)
1. ______ establish the basis for ethical thinking and behavior.
a.
Fears
b.
Dreams
c.
Values
d.
Motivations
(a)
2. _______ are the moral choices a person makes.
a.
Ethics
b.
Values
c.
Attitudes
d.
Perceptions
(b)
3. ______ converts ______ into action.
a.
Motivation/ethics
b.
Ethics/values
c.
Perceptions/behaviors
d.
Attitudes/motivation
(a)
4. One important way people acquire values is through
a.
observing others.
b.
cheating.
c.
birth.
d.
none of the above.
(b)
5. A value employees may acquire as a result of being part of an organization where management is as concerned about the well being of their employees as they are about profits is
a.
looking out for oneself.
b.
corporate spiritualism.
c.
greed.
d.
technology.
(d)
6. Sally has a strong need for self-awareness, personal growth, and a sense of being individual and unique. It is likely one of Sally’s values is
a.
becoming wealthy.
b.
being liked.
c.
corporate spiritualism.
d.
humanism.
(c)
7. Rich has a powerful drive for risk taking and thrill seeking. It is likely one of Rich’s values is
a.
conformity.
b.
humanism.
c.
adventure.
d.
becoming wealthy.
(a)
8. Debbie is industrious, well organized, self-controlling, responsible, traditional, and virtuous. It is likely one of Debbie’s values is
a.
conscientiousness.
b.
adventure.
c.
being liked.
d.
power.
(a)
9. The generation most likely to value diplomacy over candidness in conversation is:
a.
Baby Boomers.
b.
Generation Xers.
c.
Millenials.
d.
none of the above.
(c)
10. The generation most likely to value the new economy is:
a.
Baby Boomers.
b.
Generation Xers.
c.
Millenials.
d.
none of the above.
(b)
11. The generation with the most loyalty to their own career and profession is:
a.
Baby Boomers.
b.
Generation Xers.
c.
Millenials.
d.
all of the above.
(d)
12. Trudy wants to comply with the demands made by her supervisor, but they conflict with Trudy’s personal values. Trudy is suffering from:
a.
her value for power.
b.
humanism.
c.
perception conflict.
d.
person-role conflict.
(d)
13. John wants his employees to behave ethically because he knows
a.
a good reputation can enhance business.
b.
a favorable reputation attracts investors.
c.
a favorable reputation attracts better job applicants.
d.
all of the above.
(b,c)
14. Examples of unethical employee behavior include: (CHOOSE TWO)
a.
helping a coworker.
b.
employee theft.
c.
lost production time.
d.
person-role conflict.
(a)
15. Behaving ethically is also important because:
a.
many unethical acts are also illegal.
b.
you could get caught if you don’t.
c.
it is only important in certain situations.
d.
most people do it.
(b,d)
16. Two reasons making ethical decisions can be difficult include (CHOOSE TWO):
a.
some people have no ethics.
b.
ethical decisions are complex.
c.
there are too many bad people in the world today.
d.
people do not always recognize the moral issues involved in a decision.
(b)
17. One way for employees to ensure ethical treatment of their employees is to
a.
hire only relatives of the employer.
b.
eliminate bias and prejudice.
c.
avoid making decisions based on qualifications.
d.
reward the employees they get along with best.
(a)
18. Sexual harassment is ______ and ______.
a.
illegal/unethical
b.
common/alright
c.
funny/acceptable
d.
unethical/legal
(b)
19. Judy’s objectivity is compromised when it comes to deciding on a raise for her friend. This is an example of
a.
sexual harassment.
b.
a conflict of interest.
c.
perceptual conflict.
d.
all of the above.
(d)
20. Larry refuses to share confidential information about others he works with. Larry’s behavior is
a.
common.
b.
unusual.
c.
a conflict of interest.
d.
highly ethical.
(c)
21. One guideline for making ethical decisions and behaving ethically is
a.
making sure you don’t get caught.
b.
behaving ethically out of fear.
c.
developing the right character traits.
d.
making up a code of ethics that serves only you.
(a)
22. An enduring characteristic that is related to a person’s moral and ethical behavior on a consistent basis is
a.
a character trait.
b.
a person-role conflict.
c.
a conflict of interest.
d.
a character flaw.
(d)
23. Guidelines for character development include:
a.
demonstrate integrity.
b.
keep promises.
c.
pursue excellence.
d.
all of the above.
(b)
24. A set of questions used to make an ethical decision is called
a.
personal protection.
b.
an ethical screen.
c.
a role model.
d.
a character trait.
True/False
(T)
25. Understanding ethics helps us follow guidelines for being ethical.
(F)
26. Most people are born with a particular set of values.
(T)
27. Many key values are learned through religion.
(T)
28. Changes in technology can change our values.
(F)
29. It is NOT possible for demands of an employer to change one’s values.
(F)
30. Baby Boomers and Generation Xers are more techno-savy than millenials.
(T)
31. A starting point in finding a good fit between individual and organizational values is to identify what type of work would be the most meaningful.
(F)
32. Ethical employees do not affect businesses either positively or negatively.
(T)
33. If a company knowingly allows workers to engage in unsafe practices, its executives could be held personally liable.
(T)
34. Company executives have created financial hardships for their workers by unethical behaviors like raiding pension funds.
(F)
35. Calling into work sick when you are actually well is ethical behavior.
(F)
36. It is ethical to include a few things that are not true on a resume because everyone else does it.
(F)
37. It is alright to make illegal copies of software because the developers overcharge for it in the first place.
(T)
38. Be a good citizen is one of the foundations of character development.
(T)
39. It is possible to use a set of questions as a guide to ethical decision making.
(F)
40. Developing relationships with one’s coworkers has little effect on ethical behavior in the workplace.
(F)
41. All top level managers should be considered role models for ethical behavior.
(T)
42. “How does it smell?” is an example of an ethical screening question.
(F)
43. All professions and businesses have professional codes of conduct.
(T)
44. Ethics programs lose their effectiveness if top-level management does not display high ethics.
(F)
45. If an employee is forced to enter data on a computer for more than 60 hours a week, that employee should be able to spend a little bit of that time taking care of some personal shopping online.
(F)
46. Providing company training in ethics was much more common in the 1960’s that it is now.
(T)
47. Behaving too ethically in the workplace can result in your being labeled a “goody two shoes.”
48.
Complete the Ethical Reasoning Inventory self-assessment in the DuBrin text, and write a one page report about your results. You do not have to disclose your score if you do not want to, but discuss whether your results surprised you, what changes you will make based on your results, and how you predict your results compare with those of others in your generation.
Answer: Answer should include the students’ reactions to their results, changes they will made, and their prediction of how their results compare with others in their generation.
49.
The DuBrin text presented an example of a complex ethical decision. In the example, one side would say child labor is unethical because it exploits children. The other side would say child labor is not unethical because it prevents children from starving to death by allowing them to earn money to pay for food. Choose a complex ethical decision you have faced in your workplace or personal life. Write about both sides of the dilemma.
Answer: Answers should include two different sides of a complex ethical decision or dilemma.
50.
Six guidelines were presented in the DuBrin text for making ethical decisions and behaving ethically. Describe two of the guidelines and give examples of how you will apply them in your life.
Answer: Answers should include two of the six guidelines for making ethical decisions and behaving ethically with examples of how the student will apply them.
The six guidelines include:
1.
Developing the right character traits
2.
Using a guide to ethical decision making
3.
Developing strong relationships with work associates
4.
Using corporate ethics programs
5.
Following an ethical role model in the company
6.
Following an applicable code of professional conduct
CHAPTER 4
EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE, ATTITUDES, AND HAPPINESS
CHAPTER OUTLINE AND LECTURE NOTES
Emotional intelligence, including self-awareness, figures into success in business. Related aspects of using emotion constructively are attitudes and happiness.
I.
EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
Emotional intelligence is defined as the ability to accurately perceive emotions, to understand the signals that emotions send about relationships, and to manage emotions. The key components of emotional intelligence are:
A.
Self-Awareness
The ability to understand moods, emotions, and needs as well as their impact on others; self-awareness also includes using intuition to make decisions you can live with happily.
B.
Self-Management
The ability to control one’s emotions and act with honesty and integrity in a consistent and acceptable manner.
C.
Social Awareness
Having empathy for others and having intuition about work problems.
D.
Relationship Management
The interpersonal skills of being able to communicate clearly and convincingly, disarm conflicts, and build strong personal bonds.
Many people believe that emotional intelligence can be acquired and developed. Having the right natural talent is an important starting point. Students can assess their emotional intelligence by visiting the website presented in Self-Assessment Quiz 4-1, www.myskillsprofile.com.
A criticism of the ideal of emotional intelligence is that it might simply be part of analytical or traditional intelligence. Another concern is that the popularized concept of emotional intelligence has become so broad that it encompasses almost the entire study of personality.
Visit the 6 Seconds Emotional Intelligence Network at http://www.6seconds.org/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=2 for much more information on emotional intelligence.
II.
COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDES
An attitude is a predisposition to respond that exerts an influence on a person’s response to a person, a thing, an idea or a situation. Attitudes are complex, having three components. Figure 4-1 in the text shows the three components.
A.
Cognitive Component
The knowledge or intellectual beliefs an individual might have about an object (an idea, a person, a thing, or a situation).
B.
Affective Component
The emotion connected with an object or task.
C.
Behavioral Component
How a person acts, or the behavior taken on a subject.
D.
Cognitive Dissonance
A situation in which the pieces of knowledge, information, attitudes, or beliefs held by an individual are contradictory.
III.
HOW ATTITUDES ARE FORMED AND CHANGED
Attitudes are usually based on experience.
A.
Forming Attitudes
Receiving direct instruction from another individual.
Conditioning or making associations.
The way we think about things – our cognitions.
A person’s standing on the personality trait of optimism.
B.
The Importance of Positive Attitudes
Positive attitudes have always been the foundation of effective human relations.
The assumption is that when employees are in a positive mood, they are typically more creative, better motivated to perform well, and more helpful toward coworkers.
Workers with genuine positive attitudes will accrue many benefits such as being liked by customers, closing more sales, receiving good performance reviews, receiving favorable work assignments, and being promoted.
Refer to Figure 4-2 for a list of suggestions for becoming a positive friendlier person by Dale Carnegie.
C.
Changing Attitudes
In general attitudes can be changed by reversing the processes by which they were formed.
It helps to receive information from a source we trust.
It also helps to look at the positive or negative aspect of a situation.
D.
How Companies Encourage Positive Attitudes and Job Satisfaction
Positive attitudes and job satisfaction contribute to better customer service, less absenteeism and tardiness, less turnover, and often higher productivity.
A few examples of possible company initiatives to foster positive attitudes and high job satisfaction among employees are flexible working hours, recognition awards, company picnics, and financial bonuses.
Have students visit the Benefits Trust Online website at http://www.benefitstrust.org/positiveattitude.htm to learn more about how to develop a positive attitude and how to maintain a positive attitude.
IV.
ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR
An employee attitude highly valued by employers is organizational citizenship behavior, the willingness to go beyond one’s job description to help the company, even if such act does not lead to an immediate reward.
V.
ACHIEVING HAPPINESS
Research and opinion about happiness indicate that people can take concrete steps to achieve happiness. Planning for happiness is possible because it appears to be somewhat under people’s control. In this section we describe three approaches to the pursuit of happiness that reinforce each other.
A.
The Spheres of Life and Happiness
According to the framework presented here, happiness is a by-product of having the various components of life working in harmony and synchrony. The various components of life (which show some variation among people) must spin together like six gears. The components for many people would be; (1) work and career, (2) interpersonal life including loved ones, (3) physical and mental health, (4) financial health, (5) interests and pastimes, and (6) spiritual life or belief system. See Figure 4-3 for the Spheres-of-Life Model of Happiness.
For the long range, a state of happiness is dependent on all six spheres working in harmony. This model is consistent with the theme of this text. People vary with how much importance they attach to each sphere of life. Yet a gross deficiency in any one sphere detracts from happiness. Life stage can also influence which spheres are most important.
Have students visit the Psychology Today website to assess how happy they are at http://psychologytoday.psychtests.com/cgi-bin/health/transfer_health.cgi?partner=pt&test=happiness
B.
The Keys to Happiness
Keeping the spheres of life in harmony is one framework for achieving happiness. In addition, a wide range of opinion and research suggest thirteen keys to happiness. (Many of these keys are made explicit or implied in the model.) Previous information in the text deals with many of these points.
1.
Give high priority to the pursuit of happiness.
2.
Experience love and friendship, and find a life partner.
3.
Develop a sense of self-esteem.
4.
Work hard at what you enjoy and achieve the flow experience.
5.
Appreciate the joys of day-to-day living.
6.
Be fair, kind, helpful, and trusting of others.
7.
Have recreational fun in your life.
8.
Learn to cope with grief, disappointment, setbacks, and stress.
9.
Live with what you cannot change.
10.
Energize yourself through physical fitness.
11.
Satisfy your most important values.
12. Earn enough money to avoid feeling miserable
13.
Lead a meaningful life.
Students can complete the Core Self-Evaluation Scale in Self-Assessment Quiz 4-2 for an indication of their attitudes toward themselves.
C.
The Five Principles of Psychological Functioning
A related approach to finding happiness is to follow the five principles of psychological functioning recommended by popular psychologist Richard Carlson. The first principle is thinking. Directing your thinking in a positive direction will enhance your happiness. The second principle is moods. Ignoring bad moods contributes to happiness. The third principle is separate psychological realities, suggesting that you accept the idea that people think differently. The fourth principle is feelings. If you feel discontented, for example, clear the head and start thinking positively. The fifth principle of psychological functioning is the present moment. Much like the flow experience, the present moment is where people find happiness and inner peace.
ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING
1.
What has one of your professors or instructors done recently to demonstrate good emotional intelligence in dealing with students?
A common answer for this question would involve a professor or instructor showing understanding toward students, perhaps by extending a deadline, or throwing out test grades if all of the students did poorly on the test.
2.
Describe what a business executive, entertainer, or well-known athlete has done recently to demonstrate low emotional intelligence. Explain your reasoning.
A good example for this question could be the behavior of Brittany Spears after her breakup with Kevin Federline. She showed a lack of self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship management.
3.
Suppose the vast majority of company managers had high emotional intelligence. How might this fact give the company a competitive edge?
Companies whose managers had high emotional intelligence would likely have less employee turnover, more satisfied and productive employees, more satisfied customers, and higher innovation and creativity from employees than companies whose manager were low in emotional intelligence.
4.
Imagine yourself as the human resources director of a medium size manufacturer of airplane parts, and you have $150,000 in your training budget to spend for product training and emotional intelligence training. How would you divide your budget between the two types of training?
