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HR Management – Chapters 1-6

Human Capital
The knowledge, skills, and capabilities of individuals that have economic value to an organization. (p.5)
KSAOs
Knowledge, Skills, Abilities, Other Attributes (p.5)
Learning Capability is G x G
The businesses ability to GENERATE new ideas multiplied by its adeptness at GENERALIZING them throughout the company (p.6)
Downsizing
Planned elimination of jobs (pg.8)
Outsourcing
Contracting outside the organization to have work done that formerly was done by internal employees (pg.8)
Offshoring
The business practice of sending jobs to other countries. (pg.8)
Globalization
The process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas and other aspects of culture. (p.10)
How globalization affects HR
Firms have to balance a complicated set of issues related to different geographies including different cultures, employment laws and business practices as well as safety. (p.10)
Corporate Social Responsibility
The responsibility of the firm to act in the best interests of the people and communities affected by its activities. (p.11)
Sustainability
Doing business in a way that does as little harm to the environment and depletes as few natural resources as possible. (p.12)
Collaborative Software
Software that allows workers to interface and share information with one another electronically. (p.12)
Knowledge Workers
Workers whose responsibilities extend beyond the physical execution of work to include planning, decision-making, and problem-solving. (p.13)
Human Resources Information System (HRIS)
A computerized system that provides current and accurate data for purposes of control and decision-making. (p.14)
Nearshoring
Occurs when a firm relocates jobs abroad to nations closer to its domestic market. (p.17)
Homeshoring
Occurs when a firm relocates jobs abroad back to its domestic market. (p.17)
Furloughing
A situation in which an organization asks or requires employees to take time off for either no pay or reduced pay. (p.17)
Employee Leasing
The process of dismissing employees who are then hired by a leasing company (which handles all HR related activities) and contracting with that company to lease back their employees (p.17)
Employee Engagement
The extent to which employees are enthused about their work and committed to it. (p.26)
Line Managers
Non-HR who are responsible for over-seeing the work of other employees. (p.27)
Responsibilities of HR Managers
Strategic Advice and counsel; Service; Policy Formulation; Employee Advocacy (p.28)
Competencies HR Managers Require
Business mastery; HR mastery; personal credibility (p.29)
Strategic Planning
Procedures for making decisions about the organization’s long term goals and strategies. (p.40)
Human Resources planning (HRP)
The process of anticipating and providing for the movement of people into, within, and out of the organization. (p.40)
Strategic Human Resources Management
The pattern of human resources deployments and activities that enable an organization to achieve its strategic goals. (p.40)
Strategic Planning and HR planning
Strategy formulation and strategy implementation (p.41)
Mission
The basic purpose of the organization as well as its scope of operations (p.43)
Strategic Vision
A statement about where the company is going and what it can become in the future; clarifies the long-term direction of the company and its strategic intent. (p.43)
Core Values
The strong and enduring beliefs and principles that the company uses as a foundation for its decisions. (p.43)
Environmental Scanning
Systematic monitoring of the major external forces influencing the organization. (p.45)
Business Environment
External factors in the general environment that a firm cannot directly control but that can affect its strategy. (p.45)
Remote Environment
Forces that generally affect most, if not all, firms, such as the economy and technological, demographic, and legal and regulatory changes. (p.45)
Economic and Ecological Changes
Making changes as the economy changes (p.45)
Technological Changes
Companies compete with their technological changes. (p.45)
Demographic Changes
Analyzing demographic and labor market trends. (p.46)
Social Changes
Looking at the changes in society that affect the workplace; such as their priorities toward healthcare. (p.46)
Legal Regulatory Changes
Administrative rules and their affects on the remote environment. (p.46)
Competitive Environment
Consists of a firm’s specific industry, including the industry’s customers, rival firms, new entrants, substitutes, and suppliers. (p.46)
Core Capabilities
Integrated knowledge set within an organization that distinguish it from its competitors and deliver value to customers (p.49)
Value Creation
What the firm adds to a product or service by virtue of making it; the amount of benefits provided by the product or service once the costs of making it are subtracted. (p.49)
Setting a competitive advantage through people
(p.51) Resource must be:
1.Valuable
2.Rare
3.Difficult to Imitate
4. Organized
Cultural Audits
Audits of the culture and quality of work life in an organization. (p.53)
Values-Based Hiring