It would be wise to devote more money to the emotional intelligence training, as such training would require working on one component of emotional intelligence at a time. Product training, on the other hand, is very direct and would require less time to achieve understanding. An estimate might be to spend $50,000 on product training and $100,000 on emotional intelligence training.
5.
Many gerontology specialists believe that people with a positive attitude live longer. How could this possibly be true? Don’t people die of physical causes?
Actually, having a negative attitude can lead to physical problems, whereas having a positive attitude leads to better physical health, more career success, and more social connections – all of which have been shown to increase lifespan.
6.
What are some of the skills a person needs to acquire to become happy?
The various approaches to being happy involve a number of skills, including the following:
Having the spheres of life and happiness work in harmony and synchrony would require balancing skills such as being well organized enough to meet family and work demands and still pursue personal interests.
Looking at the thirteen keys to happiness, among the skills would be having good work skills, recreational skills, and physical fitness skills.
The skills involved in implementing Carlson’s five principles of psychological functioning include having the empathy to understand separate psychological realities, and concentration skills to focus on the present moment.
7.
How do your “spheres of life” compare with those in Figure 4-3?
The spheres of life contained in Figure 4-3 should cover the lives of the vast majority of students. The major sources of individual differences will lie in the emphasis given to these various spheres. However, another potential sphere for some people might be one relating to the status of the outside physical environment. One person said that she could never be happy unless the “global warming problem is under control.”
8.
When are you happiest, are you more productive on the job or at school?
Answers will definitely vary on this question. Once students identify where they are happiest, ask them to identify why?
9.
Why might being very happy prompt some people to become less competitive in their careers?
An underlying principle of happiness is as long as you have enough money to pay for what you consider to be necessities, money is not a factor in your happiness. Therefore, people for whom money is not a key to happiness may desire more time away from work and may be satisfied to earn enough money to meet their necessities.
10.
Many companies place posters with smiley faces around the factory and office in order to boost worker morale and happiness. How effective do you think this practice might be?
It might cheer people up to see smiley face posters around their workplaces, but true happiness comes from within a person, and cannot be changed by simply putting up cute pictures.
COMMENTS ON EXERCISES AND CASES
Self-Assessment Quiz4-1: What Is Your Emotional Intelligence?
Students who take the initiative to take the test of emotional intelligence will most likely profit from the experience. The relevant information about the test is presented at the Website, www.myskillsprofile.com. The test is thorough, thereby helping to illustrate that emotional intelligence has many components (as does cognitive intelligence).
We hope this Website will still be active when your students attempt to access it. Should the Website be discontinued, students can use their search engines to find another self-quiz on emotional intelligence.
Self-Assessment Quiz 4.2: The Core Self-Evaluation Scale
Although this scale is referred to as the Core Self-Evaluation Scale it measures the extent of a person’s positive self-attitude. The scale in question has been heavily researched, so its score will often be an accurate reflection of how positive is the student’s self-attitude. Yet even a well designed and well-researched instrument can be inaccurate for a given individual. The mean score of 45 can be useful in relating oneself to the general population.
A class project that might be implemented in less than 10 minutes would be to compare the class mean score with the general population mean score of 45. If the class average is might higher or lower than the national average, the class could be asked for an explanation for the finding. Is it possible that living in a prosperous and or desirable part of the country could contribute to having an above-average positive attitude toward oneself? Or could living in a down trodden section of the country result in more negative attitudes toward oneself?
Human Relations Skill-Building Exercise 4.1: Enhancing Your Emotional Intelligence
A key assumption underlying this exercise is that a substantial part of emotional intelligence is based on learning rather than genetics. The exercise also assumes than long-standing habits and other patterns of behaviors can be modified during adulthood. The steps involved in improving emotional intelligence include the key components of obtaining feedback on a particular behavior, consciously attempting to adjust the behavior, and then receiving feedback about how well the changes went.
The documentation part of improving emotional intelligence is a good procedure to follow for the development of other human relation skills also. Recording how people react to the “changed you” is particularly valuable.
Human Relations Skill-Building Exercise 4.2: Achieving Happiness
The dividend for successfully implementing this exercise is a lifetime of happiness, assuming the exercise is valid. An important feature of the exercise is demonstrating that happiness is under one’s control. The results obtained from this exercise will vary somewhat depending on the person’s current level of satisfaction with life. People who are not chronically dissatisfied will get the most leverage from this exercise.
All the steps in this exercise are realistic to implement. Step 1 is feasible because most people can find five minutes in the morning for positive thought and visualization. Step 2, making a list of five virtues, is doable for most people. Step 3, about incorporating the new virtue into your life, will take a little more time. Step 4 about looking for three positive qualities about contacts, should flow smoothly. Step 5, listing positive qualities about people one dislikes, takes some work at first, but is a wonderful perception to develop. Step 6 requires the same type of effort as the previous step. Step 7 about looking at problems as opportunities can also be done with practice and only requires a few minutes of reflective thought.
Human Relations Case Problem 4.1: The Very Positive Mr. Abraham Lincoln
Psychohistory, or psychologically analyzing historically figures, is often a useful exercise providing that the historical data about the individual is accurate. Psychohistory is quite similar to analyzing public figures based on media accounts of their behavior. Although widely practiced, some professional mental health workers consider psychohistory to be unethical because the diagnoses offered are not based on the evaluator’s first-hand observations of the subject.
1.
In what specific ways did Abraham Lincoln display empathy?
As a child Lincoln was tenderhearted, even worrying about the welfare of a pig. Lincoln could size up what the other side was thinking. He attempted to understand proponents of slavery.
2.
In what specific ways did Abraham Lincoln display a positive attitude?
Lincoln did not get upset waiting for what appeared to be the rude General McClellan. He also forgave an alleged insult from War Secretary of State Stanton, even choosing the words, “If Stanton said I was a damn fool, then I must be one, for he is nearly always right…”
3.
How well did Abraham Lincoln appear to accept negative feedback?
As just mentioned under a positive attitude, Lincoln appeared to have profited from negative feedback. Instead of being defensive, Lincoln accepted the fact that he might have a weakness.
4.
To what extent do you think “President Abe” should have adjusted his degree of empathy and positive attitudes?
The Lincoln biographer hints that perhaps President Abe had too much empathy. He would try too hard to see what good there was in a position he did not believe in, such as slavery. He was similarly too gracious about accepting negative feedback. Why should negative feedback always be correct, and the person receiving the feedback always wrong?
Human Relations Case Problem 4.2: Does the Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer Have A Problem?
This case incident illustrates that the self-management aspect of emotional intelligence can be a problem for even a very successful person. Even if the person is successful in spite of an emotional control problem, low self-management can result in public embarrassment.
1.
If the incident is true, in what aspect of emotional intelligence might Ballmer be deficient?
As indicated above, Ballmer is deficient in the self-management aspect of emotional intelligence. The case analyst should keep in mind, however, that the same type of emotional energy that can make a person highly enthusiastic can also have negative consequences as indicated in this incident.
2.
If the incident was true what kind of treatment or assistance should Ballmer be offered?
The typical assistance offered executives with explosive tempers in executive coaching. The coach works with the executive to help him control emotional outbursts. Another possibility is to have the executive work with a psychotherapist to learn how to control outbursts. Lower-ranking workers who throw temper tantrums are more likely to be sent to the Employee Assistance Program or anger management training.
CLASS ACTIVITY
Prior to this class, break students into groups of 2-3 students. Prepare 3 X 5 cards with each of the following topics on it:
Emotional Intelligence
Positive Attitudes
Negative Attitudes
Organizational Citizenship
Happiness
(Make more than one card per topic until there are enough for each group)
Have the student groups bring in brief video clips to demonstrate the topic on their card. Groups should also be prepared to explain why they selected the clips they show.
EXAMINATION QUESTIONS
Multiple-Choice
(b)
1. The three key aspects which contribute to effective human relations are emotional intelligence, happiness, and
a.
self-esteem.
b.
attitudes.
c.
motivation.
d.
personality.
(a,b)
2. The key components of emotional intelligence include self-awareness, relationship management, (CHOOSE TWO)
a.
self-management
b.
social awareness
c.
motivation
d.
musical intelligence
(c)
3. Carol demonstrates effective self-management by
a.
working to get her way in interactions with others.
b.
blaming others when things go wrong.
c.
acting with honesty and integrity on a consistent basis.
d.
dropping projects that are too frustrating.
(d)
4. Ron communicates clearly and convincingly, disarms conflicts, and builds strong personal bonds. Ron is likely very good at
a.
musical intelligence.
b.
choosing easy projects to avoid conflict.
c.
delegating.
d.
relationship management.
(d)
5. Attitudes are an important part of human relations because they are linked to
a.
perception.
b.
motivation.
c.
relationships.
d.
all of the above.
(a)
6. Knowledge or intellectual beliefs are _______ of attitudes.
a.
cognitive components
b.
behavioral components
c.
citizenships components
d.
positive components
(c)
7. Rob makes positive statements about his students in a report to the dean. Rob is demonstrating ________ of attitudes.
a.
motivational components
b.
cognitive components
c.
behavioral components
d.
citizenship components
(b)
8. When knowledge, information, attitudes, or beliefs are contradictory, _________ is often experienced.
a.
motivation
b.
cognitive dissonance
c.
unhappiness
d.
self-esteem
(a)
9. Receiving direct instruction from someone you respect
a.
is a starting point in developing attitudes.
b.
tells you how to decide what NOT to do.
c.
makes you make poor decisions.
d.
makes you a good citizen.
(c)
10. After receiving poor service at the same restaurant on three different occasions, Andrea developed a negative attitude about the restaurant. Andrea’s attitude was the result of
a.
emotional intelligence.
b.
cognitive dissonance.
c.
conditioning.
d.
poor restaurant choices.
(a)
11. Changing your attitude about your salary upon learning that others doing the same work as you receive a much higher salary is an example of
a.
cognitions.
b.
emotional intelligence.
c.
a behavioral component of attitude.
d.
jealousy.
(b)
12. A good contributor to positive attitudes is
a.
pessimism.
b.
optimism.
c.
being a millionaire.
d.
low job satisfaction.
(a,b)
13. When employees are in a positive mood, they likely to be (CHOOSE TWO):
a.
more motivated to perform well.
b.
more creative.
c.
more anxious to get off from work.
d.
more likely to argue with coworkers.
(d)
14. Workers with positive attitudes are likely to
a.
be liked by customers.
b.
receive good performance reviews.
c.
be promoted.
d.
all of the above.
(a,c)
15. Two emotional states contributing to better customer service, less absenteeism and tardiness, less turnover, and higher productivity are (CHOOSE TWO):
a.
positive attitudes.
b.
good performance reviews.
c.
job satisfaction.
d.
pessimism.
(b)
16. Flexible working hours, recognition rewards, company picnics, financial bonuses, time off for birthdays, and on-site child care are examples of possible company initiatives to:
a.
get employees to work more hours.
b.
foster job satisfaction.
c.
be liked by customers.
d.
take advantage of employees.
(c)
17. Al is always willing to go above and beyond his job description to help the company. Al is an example of
a.
a millionaire.
b.
a fool.
c.
a good organizational citizen.
d.
someone who is about to retire.
(d)
18. According to the spheres of life model, happiness occurs when
a.
the two hemispheres of the brain support each other.
b.
a person has at least six spheres of life.
c.
the six spheres of life are spinning rapidly.
d.
the various components of life work together in harmony.
(b,d)
19. Two of the six spheres are (CHOOSE TWO):
a.
optimism.
b.
work and career.
c.
pessimism.
d.
spiritual life or belief system.
(a)
20. An important contributor to happiness is to
a.
live with what you cannot change.
b.
change yourself to meet society’s aesthetic standards.
c.
establish goals for changing conditions that are difficult to change.
d.
avoid vigorous physical exercise.
(b)
21. A survey about happiness conducted with over 6,000 adults indicated that
a.
happiness stems from having a thrill everyday.
b.
lasting happiness stems from satisfying basic values or desires.
c.
five daily doses of dopamine are needed for happiness.
d.
happiness begins a steady decline after age 35.
(d)
22. Which one of the following is the most major contributor to happiness?
a.
attaining a goal per day
b.
leading the Net lifestyle
c.
having a regular recreation
d.
leading a meaningful life
(c)
23. The purpose of the five principles of psychological functioning is to
a.
learn how to juggle the spheres of life.
b.
act as a guide to deal with difficult people.
c.
act as a guide toward achieving inner happiness.
d.
overcome adversity in everyday life.
(a)
24. According to one of the principles of psychological functioning, the present moment
a.
is where people find happiness and inner peace.
b.
brings about more conflict for people than does the past.
c.
controls our moods.
d.
creates separate psychological realities.
True/False
(T)
25. People with high emotional intelligence are able to behave in ways that influence others.
(F)
26. Todd is very good at knowing when has pushed someone too far. Todd probably does NOT have good self-awareness.
(T)
27. A team leader with social awareness would be able to determine whether a team member has enough enthusiasm for a project to complete it.
(T)
28. Positive political skills are an element of emotional intelligence.
(T)
29. Affective components of attitudes refers to feelings or emotions.
(F)
30. Attitudes are rarely based on experience.
(F)
31. Mike is a very optimistic person. Therefore, it is likely that Mike generally harbors negative attitudes.
(T)
32. The negative side to workers “putting on a happy face” is that it can lead to stress, burnout, and job dissatisfaction.
(F)
33. Negativity and cynicism on the job is never helpful, even in jobs such as auditor or store detective.
(T)
34. Attitudes can be changed by reversing the processes by which they were formed.
(F)
35. Happiness can lead to self-obsession and inactivity.
(T)
36. Happier people have better physical health, achieve ore career success, work harder, and are more caring and socially engaged.
(F)
37. The spheres in the sphere of life model of happiness refer to the different stages in life most pass through.
(T)
38. Although many people may have similar spheres of life, the importance they attach to each sphere may differ substantially.
(F)
39. Financial health is NOT included in the six spheres of life important for happiness.
(T)
40. Finding a life partner is one of the keys to happiness.
(T)
41. Self-esteem is important to happiness because self-love must come before love for others.
(T)
42. Jim works hard at something he enjoys. Jim has found one of the keys to happiness.
(F)
43. Being fair, kind, and trusting of others does NOT lead to happiness, because they tend to take advantage of you.
(T)
44. June engages in recreational fun on a weekly basis, which likely helps her to be happy.
(T)
45. People in rich countries are NOT consistently happier than people in poor countries.
(T)
46. Developing the skill to ignore bad moods will contribute to healthy psychological functioning.
(T)
47. If your feelings turn negative suddenly, you know that your thinking is dysfunctional.
48. The DuBrin text listed four examples of good emotional intelligence applications in the workplace. Write a paragraph of how you have applied emotional intelligence while at work.
Answer: Answers should include how the student has applied emotional intelligence while at work.
The four examples by Dubrin were:
1.
Recognizing when a coworker needs help but is too embarrassed to ask
2.
Dealing with the anger of a dissatisfied customer
3.
Recognizing that the boss is under considerable pressure also
4.
Being able to tell whether a customer’s “maybe” means “yes” or “no”
(Students answers may vary, but be along these same lines)
49. In his book How to Win Friends and Influence People, Dale Carnegie presented suggestions for becoming a positive, friendlier person. Describe three of the nine suggestions, and give examples of ways you can apply them in your own life.
Answer: Answers should include three of the nine suggestions for becoming a positive, friendlier person, with examples of how the student will apply them in their own life.
Dale Carnegie’s suggestions include:
1.
Don’t criticize, condemn, or complain
2.
Give honest, sincere appreciation
3.
Arouse in the other person an eager want
4.
Become genuinely interested in other people
5.
Smile
6.
Remember that a person’s name is to that person the sweetest and most important sound in any language
7.
Be a good listener – encourage others to talk about themselves
8.
Talk in terms of the other person’s interests
9.
Make the other person feel important – and do it sincerely
50. The DuBrin text presented thirteen keys to happiness. Describe three of the keys and give and example from your own life on how you will apply them.
Answer: Answers should include three of the keys to happiness, with examples of how the student will apply them in their own life.
The keys to happiness include:
1.
Give high priority to the pursuit of happiness
2.
Experience love and friendship and find a life partner
3.
Develop a sense of self-esteem
4.
Work hard at what you enjoy and achieve the flow experience
5.
Appreciate the joys of day-to-day living
6.
Be fair, kind, helpful, and trusting of others
7.
Have recreational fun in your life
8.
Learn to cope with grief, disappointment, setbacks, and stress
9.
Live with what you cannot change
10.
Energize yourself through physical fitness
11.
Satisfy your most important values
12.
Earn enough money to avoid feeling miserable
13.
Lead a meaningful life
CHAPTER 3
SELF-MOTIVATION AND GOAL SETTING
CHAPTER OUTLINE AND LECTURE NOTES
You have to be well motivated to achieve success in work and personal life. Being well motivated facilitates achieving high productivity and quality, and is also necessary for career survival.
I.
HOW NEEDS AND MOTIVES INFLUENCE MOTIVATION
People have needs and motives that propel them toward achieving certain goals. Needs are defined as an internal striving or urge to do something, while motives are defined as inner drives that move a person to do something.
A.
The Need Theory of Motivation
Unsatisfied needs motivate us until they become satisfied. The need cycle as shown in Figure 3-1 provides an ample explanation: Need Drive Actions Satisfaction. The need cycle repeats itself, making it difficult to every truly satisfy people.
B.
Important Needs and Motives People Attempt to Satisfy
Work and personal life offer the opportunity to satisfy dozens of needs and motives.
1.
Achievement. A strong achievement need leads people to find joy in accomplishment for its own sake. Workers with strong achievement needs prefer personal responsibility, feedback, and moderate risks.
2.
Power. People with a high need for power feel compelled to control resources such as other people and money.
3.
Affiliation. People with a strong affiliation need seek out close relationships with others and tend to be a loyal friend or employee.
4.
Recognition. People with a strong need for recognition want to be acknowledged for their contribution and efforts.
5.
Order. People with a strong need for order have the urge to put things in order.
6.
Risk Taking and Thrill Seeking. People with a strong need for risk taking and thrill seeking need crave constant excitement, and are driven to a life of stimulation and risk taking. Have students complete The Risk Taking Scale self-assessment quiz 3-1 for an indication of their risk taking tendencies.
C.
Maslow’s Need Hierarchy
Maslow’s need hierarchy is the best-known categorization of needs. People strive to satisfy the following groups of needs in step-by-step order: (1) physiological, (2) safety, (3) social, (4) esteem, and (5) self-actualizing. See Figure 3-3 for a diagram of Maslow’s need hierarchy.
The higher the level of need, the less likely it is to be satisfied. People will put forth substantial effort if they think the goal they pursue will satisfy an important need. However, they must first identify the need or needs they really want to satisfy. See figure 3-4 in the text for a ranking of job satisfaction factors among employees .
Visit the ACCEL Team website for much more information regarding employee motivation at http://www.accel-team.com/motivation/intro.html.
Visit the Motivation Tool Chest website for information, downloads, and activities on motivation at http://www.motivation-tools.com/
Visit Motivation 123 to get a free motivation kit and much more information on motivation at http://www.motivation123.com/
II.
GOALS AND MOTIVATION
Almost all successful people set goals and write them down. A goal is an event, circumstance, object, or condition a person strives to attain.
A.
Advantages of Goals
Goals are useful because they: (a) provide a consistent direction, (b) improve the chances for success, and (c) serve as self-motivators and energizers. Combined with self-efficacy, the contribution of goals is even more pronounced.
B.
The Learning and Proving Orientation Toward Goals
Goals can be aimed at either learning or performing.
A learning-goal orientation means than an individual is focused on acquiring new skills and mastering new situations. A proving-goal orientation is aimed at wanting to demonstrate and validate the adequacy of one’s competence by seeking favorable judgments about one’s competence. People with a learning-goal orientation are more likely to seek feedback on how well they are performing. Attempting to master skills often leads to better results than does attempting to impress others.
A study of sales representatives in the medical supply field demonstrated that a learning-goal orientation was associated with higher sales performance. In contrast, a proving-goal orientation was unrelated to sales performance. An important implication of this study is that a focus on skill development, even for an experienced workforce, is likely to lead to higher performance.
III.
GOAL SETTING ON THE JOB
Goal setting is important in both profit and nonprofit firms, especially in technical, professional, and managerial jobs. Executives set high-level (or strategic) goals. Workers at lower levels establish goals that support the top-level goals. An important part of goal setting, both on and off the job, is priority setting. You pursue with more diligence those goals that can have the biggest impact on performance or are the most important to top management.
IV.
PERSONAL GOAL SETTING
If you want to lead a rewarding personal life, your chances increase if you plan it. Personal goals heavily influence the formulation of career goals as well. Integrating personal goals and career goals helps one achieve balance in life.
A.
Types of Personal Goals
Personal goals can be subdivided into social and family, hobbies and interests, physical and mental health, career, and financial.
B.
Action Plans to Support Goals
An action plan specifies the steps that must be taken to reach the goal.
V.
GUIDELINES FOR GOAL SETTING
Suggestions for setting effective goals include:
1.
Formulate Specific Goals. Vague goals may delay action.
2.
Formulate Concise Goals. Use a short, punchy statement.
3.
Set Realistic Goals as Well as Stretch Goals. A realistic goal represents the right amount of challenge for the person pursuing the goal. The higher a person’s self-efficacy, the more likely he or she will think that a goal is realistic. Several goals that stretch your capability might be included in your list of goals as well.
5.
Set Goals for Different Time Periods. Include daily, short-range, medium-range, and long-range goals.
Visit the Mind Tools website for much more information on goal setting at http://www.mindtools.com/page6.html
Find a guide for SMART Goal Setting at http://www.goal-setting-guide.com/smart-goals.html
VI.
PROBLEMS SOMETIMES CREATED BY GOALS
A major problem is that goals can create inflexibility. Goals can contribute to a narrow focus, thus neglecting other worthwhile activities. Performance goals can sometimes detract from an interest in the task. Another problem is that goals can interfere with relaxation.
VII.
SELF-MOTIVATION TECHNIQUES
Identifying your most important needs could enhance motivation. Seven other techniques are also important.
1.
Set goals for yourself. Goal setting is fundamental to motivation.
2.
Find intrinsically motivating work. Intrinsic motivation refers to the natural tendency to seek out novelty and challenges, to extend and use one’s capacities, to explore, and to learn.
3.
Get feedback on your performance. Feedback acts as a reward.
4.
Apply behavior modification to yourself. In using behavior modification, remember that self-rewards may be more effective than self-punishments in sustaining the right behavior.
5.
Improve your skills relevant to your goals. According to the expectancy theory of motivation, people need confidence in their skills to be motivated. They will be motivated if they believe that their efforts will lead to desired outcomes.
6.
Raise your level of self-expectation. The Galatea effect is the technical term for improving performance through raising one’s expectations for themselves.
7.
Develop a strong work ethic. If you are committed to the idea that most work is valuable and that it is joyful to work hard, you will automatically become strongly motivated.
8.
Develop psychological hardiness. A comprehensive approach to becoming better self-motivated would be to develop a mental state in which the individual experiences a high degree of commitment, control, and challenge.
Visit the Solve Your Problem website for a 7 step process to improve self motivation at http://www.solveyourproblem.com/artman/publish/article_902.shtml
VIII.
DEVELOPING THE SELF-DISCIPLINE TO ACHIEVE GOALS AND STAY MOTIVATED
Achieving goals and staying motivated requires self-discipline, the ability to work systematically and progressively toward a goal until it is achieved. Self-discipline incorporates self-motivation because it enables you to motivate yourself to achieve goals without being nagged or prodded with deadlines. The components to the self-discipline model are as follows:
1.
Formulate a mission statement related to your life.
2.
Develop role models of self-disciplined achievers.
3.
Develop goals for each task.
4.
Develop action plans to achieve goals.
5.
Use visual and sensory stimulation. Self-disciplined people form mental images of the act of accomplishing what they want. It is best to incorporate many senses.
6.
Search for pleasure within the task. A self-disciplined person finds joy, excitement, and intense involvement in the task at hand (intrinsic motivation).
7.
Compartmentalize spheres of life. Self-disciplined people have a remarkable capacity to divide up (compartmentalize) the various spheres of life to stay focused on what they are doing at the moment.
8.
Minimize excuse making. Self-disciplined people concentrate their energies on goal accomplishment rather than making excuses for why work is not accomplished.
Students can learn about their degree of self-discipline by completing the Self-
Discipline Quiz self-assessment 3-2 in the text.
ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING
1. How would the need theory of motivation explain the fact that shortly after accomplishing an important goal many people begin thinking about their next possible goal?
An implication of the need theory is that people never achieve permanent satisfaction. As they satisfy whatever needs a goal is related to, they want even greater doses of that satisfaction. Or, they might want to move closer toward self-actualization after reaching a goal gives partial satisfaction of the self-actualization need.
2. One of the biggest issues in labor-management relationships today is that workers want employers to pay more of their health-care insurance. What does this issue tell us about the importance of satisfying the lower-level needs of workers?
Health insurance benefits represent a safety need for most people, which is one of the lower level needs in Maslow’s hierarchy. According to Maslow’s theory, workers will not concentrate on higher level needs until their lower level needs have been met. Therefore, if companies want their employees to be more motivated in the workplace, they need to satisfy their basic need for health insurance coverage.
3. How might having a strong need for affiliation retard a person’s career advancement?
People with a strong need for affiliation often have such a strong need for group acceptance that they are hesitant to break away from the pack. In turn, this makes
them less eligible for transfer or promotion. Also, some people with strong affiliation needs do not want to be appointed as supervisor, so as to avoid conflict with group members.
4. Identify any self-actualized person you know and explain why you think that person is self-actualized.
An insightful answer here would refer to a person of substantial accomplishment who has apparently squeezed exceptional use out of his or her potential. The accomplishment would not have to include substantial financial gain.
5. Why does a mastery a learning-goal orientation often contribute to more peace of mind that a proving-goal orientation?
People with a learning goal orientation, search for the inner satisfaction that derives from acquiring new knowledge or skill. If they achieve their learning goals, they attain such satisfaction. People who have a proving-goal orientation, however, have to worry about performing well and pleasing others. Performing well enough to please others is less under one’s control than learning, or mastering new situations.
6. Why is self-motivation so important even when you have a job skill that is in high demand?
Virtually all organizations have come to realize the importance of setting goals in attaining results. However, goals set by an organization and those set by managers are less valuable in increasing individual employee productivity than those set by the employee themselves. Setting one’s own goals creates buy in, and results in improved performance.
7. Give examples of two jobs in your chosen field you think are likely to be intrinsically motivating. Explain your reasoning.
The student will have to reflect deeply about work in his or her field to answer this question. He or she needs to identify work that is fun and challenging for most people, such as a packaging engineering technician meeting with a customer to discuss how to make a package more accessible for people with arthritis. Every field has some jobs that are intrinsically motivating.
8. Explain how you might be able to use the Galatea effect to improve the success you achieve in career and personal life.
To capitalize upon the Galatea effect, a person would have to raise his or her self-expectations for both career and personal life. An unattached person, for example, might say “I fully expect to meet a loving, caring, and successful person as my life partner.”
9. What sacrifices might a highly self-disciplined person have to make in contrast to a lowly self-disciplined person?
The highly self-disciplined person will sometimes have to postpone gratification of a need in the short-range, such as giving up fulfilling social needs for a night so as to make progress on an important project. However, in the long-run the self-disciplined person will have more fun because of a mind less cluttered with unfinished tasks, and the fact that he or she will have more money to spend on their social life.
10. Ask a person who has achieved career success how much self-discipline contributed to his or her success.
Students are likely to find that the successful person with whom they speak believes that self-discipline contributed heavily to his or her success.
COMMENTS ON EXERCISES AND THE CASE
Human Relations Self-Assessment Quiz 3-1: The Risk-Taking Scale
Mulling over the questions provides useful insight into risk taking. Extreme scores are probably the most indicative of risk-taking tendencies. As with most psychometric instruments, the answer to one question alone may not be a valid indicator of the trait being measured by the instrument. The total score or pattern is more indicative. Question 1 about a preference for sushi or other raw fish is a good example of the answer to one question contributing to a trend. Consuming raw fish can be poisonous, even if the percentage of raw fish eaters poisoned is small. Yet if the sushi eater also talks on the cell phone while driving at highway speeds, and goes cave exploring, he or she is a risk taker.
Talking about the results of the risk-taking scale creates another opportunity for emphasizing how risk taking influences career choice and job behavior. Many students are unaware that many business activities satisfy the need for risk taking. When asked to give an example of a high-risk occupation, they can only think of auto racing, fire fighting, and similar occupations.
Human Relations Self-Assessment Quiz 3-2: The Self-Discipline Quiz
Taking the self-discipline quiz can be illuminating because the popular notion of self-discipline is that it involves considerable self-sacrifice, even self-punishment. As with most of the self quizzes in Career and Personal Success, the statements or questions in the quiz are based on symptoms of people displaying the construct (concept or personality dimension) being measured. The rationale underlying individual statements might be worth of discussion. Here are two examples:
8.
“My days rarely turn out as planned.” For the self-disciplined person, days usually turn out as planned. Each day, he or she has goals that must be attained. The self-disciplined person is highly focused.
18.
“I get bored easily.” Self-disciplined people are almost never bored because they always have important goals to pursue. However, if blocked from reaching an important goal, such as being stuck in traffic or having to attend a meeting headed nowhere, the self-disciplined person might become restless.
The research presented toward the end of the chapter suggests that the Self-Discipline Quiz is measuring something of value, or that the quiz is valid.
Human Relations Skill-Building Exercise 3.1: Goal Setting and Action Plan Worksheet
It may arouse student interest to point out that his exercise can be a turning point in one’s life. It is based on the fact that setting goals improves the chances for success. Dividing goals into time periods, such as long-term, intermediate-term, and short-term remains a useful perspective. We have provided sample goals and action plans for each time category of goals because setting goals and action plans is more complicated than would appear on the surface. A major problem many students have is being specific enough about goals and action plans. Many people say, for example, that they hope to open their own business in the future. Yet they have not even identified the field in which they would like to operate the business, or what skills and contacts they would need to ever own a business.
Human Relations Skill-Building Exercise 3.2: Need Identification among Members of Generations X and Y
The exercise is duplicated below with plausible answers inserted in italics.
Following is a list of work preferences characteristic among members of Generations X and Y (collectively people born since 1965). Identify what psychological need or needs might be reflected in each work preference. Jot down the needs right after the work preference on the line indicated.
They like variety, not doing the same thing every workday.
The need for achievement is definitely reflect here; self-fulfillment is another strong possibility.
Part of their career goals is to face new challenges and opportunities. It’s not all based on money, but on growth and learning.
Again we see an indication of the need for achievement, and most likely moving toward self-actualization needs.
They want jobs that are cool, fun, and fulfilling.
A need for self-fulfillment is evident here, and possibility some indication of a need for risk taking and thrill seeking with the reference to fun. Social needs might also be reflected here in terms of the quest for fun.
They believe that if they keep growing and learning then that’s all the security they need. Advancing their skill set and continuous learning is their top priority.
Here we see a clear indication of the needs for achievement and self-fulfillment, and most likely self-actualization needs also.
They have a tremendous thirst for knowledge.
A thirst for knowledge is another tip off that members of Generations X and Y are seeking to satisfy needs for achievement and perhaps self-actualization. A thirst for knowledge also has a tinge of thrill seeking associated with it.
Unlike many baby boomers, who tend to work independently, members of Generations X and Y like to work in a team environment.
A preference for working in a team environment indicates that the young people are attempting to satisfy social needs, especially affiliation.
They prefer learning by doing and making mistakes as they go along.
Once again, we find evidence of attempting to satisfy the needs for achievement and self-fulfillment.
They are apt to challenge established ways of doing things, reasoning that there is always a better way.
Here we see some evidence of attempting to satisfy the need for risk taking and thrill seeking, along with achievement.
They want regular, frequent feedback on job performance.
Wanting feedback on performance suggests a strong need for recognition. The achievement need might be reflected here also, because feedback lets us know if we are accomplishing something worthwhile.
Career improvement is a blend of life and job balance.
Social needs and love needs are reflected in a desire for a blend of life and job balance. Needs for power and recognition are also evident because members of Generations X and Y also want a successful career.
Questions
1.
How well does the analysis just presented apply to you? Do the statements above fit your work preferences?
Careful self-reflection is required to answer this question. The social desirability factor would most likely come into play here because the stereotyped demands of Generations X and Y are socially desirable—indicative of want the respondent should say.
2.
What needs are you (or will you) be attempting to satisfy on the job? How do you know?
Careful self-reflection is called for again. Workers at the various life stages may have less bravado than two decades ago because of all the downsizing, outsourcing, and sending jobs offshore in recent years. A secure job with good benefits is back in vogue, giving people an opportunity to satisfy physiological and security needs.
Human Relations Case Problem 3.1: Motivating the Staff at HRPro
The case about the human resources project manager and her staff illustrates the importance of individual differences in motivating people. Different workers want different motivators. The case also illustrates the diagnostic approach to motivating others.
1.
What needs are Conway, Wang, and Sanchez attempting to satisfy?
If Conway is telling the truth, she has strong needs for achievement and power. She wants to become the CEO of an outsourcing company which clearly indicates her need for power. She talks more about advancing than learning which could also indicate a need for power. Wang is achievement oriented. He wants to learn and accomplish more. Also, his desire to get out of a routine suggests at least a moderate need for risk taking and thrill seeking. Sanchez appears to have strong needs for security and order. She wants some stability in her career.
2.
Make a suggestion to Sheldon and her manager for motivating Conway, Wang, and Sanchez.
The suggestions for motivating the three workers would stem from the needs expressed in the responses of the three people to Sheldon’s question about motivation. Conway can be best motivated by the prospects of promotion or perhaps a more impressive job title. Wang can best be motivated by the opportunity for new learning and professional growth. Sanchez can best be motivated by offering job stability and job security as a reward for good or exceptional performance.
3.
Should Sheldon have asked each staff member exactly the same question in order to understand more clearly their potential motivators?
A standard question would have been helpful, because if the same question is asked differently, it may not be perceived as the same question. For example the question, “What do you want from this company?” may elicit quite different information than “What would motivate you to work harder?” The respondent might want better benefits, but he or she might be motivated by exciting assignments.
Human Relations Case Problem 3.2: How Self-Disciplined is Gus?
We like Gus. He is so self-disciplined, yet he must guard against being a little abrupt with people because of his work focus.
1.
Which elements of the self-discipline model is Gus applying?
Gus has a mission, or at least he has incorporated the company mission of making environmentally friendly products. He certainly searches for pleasure within the task as he helps improve the planet through his efforts. Gus is also compartmentalizing parts of life because he is not willing to engage in small talk when it is time for professional work.
2.
To what extent might Cora have a self-discipline problem?
Cora gives a couple of serious clues that she has a self-discipline problem. It is difficult for her to understand how somebody could not get bored “just sitting in front of the computer all day?.” Attempting to engage Gus in small talk would suggest a lack of a total focus on her work, even if engaging in small talk is workplace behavior. Recent studies by salary.com suggest that American workers waste about 20 percent of the work day, including small talk and computer surfing.
ARTICLE REVIEW ASSIGNMENT
Students seem to relate well to the concepts of self-motivation and goal setting, and are often interested to learn how they can improve their skills in these areas. Following is an article review assignment designed to give students an opportunity to examine their own techniques for self-motivation and goal setting and to explore new ideas to enhance their skills.
ARTICLE REVIEW
1.
Choose an article in a newspaper, magazine, or on the internet that discusses self-motivation and goal setting.
2.
Submit a 3 page report detailing the following:
a.
Summary of the article
b.
Description of how the article relates to psychology (especially chapter 3)
c.
Your reactions to the article
d.
Effective techniques you have previously used in self-motivation and goal setting for yourself
e.
New ideas you will try in the areas of self-motivation and goal setting after reading chapter 3 in the text and your article
Article Review Grading Rubric
Score
Section A Review the Article
5-6 points Explained the major points in detail, in own words, incorporating course terminology as appropriate
3 – 4 points Explained major points in own terms
0 – 2 points Explained the main point of the article – no detail
Section B Relate Article to Psychology
5 – 6 points Explained how the major points related to the course in detail incorporating course terminology and concepts as appropriate
3 – 4 points Explained major points with some use of course terminology and concepts as appropriate
0 – 2 points Explained at least one application to the course
Section C Personal View of Article
5 – 6 points Thorough explanation of personal views of the article concepts and author’s perceptions vs. own
3 – 4 points Explained personal view of at least 2 of the author’s concepts that you agreed or disagreed with
0 – 2 points Explained at least one reason that you agreed or disagreed with the author’s concepts
Section D Your Self-Motivation and Goal Setting Techniques
5 – 6 points Thorough explanation of techniques previously used and new ideas
3 – 4 points Explained at least 2 previous techniques and one new idea
0 – 2 points Explained at least one previous technique and/or one new idea
Section D Submission
5 pts. Submitted on the due date
2 pts. Submitted late, but within one week of due date
Section E Nuts & Bolts
1 pt. ea. Correct grammar, punctuation & spelling
1 pt. ea. Neat, clean, readable presentation
1 – 2 Meets minimum page requirement of three pages
Total Pts. Maximum 33 Points
EXAMINATION QUESTIONS
Multiple-Choice
(d)
1. You have to be motivated and establish goals to
a.
achieve success in your career and personal life.
b.
improve the quality of life.
c.
influence others to get things accomplished.
d.
all of the above.
(a)
2. According to the need theory of motivation, unsatisfied needs motivate us until they
a.
become satisfied.
b.
become frustrated.
c.
lead to working hard.
d.
lead to self-esteem.
(c)
3. Jen’s strong need for achievement is characterized by
a.
a desire to control others.
b.
a desire to achieve friendships.
c.
joy in accomplishment for its own sake.
d.
happiness with modest accomplishments.
(d)
4. Being part of the “office gang” most directly satisfies the need for
a.
power.
b.
achievement.
c.
self-actualization.
d.
affiliation.
(c)
5. High level executives of companies often have strong ________ needs.
a.
helping.
b.
order.
c.
power.
d.
safety.
(b)
6. During a high technology era, the need for taking risks and pursuing thrills
a.
is usually frustrated because information technology lowers risks.
b.
has grown in importance.
c.
has largely replaced the need for affiliation in importance.
d.
is categorized as a lower-level, physiological need.
(a)
7. Which of the following group of needs tends to be the most frequently satisfied?
a.
safety and security.
b.
esteem .
c.
belongingness and love.
d.
self-actualization.
(c)
8. An important contribution of goals to your life is that they prevent a
_______________ of effort.
a.
focusing
b.
concentration
c.
scattering
d.
curtailment
(a)
9. A cognitive explanation of why goals are motivational centers around the idea that goals
a.
create a state of dissatisfaction.
b.
are comforting to the person.
c.
create a state of euphoria.
d.
lead to a state of physiological arousal.
(c)
10. A person with a learning-goal orientation would
a.
prefer new learning to a high income.
b.
want to prove his or her own competency.
c.
establish a goal for learning new skills.
d.
attempt to impress others through good performance.
(a)
11. Otto has a strong proving-goal orientation, so he is likely to
a.
seek feedback that he is doing a wonderful job.
b.
be highly absorbed in his work.
c.
focus on acquiring new skills.
d.
focus on mastering new situations.
(d)
12. According to the technique of goal setting on the job, the worker
a.
tells the superior which goals should have the highest priority.
b.
gives the highest priority to goals that fit his or her values.
c.
pursues diligently goals that he or she finds most important.
d.
pursues diligently goals that are most important to management.
(a)
13. Michael understands the importance of developing an action plan in goal setting is to
a.
describe a method for reaching the goal.
b.
establish rewards for attaining the goal.
c.
establish penalties for not attaining the goal.
d.
regulate the difficulty of the goal.
(d)
14. A realistic goal is one that
a.
includes money as well as happiness.
b.
is relatively easy to attain.
c.
matches the employer’s desires.
d.
regulates the right amount of challenge.
(b)
15. People who set goals tend to be motivated because
a.
they get paid more money.
b.
they believe their energy is being invested in something worthwhile.
c.
they only set easy to reach goals.
d.
they never fail to reach a goal.
(c)
16. With respect to goal setting, a person with high self-efficacy is likely to
a.
avoid goal setting.
b.
set very low goals.
c.
think that more goals are realistic.
d.
think that fewer goals are realistic.
(a)
17. Jileen rewards herself for doing something right. This is an example of
a.
behavior modification.
b.
goal setting.
c.
raising your self-expectations.
d.
getting feedback on your performance.
(a)
18. An important implication of expectancy theory for self-motivation is that
a.
people should acquire the training they need.
b.
a positive mental attitude is more important than training.
c.
people should choose their own rewards.
d.
challenging work is an effective motivator.
(a)
19. To use the Galatea effect to improve her self-esteem, Sue would have to
a.
raise her self-expectations.
b.
lower her self-expectations.
c.
set goals after a project has been completed.
d.
focus mostly on yearly goals.
(c)
20. A person who develops a strong work ethic will automatically
a.
behave in a highly ethical manner.
b.
develop a learning-goal orientation.
c.
be strongly motivated.
d.
be qualified for a supervisory position.
(d)
21. A key characteristic of self-disciplined people is that they
a.
impose punishment and suffering on themselves.
b.
rebel against goals set by management.
c.
find very little joy in working.
d.
work toward attaining goals without being distracted.
(b)
22. The first step in the self-discipline model is to
a.
develop role models.
b.
formulate a mission statement.
c.
compartmentalize spheres of life.
d.
search for pleasure within the task.
(c)
23. A self-disciplined person experiences considerable
a.
day-by-day suffering.
b.
distractions while attempting to achieve goals.
c.
intrinsic motivation.
d.
stress based on working so hard.
(a)
24. An important component of self-discipline is
a.
minimize excuse making.
b.
say no to every request made of you.
c.
say yes to every request made of you.
d.
never take time off from work.
True/False
(T)
25. A motive is an inner drive that moves a person to do something.
(T)
26. According to the need theory of motivation, people have needs and motives that propel them toward achieving certain goals.
(T)
27. A person’s values often lead to needs that require satisfaction.
(F)
28. A person with a strong need for order and security would usually dislike hierarchy.
(T)
29. The most difficult group of needs to satisfy is the self-actualization needs.
(F)
30. Goals typically lead to a scattering of effort because the goal setter pursues several different activities at the same time.
(T)
31. Goals create a discrepancy between what exists and an ideal situation.
(T)
32. Goals that lead to a highly demanding task may create a state of over-arousal that prompts the person to back away from getting the job done.
(F)
33. A person with a learning-goal orientation is strongly interested in demonstrating his or her competency and adequacy.
(F)
34. People with a proving-goal orientation are strongly interested in obtaining feedback on their performance.
(T)
35. A study with salespeople found that a learning-goal orientation leads to higher sales performance than does a proving-goal orientation.
(T)
36. Tracking your own performance on the job can help increase the motivational impact of your goals.
(F)
37. An action plan describes what will be done if your original goal cannot be reached.
(T)
38. Effective goals state what you will be doing when you achieve your goal.
(T)
39. A realistic goal finds a mid-point between no challenge and extraordinary challenge.
(T)
40. One problem with goals is that they may lead the goal setter to avoid important activities not related to the goal.
(T)
41. A problem with goals is that they often interfere with relaxation.
(F)
42. For most people, an effective way of being self-motivated is to find work where the external rewards you receive are more important than the internal rewards from doing the work.
(T)
43. According to the expectancy theory of motivation, building your skills relevant to the job will increase your motivation.
(T)
44. Developing psychological hardiness refers to experiencing a high degree of commitment, control, and challenge.
(T)
45. Good questions to ask when formulating a personal mission statement are “Who am I?” and “What am I trying to accomplish in life?”
(F)
46. A key part of the self-discipline model is to develop general goals that are the same from task to task.
(T)
47. When using visual and sensory stimulation to help you achieve goals, it is recommended that you incorporate many senses into your visualizations.
(F)
48. The self-disciplined person who compartmentalizes spheres of life keeps several different components of life in mind at the same time when performing a task.
49. The DuBrin text presented eight techniques for self-motivation. List three of these techniques and tell how you apply them in your life.
Answer: Answers should include three of the eight techniques for self-motivation with examples of how the student will apply them in their life.
1.
Set goals for yourself.
2.
Find intrinsically motivating work.
3.
Get feedback on your performance.
4.
Apply behavior modification to yourself.
5.
Improve your skills relevant to your goals.
6.
Raise your level of self-expectation.
7.
Develop a strong work ethic.
8.
Develop psychological hardiness.
(Personal examples will vary)
50. List three of the eight components for developing self-discipline to achieve goals and stay motivated that were presented in the text, and give an example of how you apply each of the three in your life.
Answer: Answers should include three of the components for developing self-discipline to achieve goals and stay motivated with examples how the student will apply each of the three in their life.
1.
Formulate a mission statement.
2.
Develop role models.
3.
Develop goals for each task.
4.
Develop action plans to achieve goals.
5.
Use visual and sensory stimulation.
6.
Search for pleasure within the task.
7.
Compartmentalize spheres of life.
8.
Minimize excuse making.
(Personal examples will vary)
CHAPTER 2
SELF-ESTEEM AND SELF-CONFIDENCE
CHAPTER OUTLINE AND LECTURE NOTES
Self-confidence helps a person succeed in a competitive field. Two of the biggest building blocks for more effective human relations are self-esteem and self-confidence.
I.
THE NATURE OF SELF-ESTEEM, HOW IT DEVELOPS AND ITS CONSEQUENCES
An important part of understanding the self is self-esteem, the experience of feeling competent to cope with the basic challenges in life and of being worthy of happiness. Self-esteem also refers to a positive overall evaluation of oneself. Students can complete The Self-Esteem Checklist Quiz 2-1 in the text for an indication of their level of self-esteem.
A.
The Nature of Self-Esteem
Self-esteem has two interrelated components. Self-efficacy, in contrast to generalized self-confidence, is confidence in your ability to carry out a specific task. Complete the Self-Efficacy Inventory for an indication of your level of self-efficacy at http://www.ucalgary.ca/~mueller/se.html. Self-respect refers to how you think and feel about yourself. Visit the following website to learn more about self-respect and identity http://www.tir.org/metapsy/jom/083_esteem.html.
B.
The Development of Self-Esteem
Self-esteem comes from a variety of early life experiences. Childhood experiences that lead to healthy self-esteem include being praised, listened to, spoken to respectfully, and experiencing success in sports or school. Childhood experiences that lead to low self-esteem include being harshly criticized, yelled at, beaten, ignored, ridiculed, expected to be perfect, and experiencing failures in sports or school.
Although early life experiences have the major impact on the development of self-esteem, experiences in adult life also impact self-esteem.
B.
The Consequences of Self-Esteem
Self-esteem contributes to good mental health, favorable work performance and attitudes, and placing more value on achieving work goals. The combined effect of workers having high self-esteem helps a company prosper. Long-term research by Branden suggests that self-esteem is a critical source of competitive advantage in an information society. An educated workforce, high in self-esteem exhibits behaviors such as being creative and innovative, taking personal responsibility for problems, and trusting one’s own capabilities.
Low self-esteem leads to poor mental health (e.g., you are more vulnerable to insults), delinquency, poor relationships with teachers and parents, poor work attitudes, and poor performance.
The consequences of self-esteem are related to its source. Crocker found that college students who based their self-worth on external sources reported more stress, anger, academic problems, and interpersonal conflicts. Students who based their self-worth on internal sources generally received higher grades and were less likely to consume alcohol and drugs or develop eating disorders.
II.
HOW TO ENHANCE SELF-ESTEEM
Improving self-esteem is a lifelong process because self-esteem is related to the success of your activities and interaction with people.
A.
Attain Legitimate Accomplishments
To repeat, accomplishing worthwhile activities is a major contributor to self-esteem in children and adults, as follows: Person establishes a goalperson pursues the goalperson achieves the goalperson develops esteem-like feelings.
B.
Be Aware of Personal Strengths
Appreciating one’s strengths and accomplishments may increase self-esteem. A group exercise for such purposes is presented in Exercise 2-1 in the text.
C.
Minimize Settings and Interactions That Detract from Your Feelings of Competence
Minimizing exposure to situations in which the person does not feel at his or her best helps prevent lowering of self-esteem.
D.
Talk and Socialize Frequently with People who Boost Your Self-Esteem
Strong people—those with high self-esteem—will give honest feedback and help boost the esteem of others.
E.
Model the Behavior of People with High Self-Esteem
Observe the way people who are believed to have high self-esteem stand, walk, speak, and act.
III.
THE IMPORTANCE OF SELF-CONFIDENCE AND SELF-EFFICACY
Self-confidence and self-efficacy are more directly tied to task performance than is the self-respect part of self-esteem. Self-confidence stems from five sources of information.
A.
Actual Experience or Things We Have Done
Having done something before and succeeded is the most powerful way to build self-confidence.
B.
Experiences of Others or Modeling
You can gain some self-confidence by carefully observing others perform a task.
C.
Social Comparison or Comparing Yourself to Others
If you see others with similar capabilities perform a task well, your self-confidence will grow.
D.
Social Persuasion, the Process of Convincing Another Person
If a credible person convinces you that you can accomplish a task, you will often receive a boost in self-confidence large enough to give the task a try. The increase will be even higher if the encouragement is coupled with guidance.
E.
Emotional Arousal or How You Feel About Events Around You and Manage Your Emotions
People rely somewhat on inner feelings to know if they are self-confident enough to perform a task.
Students can assess their level of self-confidence with the How Confident Are You? Self-assessment Quiz 2-2 in the text.
IV.
HOW DO YOU DEVELOP AND ENHANCE YOUR SELF-CONFIDENCE?
Self-confidence is generally achieved by succeeding in a variety of situations. There are also tactics and strategies for building and elevating self-confidence.
A.
Take an Inventory of Personal Assets and Accomplishments
Personal assets should be related to characteristics and behaviors rather than tangible assets, such as a car. Accomplishments can be anything significant in which you played a key role in achieving the results.
B.
Develop a Solid Knowledge Base
Develop a base of knowledge that enables you to provide sensible alternative solutions to problems.
C.
Use Positive Self-Talk
Positive self-talk is saying positive things about yourself to yourself.
D.
Avoid Negative Self-Talk
Minimize negative statements about yourself to bolster self-confidence.
E.
Use Positive Visual Imagery
Picture a positive outcome in your mind.
F.
Set High Expectations for Yourself (The Galeta Effect)
Create your own self-fulfilling prophecy in which high expectations least to high performance. If you believe in yourself, you are more likely to succeed.
G.
Strive for Peak Performance
Display exceptional accomplishments in a given task.
H.
Bounce Back from Setbacks and Embarrassments
Resilience is a major contributor to personal effectiveness. Overcoming setbacks also builds self-confidence. Two suggestions for bouncing back are:
1.
Get past the emotional turmoil
2.
Find a creative solution to your problem
Visit the Mind Tools website at http://www.mindtools.com/selfconf.html to learn more about building self-confidence.
ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING
1.
Do you see any relationship between a person having loads of tattoos all over the body and his or her self-esteem? Explain your reasoning.
People may surmise someone who is covering themselves with tattoos may be trying to hide themselves from the outside world due to a lack of self-confidence or self-esteem. Many people would also consider covering one’s body with tattoos as having a lack of respect for themselves. Of course, others may see the practice as being creative and innovative, so it would be wise to learn more about the person before making any judgments.
2.
A study by economists indicated that workers with higher levels of self-esteem tended to be more productive. What would be an explanation for this finding?
As observed by psychologist Eugene Raudsepp, no single factor is as important to career success as self-esteem. People with positive self-esteem understand their own competence and worth, and have positive perceptions of their abilities to cope with problems and adversity. These traits would definitely help an employee to be more productive.
3.
Having workers with high self-esteem is supposed to give a company a competitive edge. If you were responsible for hiring a few new workers, how you evaluate a given applicant’s level of self-esteem?
Interview observations would be a likely source of information. Clues to high self-esteem would include positive self-statements, statement indicating pride in past accomplishments, and the lack of insults about other people.
4.
How might you improve your self-efficacy for a specific job that you are performing?
An essential way to improve self-efficacy would be to practice a skill until mastery is achieved. Receiving training and coaching would be helpful. The skill mastery would also boost self-confidence in a small way, enabling the person to complete the task more confidently.
5.
A study mentioned in this chapter showed that people with high self-esteem are sometimes intolerant of people quite different from themselves. How would you explain these findings?
It is possible that a person with an exaggerated sense of self-esteem actually lacks self-confidence and is acting as though they have high self-esteem as a cover up. It is also possible, as a controversial study in England found, that some people high in self-esteem have an unrealistic sense of themselves and feel above reproach. The intolerance associated with high self-esteem might also be a product of smugness. If self-esteem becomes too high, the person might think that he or she is a standard of excellence and that other people are of lesser caliber.
6.
When you meet another person, on what basis do you conclude that he or she is self-confident?
One indicator of self-confidence is the way a person presents themselves. This could involve their posture, voice projection, grooming, eye contact and smiling. Other indicators of self-confidence are performing well in most situations, willingness to offer advice to others, willingness to make decisions and try new things, and considering oneself a winner.
7.
What positive self-talk can you use after you have failed on a major assignment?
You could give yourself credit for being willing to take on the assignment. You could list all of the lessons you learned that will better prepare you for a major assignment in the future. You could think about all of the assignments you have succeeded at. And you could remind yourself that everyone makes mistakes.
8.
In what ways does your program of studies contribute to building your self-esteem and self-confidence?
Student will have various answers for this question, but the most common one is doing well on their coursework (assignments, tests, projects) builds their confidence that they can continue to do well, and it makes them feel better about themselves, resulting in higher self-esteem.
9.
Many pharmaceutical firms actively recruit cheerleaders as sales representatives to call on doctors to recommend their brand of prescription drugs. The firms in question say that cheerleaders make good sales reps because they are so self-confident. What is your opinion on this controversial issue?
Student opinions are likely to vary widely on this issue. One key point to consider is whether pharmaceutical companies should be using tactics such as this versus using solid information based on research to sell their prescription drugs. Another key point is what skills should be expected from a sales rep for a pharmaceutical company.
10.
Interview a person whom you perceive to have a successful career. Ask that person to describe how he or she developed high self-esteem. Be prepared to discuss your findings in class.
Most likely the student findings will corroborate the idea that high self-esteem came about because of the person’s many successes, often beginning way back in their childhood. Many successful people will also say that having high self-esteem to begin with contributed to their career success.
COMMENTS ON EXERCISES AND CASES
Human Relations Self-Assessment Quiz 2-1: The Self-Esteem Checklist
The term self-esteem has become part of general knowledge, so most students already has some belief that self-esteem is important part of human functioning. An advantage of this instrument is that it helps sensitize students to many of the symptoms of high self-esteem and low self-esteem. You might solicit student opinion on which statement they think indicates the lowest self-esteem. How about, number 17? “People who would want to become my friend usually would not have much to offer.” Another potential indicator of very low self-esteem is question 19, “I’m just an ordinary person.”
It could be worth mentioning that situational forces can sometimes affect self-esteem. Students who have had a series of recent defeats such as flunking an exam, being rejected for a job, or being dumped in a relationship might have a low score that is not representative of their typical self-attitudes. Conversely, students who have had a recent series of victories might have an artificially high score on the Self-Esteem Checklist.
Human Relations Self-Assessment Quiz 2-2: How Self-Confident Are You?
An important contribution of this self-quiz is that it reinforces the idea that a very high standing on a personality dimension is not always the best. In this situation, self-confidence that is too high might lead to an arrogant attitude that interferes with smooth interpersonal relationships. Thinking about self-confidence is important because it is such an important dimension of behavior.
The concept of self-confidence has high face validity for students because it relates to an aspect of behavior that directly affects their success in school, job performance, and social life. It may prove instructive to discuss why several of the ten statements relate to self-confidence. For example, statement 1, “I frequently say to people, ‘I’m not sure'” tells a lot about self-confidence. A person who is low on self-confidence is literally not sure. Statement 9 (“I’m much more of a winner than a loser”) is another useful topic for class discussion. A self-confidence person is much more likely to perceive that he or she is a winner.
Human Relations Skill-Building Exercise 2.1: The Self-Esteem Building Club
Here is an opportunity for students of human relations to do some constructive field work without spending a lot of time or money. It might be true that the members of the self-esteem building club might not be able to permanently boost a person’s self-esteem through one act of positive reinforcement. Nevertheless, rewarding people for legitimate accomplishment is one step in the right direction. If people are rewarded frequently for legitimate accomplishment, their self-esteem will elevate.
The attempts at building self-esteem may not lead to visible changes in the target for several reasons. One problem is that the person receiving the intended self-esteem booster may not respond, thinking that it was part of his or her responsibility to perform the act. Following the example given in the text about self-esteem building, the custodial worker might think that turning in a ring is expected behavior. (He or she is a good organizational citizen.) Another potential mishap with the attempts at building self-esteem is that the reward might be administered in a mechanical, unfeeling way, much like leaving an obligatory tip in a restaurant.
Human Relations Skill-Building Exercise 2.2: Building Your Self-Confidence and Self-Efficacy
Successful completion of this exercise will require an above-average degree of self-discipline. So many people identify an area for self-improvement that will boost their skill, but fail to systematically go about practicing the improvement or skill development. The exercise suggests that the student focus on one approach to self-confidence building because (a) there is a limit on the amount of time a student can invest in one skill-building exercise, and (b) focused effort is likely to lead to better results than attempting a variety of approaches in a short time period. An example of this approach is presented in Skill-Building Exercise 2-2. Another example is as follows:
Don decides to use the tactic “avoid negative self-talk” for two weeks. He makes a deliberate effort to stop making negative statements about himself for two weeks. When asked to present a summary of his term paper in front of the class, he avoids a statement he would typically make in this situation, such as “I’m terrible at this stuff.” Instead, he performs the task without commenting negatively about his skill. A couple of days later he applies for a position as an assistant manager in a dollar store. He would ordinarily say in a situation like this, “I probably don’t have the experience you are looking for, but I would like to apply anyway.” Instead, he avoids negative self-talk—and uses positive self-talk—by saying, “I’m applying because I’m a serious business student, and I like retailing.”
Human Relations Case Problem 2.1: Self-Esteem Building at Pyramid Remanufactruring
The Pyramid case illustrates how important self-esteem can be to job success, what managers sometimes do in an attempt to elevate self-esteem. The context of the case is important to keep in mind. Many of the employees recruited to work at Pyramid have low levels of self-esteem based on their life experiences.
1.
What is your evaluation of Lockett’s analysis that low self-esteem could hurt the work performance of entry-level remanufacturing technicians?
Lockett is right; low self-esteem can make it difficult for people to perform successfully even in basic entry-level positions. A person with low self-esteem will often not be confident to perform up to his or her capacities. Another problem is that if self-esteem is low enough, the employee will not take pride in doing a good job.
2.
What is your evaluation of the self-esteem building program at Pyramid?
The self-esteem building program at Pyramid focuses too much on giving praise and encouragement. Psychological research indicates that praise-giving is not sufficient for building self-esteem. The praise has to be tied to some tangible accomplishment, such as a low-error rate or customer acceptance of the finished product. High productivity data might be shared with the workers to serve as positive feedback. In term the positive feedback could lead to a boost in self-esteem. The five percent decrease in turnover is certainly a hopeful sign, but we need longer-term evidence.
3.
What other suggestions can you offer for building the self-esteem of the Pyramid employees who appear to be having a self-esteem problem?
As suggested in response to question 2, an alternative strategy is to help the remanufacturing technicians accomplish tasks of genuine merit and then give them objective feedback (such as results against quotas or scrap reports). A growth in self-esteem might result from such a combination of circumstances. Management could provide other rewards that would help boost self-esteem such as small financial bonuses, or parking spots with numbers assigned. Another approach would be to solicit suggestions from employees for productivity improvement, and then give rewards for some of the best suggestions.
Any programs of rewards must take into account the fact that remanufacturing is a business with tight profit margins. So, financial rewards must be small. Recognition rewards can be quite helpful as supplements to financial rewards.
Human Relations Case problem 2.2: Kristin Struggles with Self-Confidence
The case incident about Katrina represents a common scenario of a person with low self-confidence. Although the incident is not complex, it represents a major career and personal problem facing a large number of people.
1.
What seems to be Wright’s problem based on the brief information you have been given?
Wright, at her own admission, suffers from low self-confidence, as evidenced by several symptoms. She talks about other job candidates being better qualified; her being so average; and even her cocker spaniel being average!
2.
What recommendations can you make to Wright to boost her self-confidence enough to get through any upcoming job interviews she might have?
Wright might practice a series of job interviews, starting with her housemate Wendy Lopez as an interviewer. Perhaps Kristina Wright can find an experienced manager to go through a few mock interviews with her. Assuming that repeated practice leads to good performance, Kristina might have a temporary boost in self-confidence. She must also practice positive self-talk, and minimize negative self-talk in preparation for any upcoming interviews.
3.
How helpful might be the words of encouragement and advice that Lopez has given Wright so far?
Lopez has made a step in the right direction by praising Wright. Words of advice and encouragement from a close friend, partner, spouse, or boss still make a contribution in building one’s self-confidence. However, for Wright to experience a boost in her self-confidence she probably needs words of praise and encouragement from several people. Lopez is her good friend, so Wright probably expects support from her.
CLASS ACTIVITY
Visit the Businessballs website at http://www.businessballs.com/ and select Self-Help and Self-Esteem for a relaxation script for self-help and personal change and fulfillment. Conduct the activity with the class. Students usually really enjoy this activity.
EXAMINATION QUESTIONS
Multiple-Choice
(b)
1. Understanding yourself is important because
a.
it helps other people to understand you.
b.
what you think of yourself influences many facets of your life.
c.
the experts say it is.
d.
it actually is not really important.
(d)
2. Self-esteem is
a.
the experience of feeling like you are better than other people.
b.
the experience of feeling like you are not as good as other people.
c.
the experience of feeling over confident.
d.
the experience of feeling competent and of being worthy of happiness.
(c)
3. Self-esteem results from
a.
constantly being praised for every little accomplishment.
b.
expecting to be “perfect” all of the time.
c.
accomplishing worthwhile activities and feeling proud of the accomplishments.
d.
having a big ego.
(c)
4. The two main components of self-esteem are
a.
self-respect and self-denial.
b.
self-confidence and self-indulgence.
c.
self-efficacy and self-respect.
d.
self-denial and self-discipline.
(b)
5. Mark has high self-efficacy so it is likely he would
a.
have a big ego.
b.
feel confident in his ability to perform a task.
c.
have strong tendencies toward perfectionism.
d.
work at high levels of efficiency.
(b,d)
6. People with positive self-esteem (Choose TWO)
a.
tend to be over confident.
b.
understand their own competence and worth.
c.
expect to be paid more than people with low self-esteem.
d.
have a positive perception of their abilities.
(a)
7. Leadership can facilitate self-esteem when they
a.
encourage self rewards.
b.
provide rewards for every task completed.
c.
push people to do better on their jobs.
d.
let the employees do whatever they like.
(b,c)
8. A series of studies found that students who based their self-esteem on external sources such as approval from others (Choose TWO)
a.
had lower levels of drug and alcohol use.
b.
reported more stress, anger, and conflicts.
c.
had higher levels of drug and alcohol use.
d.
generally received higher grades.
(a,b)
9. Linda needs to improve her self-esteem. Two methods she could try include (Choose TWO)
a.
being aware of personal strengths.
b.
modeling the behavior of people with high self-esteem.
c.
learning to hide her true feelings.
d.
avoiding social situations that make her feel uncomfortable.
(a,d)
10. Two sources of information for building self-confidence include (Choose TWO)
a.
social comparison.
b.
social loafing.
c.
socializing.
d.
social persuasion.
(a)
11. A major contributor to self-confidence is
a.
receiving positive feedback from others.
b.
receiving negative feedback from others.
c.
setting low goals for oneself.
d.
losing out in competition to people more talented than oneself.
(a)
12. Jim evaluates his self-worth on how others perceive him. People who do this like Jim
a.
often suffer negative mental and physical consequences.
b.
often experience positive mental and physical consequences.
c.
tend to avoid alcohol abuse and eating disorders.
d.
usually develop effective role models early in life.
(a)
13. Being too self-confident may lead a person to
a.
ignore potential problems.
b.
long periods of depression.
c.
become to dependent on suggestions from others.
d.
strive for perfection in solving problems.
(b)
14. To develop Jean’s self confidence she should
a.
learn to rely mostly on intuition.
b.
develop a base of knowledge for problem solving.
c.
use enough negative self-talk to appear humble.
d.
downplay acquiring a lot of facts.
(b)
15. The first step in positive self-talk is to
a.
look in the mirror and praise yourself.
b.
objectively state the troubling incident.
c.
objectively state what the troubling incident does not mean.
d.
ignore troubling incidents.
(c)
16. The final step in positive self-talk is to
a.
pat yourself on the back.
b.
brag to your coworkers.
c.
imagine the desired outcome occurring.
d.
become arrogant.
(c)
17. Priscilla frequently engages in negative self-talk which can be a problem because it
a.
triggers emotional illness.
b.
lowers group morale.
c.
lowers self-confidence.
d.
confuses group members.
(c)
18. When taking an inventory of personal assets and accomplishments, personal assets should be related to
a.
your vehicle and home.
b.
your job.
c.
your characteristics and behaviors.
d.
your political affiliation.
(c)
19. A good question to ask yourself when doing positive self talk to get past difficult times is
a.
Why did I do that?
b.
Who can I blame for this?
c.
What can I learn from this?
d.
How can I be so stupid.
(a)
20. Mike understands that positive visual imagery boosts self-confidence because the person
a.
imagines being in control of a situation.
b.
forms an image of what went wrong in the past.
c.
no longer has to prepare for battle.
d.
visualizes asking the right questions.
(d)
21. To achieve peak performance Beth must
a.
increase her stress level.
b.
engage in the right amount of negative self-talk.
c.
avoid input from others.
d.
totally focus on the task at hand.
(b)
22. While turning in peak performance, Adam is experiencing a mental state referred to as
a.
running.
b.
flow.
c.
high.
d.
excited.
(a)
23. Bouncing back from setbacks and embarrassments is often referred to as _____, and is a major contributor to personal effectiveness.
a.
resilience.
b.
jumping.
c.
helping.
d.
driving.
(b)
24. Which one of the following is a recommended way of getting past the emotional turmoil associated with adversity?
a.
Take the setback personally.
b.
Do not take the setback personally.
c.
Deny the reality of your problem.
d.
Exhibit a little bit of panic behavior.
True/False
(T)
25. Self-esteem breeds self-confidence and being self-confident builds self-esteem.
(T)
26. Self esteem is the experience of feeling competent to cope with the basic challenges in life and of being worthy of happiness.
(F)
27. Heaping undeserved praise and recognition on people produces genuine self-esteem.
(T)
28. People who perceive themselves as being successful tend to engage in activities that prove themselves right.
(T)
29. Self-respect is a major component of self-esteem.
(F)
30. Workers with high self-esteem are typically average performers because they divide their interests between work and personal life.
(T)
31. Zelda exhibits high self-esteem behavior by taking personal responsibility for problems.
(F)
32. An example of high self-esteem behavior on the part of an employee would be waiting for specific instructions before attempting to solve problems.
(T)
33. Genuine accomplishment taking pride in that accomplishment feelings of self-esteem.
(T)
34. Research with college students suggests that basing your self-worth and self-esteem on internal sources is less likely to lead to alcohol and drug abuse, and eating disorders.
(F)
35. The most effective way to build another person’s self-esteem is to lavish praise on him or her for every accomplishment, however trivial.
(T)
36. An effective way of increasing self-esteem is to develop an appreciation of one’s strengths and accomplishments.
(T)
37. Self-efficacy is confidence in your ability to carry out a specific task in contrast to generalized self-confidence.
(F)
38. Self-respect refers to how others think and feel about you.
(T)
39. One consequence of high self-esteem is good mental health.
(T)
40. A potential negative consequence of low self-esteem is envying too many people.
(F)
41. People with very high self-confidence put extra effort into getting advice from others before making a decision.
(T)
42. Actual experience, or things we have done, helps build self-confidence.
(F)
43. Calvin is a leader with high self-efficacy, so it is likely he will often take a pessimistic view of the group’s ability to do the task at hand.
(T)
44. Expanding your knowledge base in your field will usually improve your self-confidence.
(F)
45. Positive self-talk has shown little success in building self-confidence.
(T)
46. A key advantage to peak performance is that it can usually be achieved while doing two or more tasks at once.
(T)
47. An important requirement for achieving peak performance is to have a mission in life.
(F)
48. An effective way of getting past the emotional turmoil associated with adversity is to take setbacks personally.
49. How are self-esteem, self-confidence, and human relations related?
Answer: Answer should include something about how self-esteem and self-confidence nurture each other and lead to more effective human relations.
50. List at least two behaviors mentioned in the text of people who demonstrate high self-esteem, and give personal examples of ways you have demonstrated them.
Answer: Answers should include at least two of the following behaviors with personal examples for each. (Personal examples will vary)
1.
Being creative and innovative.
2.
Taking personal responsibility for problems.
3.
A feeling of independence.
4.
Trusting one’s own capabilities.
5.
Taking the initiative to solve problems.
CHAPTER 1
HUMAN RELATIONS AND YOURSELF
CHAPTER OUTLINE AND LECTURE NOTES
Human relations is defined here as the art of using systematic knowledge about human behavior to improve personal and job effectiveness. The effective use of human relations, therefore, helps both the individual and the organization.
From the standpoint of management, human relations is quite important because it contributes to organizational effectiveness, the extent to which an organization is productive and satisfies the demands of interested parties such as employees, customers, and investors.
I.
HOW STUDYING HUMAN RELATIONS CAN HELP YOU
Carefully studying human relations, and incorporating suggestions into work and personal life, can lead to five key benefits:
1.
Acquiring valid information about human behavior.
2.
Developing skills in dealing with people.
3.
Coping with job problems.
4.
Coping with personal problems.
5.
Capitalizing on opportunities.
II.
HOW WORK AND PERSONAL LIFE INFLUENCE EACH OTHER
Work and personal life have a reciprocal influence. Studies show that life satisfaction significantly influences job satisfaction, and the reverse is also true. Work and personal life influence each other in a number of specific ways.
1.
Job satisfactions contribute to general life satisfactions and chronic job dissatisfaction leads to declines in general life satisfaction.
2.
An unsatisfying job can affect physical health, primarily through stress and burnout. People with high job satisfaction even tend to live longer than those who suffer prolonged job dissatisfaction.
3.
The quality of relationships with people at work and in your personal life influence each other.
4.
Certain skills contribute to success in both work and personal life.
III.
HUMAN RELATIONS BEGINS WITH SELF-UNDERSTANDING
You have to understand yourself before you can be effective with others. Five methods of achieving self-understanding are noteworthy. The self generally refers to a person’s total being or individuality. The public self is what a person communicates about himself or herself, and what others actually perceive about the person. The private self is the actual person that one may be. Recent evidence suggests that the self is based on structures within the brain. The self may be the sum of the brain’s individual components, or subsystems. Visit the Business Balls Website to learn more about the public and private self through the Johari Window model. http://www.businessballs.com/johariwindowmodel.htm
A.
General Information about Human Behavior
Information one acquires about people in general can be applied to the self.
B.
Informal Feedback from People
You can pick up useful feedback (information that tells you how well you have performed) on the job and in personal life. Sometimes this feedback must be solicited.
C.
Feedback from Superiors
Most employers provide feedback to their employees. In some companies feedback is provided formally such as during a performance evaluation. In other cases feedback may be provided informally, such as a supervisor telling an employee they are doing a good job.
D.
Feedback from Coworkers
A growing practice in organizations is the use of peer evaluations, a system in which coworkers contribute to an evaluation of a person’s job performance. The peer evaluation for customer service technicians might be good class discussion material.
Feedback from teammates could indicate a developmental opportunity, an area for growth, or a weakness.
E.
Feedback from Self-Assessment Exercises
The exercises in this book, and in magazines and newspapers, can often give a person some useful self-insights, but the exercises should not be regarded as scientifically valid. Students can visit www.queendom.com for a wide variety of self-assessments.
F.
Two Self-Evaluation Traps
Self-awareness also has two negative extremes or traps. One extreme is that focusing on the self can highlight shortcomings the way staring into a mirror can dramatize every blemish and wrinkle in the face. The other extreme is tending to overestimate one’s competence. For example, some people are always thinking they deserve a bigger raise. Others suffer from a holier than thou syndrome – overestimating their moral competence. A study with college students found that they consistently overrated the likelihood that they would act in generous or selfless ways.
Cultural differences can help to explain at least some differences in underevaluation versus overevaluation. For example, East Asians tend to underestimate their abilities, while North Americans are more likely to overestimate their abilities.
IV.
HOW DID THE HUMAN RELATIONS MOVEMENT DEVELOP?
The human relations movement began as a concentrated effort by some managers and their advisors to become more sensitive to the needs of employees or to treat them in a more humanistic manner. The following influences, presented in Figure 1-1, supported the human relations movement. Also, Visit the ACCEL Team website to learn more about the Hawthorne studies, scientific management, Douglas McGregor, Frederick Herzberg, and other information about human relations. http://www.accel-team.com/motivation/hawthorne_02.html
A.
Scientific Management
Frederick W. Taylor’s theory that focuses on the application of scientific methods to increase individual worker’s productivity.
B.
The Hawthorne Studies
Research methods were used to investigate employee productivity using the scientific method. An interpretation of the findings was that employees reacted positively because they felt management cared about them. This interpretation is referred to as the Hawthorne effect.
C.
The Threat of Unionization
In the late 1930s, as labor unions grew rapidly, employers feared unionization would have negative consequences for their companies. Therefore, they sought human relations techniques to satisfy workers in an effort to stem the tide of union growth.
D.
The Philosophy of Industrial Humanism
Belief that emotional factors (such as a desire for recognition) are a more important contributor to productivity than physical and logical factors. The key to increased productivity is to motivate employees rather than to order them to perform better.
V.
THEORY X AND THEORY Y – DOUGLAS MCGREGOR
Douglas McGregor urged managers to be open to the possibility that under the right circumstances people are eager to perform well.
A.
Theory X Assumptions
1.
The average person dislikes work and will avoid it if possible.
2.
Most people must be coerced, controlled, directed, or threatened with punishment to get them to work.
3.
Average employees prefer to be directed, wish to shirk responsibility, have relatively little ambition, and highly value job security.
B.
Theory Y Assumptions
1.
Expenditure of physical and mental effort is as natural in work as in play.
2.
Employees will exercise self-direction and self-control for objectives to which they attach high value.
3.
Commitment to objectives is related to awards associated with their achievement.
4.
Under the right conditions, the average person accepts and seeks responsibility.
5.
Employers have the ability to exercise a high degree of imagination, ingenuity, and creativity to solve organizational problems.
6.
Under present conditions of industrial life, the intellectual potentials of the average person are only partially utilized.
McGregor, although humanistic, did not mean to imply that being directive and demanding with workers is always the wrong tactic. Visit the Business Balls Website to assess whether a situation and management style are X or Y.
http://www.businessballs.com/mcgregorxytheorytest.pdf
VI.
RELEVANCE OF THE HISTORY OF HUMAN RELATIONS TO TODAY’S WORKPLACE
Many ideas from the human relations movement still influence the practice of human relations today including:
1.
Principles of scientific management are useful in increasing worker productivity.
2.
Ideas from the Hawthorne studies brought out the importance of providing congenial work surroundings and adequate compensation to motivate workers.
3.
Industrial humanism is widely practiced today through methods such as flexible work arrangements, family leave, and dependent care benefits.
4.
Theory Y has prompted managers to think through which style of leadership works best with employees.
VII.
MAJOR CONCEPTS IN HUMAN RELATIONS TODAY
The major themes and concepts of human relations will be covered in this text.
1.
Self-understanding.
2.
Self-esteem and self-confidence.
3.
Self-motivation and self-discipline.
4.
Emotional intelligence and positive attitudes.
5.
Values and ethics.
6.
Problem solving and creativity.
7.
Communication effectiveness.
8.
Getting along with others in the workplace.
9.
Managing conflict.
10.
Leadership.
11.
Motivating others and developing teamwork.
12.
Diversity and cross-cultural competence.
13.
Learning strategies, perception, and life-span changes.
14.
Developing effective work habits.
15.
Getting ahead in your career.
16.
Managing stress and personal problems.
VIII.
MAJOR FACTORS INFLUENCING JOB PERFORMANCE AND BEHAVIOR
Part of understanding human relations is recognizing the factors or forces that influence job performance and behavior. The factors are presented in Figure 1-2 and are as follows:
A.
Factors Related to the Employee
The major influence on how a worker performs on the job stems from his or her personal attributes such as mental ability, education, physical abilities, job knowledge, motivation and interest, encouragement from family and friends, distractions and personal problems, and level of stress.
B.
Factors Related to the Manager
Managers or supervisors are another major influence on work behavior through factors such as leadership style, quality and quantity of communication, feedback on performance, quality of relationship, and favoritism.
C.
Factors Related to the Job
The job itself influences how workers perform through such factors as adequate equipment, challenge and excitement, and adequate training and instructions.
D.
Factors Related to the Organization
The organization as a whole can have a profound influence on individual workers’ performance through such factors as the culture including ethics, work group influences, and human resource policies.
ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING
1.
Why do you think good human relations skills are important for supervisors who direct the work activities of entry-level workers?
Supervisors of entry-level workers are the ones who deal directly with their workers’ human relations issues and the factors that influence job performance on a daily basis. They are involved in activities such as motivating workers, encouraging them, resolving conflict, and listening to personal problems. Effective human relations skills are therefore essential.
2.
Give an example of a business executive, politician, athletic coach, or professor whom you think has exceptional human relations skills. On what basis did you reach your conclusion?
One of the best examples of a business executive with outstanding human relations skills is Oprah Winfrey. She has built a career on intuitively knowing what people are thinking and feeling. She easily comes up with the words to ask the questions people want asked. She always seems to know what to say to comfort a guest or audience member when needed. She has been able to motivate millions of people to buy books and other products. And she rarely offends others (except the Texas cattlemen perhaps).
3.
Give an example from your own experience of how work life influences personal life and vice verse.
Many people can provide examples of times when their job suffered because they were worried about something in their personal life or vice verse. Students commonly share the example of having financial difficulties, resulting in bill collectors calling them at work, and spending time worrying about their finances at work.
On the other side, students tell about having a disagreement with their boss or another coworker, and not being able to get it off their mind when they leave work. In some cases, they report yelling at their kids simply because they are noisy or staying up all night worrying when their spouse is asking them to sleep.
4.
How might a person improve personal life to the extent that the improvement would also enhance job performance?
Personal life satisfaction and job satisfaction are directly related, therefore, if someone is happier in their personal life, their job satisfaction would also be higher. Satisfied workers tend to be more productive workers. As the example in the text pointed out, people who are effective in dealing with friends and family members and who can organize things are likely to be effective supervisors.
5.
How might a person improve his or her job or career to the extent that the improvement would actually enhance personal life?
Finding a job that one is satisfied with is important to maintaining a high level of life satisfaction. The ability to form good relationships with coworkers and to get things accomplished on the job would be two ways to increase job satisfaction to the extent that it would enhance personal life satisfaction.
6.
Of the five sources of information about the self-described in this chapter, which one do you think is likely to be the most accurate? Why?
Much would depend on the quality of the source of the feedback. Insights gathered from others in natural settings tend to be accurate if they are corroborated in several situations with feedback from several people.
7.
How can your self-concept affect your career?
A self-concept can contribute heavily to career height. People with a strong self-concept are more likely to be successful, as measured by upward mobility and learning new skills. Conversely, people with weak self-concepts are much less likely to be successful.
8.
How might you improve your self-efficacy for a specific job that you are performing?
An essential way to improve self-efficacy would be to practice a skill until mastery is achieved. Receiving training and coaching would be helpful. The skill mastery would also boost self-confidence in a small way, enabling the person to complete the task more confidently.
9.
Imagine yourself as a manager or small-business owner. How might you apply the Hawthorne effect to increase the productivity of workers reporting to you?
The theory is that the workers at the Hawthorne plant increased their productivity in response to the belief that management cared about them. Therefore, I would take steps to make sure the employees reporting to me felt that I cared about them. Some things I might try would be bringing in treats or occasionally buying them lunch, sending them cards on their birthdays, and asking how they are doing.
10.
In your current job, or any previous one, which set of factors had the biggest impact on your performance and behavior – those related to the employee, manager, job, or organization? How do you know?
The most common answers to this job will have something to do with the way people were(are) treated on the job, and how well they got along with their coworkers and management. And the most common response to “How do you know?” is because they could feel the impact.
COMMENTS ON EXERCISES AND CASES
Human Relations Self-Assessment Quiz 1-1: Human Relations Skills Inventory
Here is a useful warm-up self-quiz that confronts the reality of the student’s everyday human relations skills. At the same time the quiz points to the importance of feedback from others in evaluating one’s skills and capabilities. All twenty statements deal with a human relations skill that could assist a person’s career when the skill is positive, or damage the career if the skill is negative. Almost all of the skills are discussed at some point in the text. Here we take three examples from the quiz:
1.
“Listening carefully when in conversation with another person” As explained in the study of communications, listening, or receiving messages, is a key communication skill.
9. “Make a neat, well-groomed appearance” Unfortunately too many students think of a neat, well-groomed appearance as applying mostly to job interviews. A positive appearance contributes to success, and a negative appearance can be a career retardant. Appearance is also part of nonverbal communication.
15.
“Cooperate with others in a team effort” Business has become a team sport, so students need to continually work on their team skills. Most students are accustomed to teamwork, yet studying about teamwork will provide additional insights on being an effective team player.
Human Relations Self-Assessment Quiz 1-2: The Written Self-Portrait
Preparing a written self-portrait can be a powerful vehicle for the person to begin thinking seriously about the self. Some students may need some guidance in personalizing the portraits, rather than making generalities. The portrait exercise is particularly useful in helping the student realize that the self-concept has many spheres. Here we focus on the spheres of (a) occupational and school, (b) social and interpersonal, (c) beliefs, values, and attitudes, and (d) physical description (body type, appearance, and grooming).
A supplementary approach to the written self-portrait is for students to see if some aspects of the self-portrait are more positive than others. For example, does the student have a positive self-portrait in the occupational and school dimension, yet negative self-portrait for the social and interpersonal dimension? The discrepancies might point the way toward areas for self-development.
Human Relations Skill-Building Exercise 1-1: Learning about Each Other’s Human Relations Skills
My experience has been that this type of exercise is an eye-opener for students, and simultaneously gives them one more opportunity to practice their presentation skills about a subject of great interest to them. Many students will find it challenging to organize their presentation into two minutes. However, many more students will fall into the other side of the ditch—making ten second statements of their human relations skills. With a modicum of success, I have told students in advance that we are not trying to set Olympic speed records for self-presentations. The answers to the questions will vary considerably from classroom to classroom, and we do not have normative data. Here are a few representative answers to the three questions:
1.
The most frequent human relations skill mentioned could refer to being well liked.
2.
Exaggeration is quite likely because so many people thing that are gifted with respect to human relations skills.
3.
The omissions are likely to include advanced human relations skills such as resolving conflict, negotiation, and cross-cultural competence.
Human Relations Skill-Building Exercise 1-2: My Human Relations Journal
Maintaining a human relations diary has an enormous potential payback. Recording critical incidents about human relations success and failure has a mysterious way of sensitizing a person to the need for change. Also, the fact of being measured—even by oneself—has a way of elevating performance. Many students will be familiar with preparing a journal from their elementary school days. Yet, the journal approach, especially in the area of leadership development, has gained in popularity.
Another reason we like the journal approach is that it highlights the importance of enhancing human relations skills in everyday settings, such as interacting with customer contact workers and strangers in bus terminals and airports.
Graphing progress in human relations skills works well for systematically-minded and quantitatively-minded students. The input may be subjective, yet the output is an objective-appearing graph.
Human Relations Case Problem 1.1: We Can’t Afford Good Human Relations around Here
A key contribution of this case is that it points to the reality that many managers do not pay conscious attention to practicing human relations or organizational behavior. Also, the same managers might not even be aware that systematic knowledge about human behavior in the workplace exists. Another theme of the case is that the student might need to help his or her employer understand the importance of human relations.
1.
What is your evaluation of Marcus’s contention that human relations knowledge is useful primarily when a firm is profitable?
Marcus may be off the mark here. Human relations knowledge can be quite important when a firm is performing poorly or facing a crisis. During difficult times employees need support, encouragement, and recognition to help minimize turnover. Another possibility is that a firm struggling to survive may need a few breakthrough ideas to stay afloat. One of the most effective approaches to elevating productivity is to give encouragement and support. When a firm is not profitable, leadership (a major human relations skill) may be needed to help workers understand that a brighter future is likely.
2.
To what extent should Tammy be discouraged?
It is understandable that Tammy would be discouraged. She has studied human
relations and assumes that most employers practice good human relations. Similarly, most accounting students assume that employers practice very honest accounting. Yet if Tammy takes a broader perspective, she will not be discouraged. She can develop the point of view that she can point Bradbury management in the right direction of using good human relations to give the firm a boost. How about motivating workers to higher levels of performance? How about empowering workers so they will make a bigger contribution to the success of the firm?
3.
What should Tammy do next about her concerns about the application of human relations knowledge at Bradbury?
Tammy is not in a position of authority to get the management team together to discuss the possibilities of making better use of human relations knowledge at Bradbury Foods. Yet she might consider a grounds-up approach in which she begins to seed management with useful knowledge about human relations. She might send an e-mail to Marcus with a case history about how a company used human relations to improve itself. She might point to the Pfeffer article in the Academy of Management Executive of November 2005, pp. 95-108. Tammy might also ask if she could have 15 minutes at a management staff meeting to make a presentation of the importance of good human relations, using ideas from her human relations textbook.
4.
Based on your experience, how representative of most managers is Marcus’s thinking?
Student experience varies widely in terms of what type of human relations skills of managers they have encountered on the job. One the positive side, many students report having worked for bosses who were wonderful coaches, mentors, listeners, and motivators. In contrast, many other students report having worked for bosses who would make good material for Dilbert cartoons, or caricatures of Theory X bosses. My impression is the percentage of managers who recognize the important of good human relations skills continues to increase, partly attributable to formal education, reading about leadership and human relations, and company-sponsored seminars about human relations.
In short, we predict that about one-half of students will report that Marcus’s thinking is representative of managers.
Human Relations Case Problem 1.2: Critical Carrie of the Claims Department
A potential contribution of this case is that it deals with the pervasive problem of workplace negativity, and that human relations problems abound. It might be effective to revisit this case after such topics as difficult people (Chapter 9) and conflict (Chapter 10) have been studied.
1.
What do you recommend that Michelle Pettigrew do to improve Carrie’s human relations skills in the office?
Pettigrew needs to maintain a continuing dialog with Carrie about the latter’s human relations skills. Gentle confrontations about how particular behaviors are adversely affecting other workers would be particularly recommended. For example, Pettigrew mentions that Carrie is sometimes snippy with her. When Carries is snippy, Pettigrew might use the incident as valuable data to illustrate how her behavior could be annoying to some. A useful statement might be, “If you act like with coworkers, how do you think they will react to you?”
2.
What is your evaluation of Michelle’s approach to dealing with Carrie so far?
So far it appears that Michelle’s approach to dealing with Carrie has been too laid back, detached, and a little bit indifferent. Michelle did express some anger with Carrie when she said there their conversation was over. Michelle can be criticized for not being an active enough coach in helping Carrie understand how her negative behavior is affecting others.
3.
What do you recommend that Carrie’s coworkers do to develop more harmonious relationships with her?
The techniques for dealing with difficult people described in Chapter 9 would be appropriate here. Coworkers might give Carrie positive reinforcement when she is positive toward them or in a good mood in general. On occasion, an assertive comment such as the following might work: “It pleases me that the happy, positive Carrie showed up today. It’s much easier for me when you are in such a positive mood.”
Another possibility is that like a rebellious child, Carrie is really crying out for attention through her obnoxious behavior. Carrie might become more hospitable if her coworkers reached out more to her, inviting her for lunch, and perhaps an after hours gathering. Treat Carrie with kindness, and she might blossom forth as a better team player.
CLASS ACTIVITY
A fun class activity to illustrate scientific management and the human relations movement is to divide the class into teams of three to four students. Assign each team a task such as
1.
Reorganizing the tables into a u-shape or other shape
2.
Moving the chairs to fit at the new table shape
3.
Passing out papers to each of the places at the tables
4.
Passing out paper clips to each of the places at the tables
5.
Passing out markers to each of the places at the tables
6.
Choose your own tasks
Also assign one student to observe the work of each team, and a group of three to four students to observe the overall work of all of the teams. Stress the importance of maintaining safety throughout the activity.
Round 1: Have each team try to complete their task
Have each team’s individual observer quietly take notes on their work, paying close attention to things they could do more efficiently
Team observers should also time their team to see how long it takes to complete their task
Overall observers can just observe at this time
Round 2: Put everything back the way it was before round one
Before beginning round two, have the individual team observers discuss their observations with their team, and tell their team members how they can complete their task more quickly in this round
Then have each team redo their tasks, trying to do them in less time than they did in round one
Team observers should time their team
They should also note any areas for improvement
Overall observers should note how much time the project takes overall
Overall observers should also note ways the teams could do things more efficiently so the overall time would be less (Such as having one team do their work first if they have all being doing it at the same time, or having all teams do their work at the same time if they have been taking turns)
Round 3: Put everything back the way it was before rounds one and two
Before beginning round three, have the overall observers discuss their observations with the team observers, and together the observers should come up with ways the team members can complete their tasks more quickly in this round
Have the team observers go back and tell their team members what they should do to complete their tasks more quickly in this round
Then have the team redo their tasks in an attempt to beat their times from rounds one and two
Team observers should note times and opportunities for improvement
Overall observers should also note the overall time and opportunities for improvement
Round 4: Put everything back the way it was before beginning the activity
Before beginning round four, have a class discussion with team members, team observers, and overall observers to come up with ways to complete the entire activity more quickly and efficiently
Upon reaching agreement, have the teams complete their tasks again, attempting to do them in the least amount of time so far
Have team observers time their individual teams, and overall observers note the overall time
Conduct a discussion on the activity. Points of interest could be:
When the activity was completed the most productively and efficiently
When the “workers” felt the best about doing the work
Feedback
Developmental opportunities
SEMESTER ASSIGNMENT
TEAM TEACH – TO – LEARN PRESENTATION
Teams are responsible for teaching the class about a topic regarding Psychology (use text Subject Index for topics). Teams will consist of 3 – 4 members who must share personal contact information since I am not legally able to provide that data. Team members will prepare a class presentation of 30 – 45 minutes minimum. It may be longer with prior approval.
Research is required and possible resources include but are not limited to the Internet, books, articles, interviews, experiments, etc. Presentations are intended to supplement the material in the text. Videos, guest speakers, class exercises, etc. may be part of the presentation. The more creative, and interactive the presentation, the better it will be. Note: if guest speakers are part of the presentation, arrangements including directions/greeter must be made for the convenience of the guest. Teams may involve class members in their teaching. Teams may include assessments such as games or other assessment activities.
At the beginning of your presentation, you must submit the typed and signed team rules, a combined bibliography, and a scored Teach – to – Learn Rubric. Teams will earn a maximum of 56 points for this project (max. 56 points x the number of members = total points for presentation). Teammates decide among themselves how to divide the total points and then inform the instructor for grading purposes.
Student cannot substitute other assignments in lieu of the Team Teach – to – Learn assignment. Therefore, if a teammate is ejected from a group for not following the team rules, he/she is not allowed to make up those points individually.
STUDENT HANDOUTS
Suggestions for Preparing Teach – to – Learn Team Presentation
Develop Team Roles and Corresponding Team Rules
Think about all the roles team members need to play to be a team and develop a team presentation. Some of these roles might focus on:
Procedural Roles
Schedule Keeper
Assignment Recorder
Communicator (e-mail or call team members when needed)
Team Facilitator
Task-Related Roles
Information Collector (collect information for team presentation/visual aides, etc.)
Analyzer (analyze collected information)
Writer
Proofreader
Maintenance Roles
Supporters (encourages other team members, show appreciation for good work, etc.)
Harmonizer (intervene in group discussions when conflict is threatening to harm group cohesiveness)
One popular theory about the roles people play in teams is by Meridith Belbin. He recognized that everyone responds differently to being in a team situation. Check out his theory at http://www.belbin.com/frames.html Click on “About Belbin Team Roles” in green column on left side of screen. Read through the roles and think about your own strengths. What skills do you have to offer the team?
Team Rules
You are required to develop and submit your own list of team rules prior to the beginning of your presentation. Be realistic and practical in developing your list of team rules. Each team may have a completely different list of rules based on the team’s skills and perceptions of the project. There is no correct list of rules. Everyone must sign that they agree to abide by the team rules.
Important: A typed list of Team Rules must be submitted with combined, typed bibliography at the time of your presentation.
Psychology
Team Teach – to – Learn Presentation Rubric
Name of Team
Team
Score
Instructor’s
Score
Section A Knowledge of Subject (Research is apparent)
11-15 pts. Information presented was plentiful, accurate, relevant, timely, & came from several credible sources
5-10 pts. Some information met criteria, but some did not; or there was not enough information; or information came from few sources
1-4 pts. Knowledge of subject was very limited
Section B Well Developed Thoughts & Critical Thinking
7-10 pts. Team used their own words, thoughts & examples in the presentation
4-6 pts. Team used some of their own words, thought and examples
1-3 pts. Most material used was directly from sources with little interpretation
Section C Packaged Well
7-10 pts. Team used various teaching methods such as visuals, activities, etc., including at least one activity that engaged the class
4-6 pts. Team used few teaching methods, but they did have an activity that engaged the class
1-3 pts. Team used only lecture to teach
Section D Organization & Time Usage
5 pts. Very effective use of time and well organized presentation
3-4 pts. Fairly effective use of time and pretty well organized
1-2 pts. Lacked preparation or organization
Section E Team Collaboration
5 pts. The team worked well together and everyone was involved in the presentation
3-4 pts. Not all members were involved (does not refer to members cast out of team for violating team rules), or presentation lacked coordination between members
1-2 pts. Presentation was disjointed and little coordination between members was evident
Section F Creativity/Visual Elements
3 pts. Presentation was unique or creative with effective visual elements
2 pts. Presentation contained a creative aspect with limited visual elements
1 pt. Little creativity was apparent with minor or no visual element
Section G Outline & List of Sources
2 pts. Typed combined list submitted @ beginning of presentation
1 pt. Typed combined list submitted after presentation during the class session
Section H Team Rules & Team Scored Grading Rubric
4(2 pts. ea.) Submitted @ beginning of presentation
2 (1 pt. ea) Submitted @ after presentation during the class session
Total Pts. Maximum 56 Points
Team Teach – to Learn Presentation Point Distribution by Members
Your team earned
points x (number of teammates) = points
Team Member
Points Notes
In addition to your Team Rules, listed below are some questions you may want to consider when distributing points among team members. Did the team member:
A.
Comply with team rules?
B.
Communicate positively and openly with other team members?
C.
Work effectively with the team in planning, organizing, and completing tasks?
D.
Keep team discussions and efforts on task?
E.
Complete an equal share of the writing and other team work?
D.
Come prepared for all team meetings
SEMESTER ASSIGNMENT
FINAL PROJECT
The topic you choose for your final project may be related to any of the topics we discuss in class (see text for ideas) or any additional topics you feel are relevant to psychology.
In order to get credit for the project, the topic you choose must be addressed by you in terms of its psychological relevance. The project must supplement the information in the text book (meaning it may not come from the text book).
The format you choose to present your topic is entirely up to you. For example, you may choose to:
do a research paper (5-7 pages, complete with bibliography and footnotes)
do a lecture
host or organize and be part of a panel discussion
do a skit or class activity
design an original game (complete with rules)
write an informational pamphlet
Feel free to come up with your own creative ideas.
Another option for this project is to perform at least 12 hours of volunteer work at a community agency of your choice. If you choose volunteer work for your project, you will submit a 2-3 page paper summarizing the following:
The name of the agency where you volunteered
The name, address, and phone number of a contact person at that agency
A description of the work you did
Relevance of your volunteer work to psychology
Signed “Volunteer Report Form”
The 12 hours of volunteer work must be completed during the class dates.
All projects must list any sources used for information. An oral class presentation will be the final step in completing your project so that everyone can gain from your work or experience.
Volunteer Report Form
Name of Student
_____________________________________
Student Phone #
_____________________________________
Student E-mail
_____________________________________
Name of Course
______________________________________
Volunteer Site
____________________________________
Site Address
______________________________________
Site Phone Number
____________________________________
Site E-mail
____________________________________
Site Contact
____________________________________
Volunteer Activities
____________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
Student Signature
_________________________ Date ________
Site Contact Signature
________________________ Date ________
Approval by Instructor: Signature
_______________ Date ________
************************************************************************
12 Hours of Volunteer Time Completed as (Date)
________________
Site Contact Signature
______________________ Date _______
**********************************************************************************************
Grade/Comments:________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
EXAMINATION QUESTIONS
Multiple-Choice
(b)
1. Emile is studying human relations in college. One benefit Emile will likely gain is to improve his
a.
ability to manipulate others.
b.
effectiveness in dealing with people.
c.
sales techniques.
d.
appreciation of people.
(d)
2. Similar to the field of organization behavior, human relations
a.
provides ways to get information about people’s private lives.
b.
shows management how to get what they want from their employees.
c.
Applies specific techniques for dealing with all employees in the same way.
d.
studies individuals and groups in organizations.
(a)
3. From the standpoint of management, human relations is quite important because it contributes to
a.
organizational effectiveness.
b.
control over employees.
c.
uniformity among the workers.
d.
higher turnover of employees.
(b)
4. Company executive Julie believes that paying more attention to the human element in the work place improves business because
a.
employees want everyone to be treated exactly the same in the workplace.
b.
people work harder when they have greater control over their work environment.
c.
it can be used to control employees.
d.
it can be used to manipulate customers.
(a,d)
5. The major benefits of studying human relations are (Choose two)
a.
acquiring valid information about human behavior.
b.
finding the best ways to exercise control over employees.
c.
to learn how to win every situation.
d.
developing skills in dealing with people.
(c)
6. An unsatisfying job often leads to
a.
major improvements in physical health.
b.
major improvements in mental health.
c.
substantial stress for the job holder.
d.
an improvement in a marital relationship.
(b)
7. Bill suffers from chronic job dissatisfaction. It is likely that
a.
Bill’s life satisfaction will be unaffected.
b.
Bill’s life satisfaction will begin to decline.
c.
Bill’s personal life satisfaction will improve.
d.
Bill will get used to it.
(d)
8. A basic theme of the human relations text is that work and personal life
a
hould be kept separate.
b.
should be handled differently.
c.
converge in later life.
d.
influence each other significantly.
(d)
9. What the person is communicating about himself or herself is contained in the
a.
overall self-concept.
b.
self-knowledge questionnaire.
c.
private self.
d.
public self.
(b)
10. Brain research suggests that the self
a.
begins to disappear as a person ages.
b.
is the sum of the brain’s individual components.
c.
is located in the front of the brain.
d.
is located in the back of the brain.
(b)
11. A major purpose of feedback is to tell a person
a.
how well he or she communicates the true self.
b.
how well he or she has performed.
c.
the difference between right and wrong.
d.
when it is time to enhance self-esteem.
(d)
12. The purpose of peer evaluation is for
a.
workers to compete heavily with each other.
b.
supervisors to keep close tabs on workers.
c.
coworkers to assume responsibility for the evaluation of each other.
d.
coworkers to contribute to the evaluation of each other.
(b)
13. The term developmental opportunity in a performance appraisal system refers to a(n)
a.
chance to take over for the manager for awhile.
b.
area of needed improvement.
c.
area of outstanding strength.
d.
chance to get promoted.
(b)
14. A study about the self-evaluation of college students found that the students
a.
underrated their generosity in dealing with others.
b.
overrated their generosity in dealing with others.
c.
were unwilling to help others did not fit their self-image.
d.
rated themselves highly only when surrounded by students they perceived to be inferior.
(c)
15. A cultural difference observed about self-evaluation is that
a.
North Americans tend to underestimate their abilities.
b.
East Asians tend to overestimate their abilities.
c.
North Americans tend to overestimate their abilities.
d.
East Asians rarely think of improving themselves.
(b,c)
16. The human relations movement was shaped by three historic influences. Select TWO of these influences.
a.
World War II
b.
the Hawthorne Studies
c.
the threat of unionization
d.
immigration
(a)
17. The focus of Frederick Taylor’s theory of scientific management was on
a.
scientific methods to increase individual worker’s productivity.
b.
scientific methods to improve products from companies.
c.
scientific methods to make employees get along with each other.
d.
scientific methods to stop gossip in the workplace.
(b)
18. Taylor convinced managers
a.
to make all of the decisions for their employees.
b.
that work breaks and shorter work days could increase productivity.
c.
to hold birthday parties for all employees.
d.
to fire employees if they made a mistake.
(c)
19. In the Hawthorne studies, worker productivity
a.
increased with greater illumination but decreased with less illumination.
b.
increased with less illumination but decreased with greater illumination.
c.
increased with both greater and less illumination.
d.
decreased with both greater and less illumination.
(d)
20. A major implication of the Hawthorne study was
a.
employees are motivated by social needs.
b.
employees desire rewarding on-the-job relationships.
c.
employees are more responsive to pressures from co-workers than to control by the boss.
d.
all of the above.
(a)
21. Approximately ____ percent of government workers are union members compared with ____ percent of workers in the private-sector.
a.
36/8
b.
50/50
c.
42/60
d.
12/18
(b)
22. An assumption of Theory X is that
a.
employees enjoy responsibility.
b.
most employees must be coerced to work hard.
c.
the average person enjoys work.

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