The process of outlining the behaviors that exemplify a firm’s corporate culture and then hiring people who are a fit for them. (p.54)
Trend Analysis
A quantitative approach to forecasting labor demand based on an organizational index such as sales. (p.56)
Management Forecasts
The opinions (judgements) or supervisors, department management, experts, or others knowledgable about the organization’s future employment needs. (p.56)
Staffing Tables
Graphic representations of all organizational jobs, along with the numbers of employees currently occupying those jobs and future (monthly or yearly) employment requirements. (p.57)
Markov Analysis
A method for tracking the pattern of employee movements through various jobs (p.57)
Quality of Fill
A metic designed to measure how well new hire that fill positions are performing on the job. (p.58)
Skill Inventories
Files of personnel education, experience, interests, skills, and so on that allow managers to quickly match job openings with employee backgrounds. (p.58)
Replacement charts
Listing of current job-holders and people who are potential replacements if an opening occurs. (p.58)
Succession Planning
The process of identifying, developing, and tracking key individuals or executive positions. (p.58)
Human Capital Readiness
The process of evaluating the availability of critical talent in a company and comparing it to the firms supply. (p 62)
SWOT Analysis
A comparison of strengths and weaknesses, opportunities, and threats for strategy formulation.(p.63)
Corporate Strategy
Includes the markets in which it will compete, against whom, and how. (p.63)
Business Strategy
Focus on how the company will compete against viral firms in order to create value for customers (p.65)
Vertical Alignment
focuses on the connection between the business’s objectives and the major initiatives undertaken by HR. (p67)
Horizontal Fit
Managers need to ensure that their HR practices are all aligned with one anther internally to establish a configuration that is mutually enforcing.
Benchmarking
The process of looking at your practices and performance in a given area and then comparing them with those of other companies (p.70)
Balances Scorecard
A measurement framework that helps managers translate strategic goals into operational objectives. (p.72)
Organizational Capacity
The capacity of the organization to act and change in pursuit of sustainable competitive advantage (p.74)
Coordination Flexibility
is the ability to rapidly reallocate resources to new or changing needs.
Resource Flexibility
Results from having resources that can be used in different ways and people who can perform different job functions in different ways (p.75)
Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO)
The treatment of individuals in all aspects of employment- hiring, promotion, training, etc.- in a fair and non-biased manner. (p.90)
Executive Order 8802
Franklin Roosevelt in 1941 issued this to ensure that every American “regardless of race, creed, color, and national origin”, would be guarenteed equal opportunity employment. (p.90)
Protected Classes
Individuals of a minority race, women, older people, and those with disabilities who are covered by federal laws on equal employment opportunity. (p.91)
Equal Pay Act of 1963
This act makes it illegal to discriminate against people in terms of the pay employee benefits, and pension they earn based on their gender when they do equal work. (p.95)
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Law that addresses discrimination in scotty in general in the US. (p.96)
Bona Fide Occupational Qualification
Suitable defense against a discrimination charge only when age, religion, sex, or national origin in an actual qualification for performing the job. (p.96)
Business Necessity
A work-related practice that is necessary to the safe and efficient operation of an organization. (p.96)
Religious Preference
Managers have to accommodate an employee’s religion in the specific areas of holidays and observance, personal appearance, and religious conduct on the job. (p.97)
Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972
In this ammendment of the Civil rights act, two changes were made. Coverage of the act was expanded to include state and local govt and public and private educational institutions. Strengthen enforcement of powers. (p.98)
Civil Rights Act of 1991
Employees that can prove were intentionally discriminated against can seek compensation.(p.98)
Glass Ceiling Act of 1991
Glass Ceiling represents an invisible barrier that prohibits protected class members from reaching top organizational positions. (p.99)
Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act (2009)
180 statute of limitations for filing an equal-pay lawsuit with EEOC resets wutg each new discriminatory paycheck, not the date of the originally discriminatory paycheck. (p.99)
Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967
Prohibits specific employers from distracting against employees and applicants age 40 or older in ant employment area. (p.99)
Older Workers Benefit Protection Act of 1990
Prohibits employers from denying benefits to older employees except in limited circumstances. (p.99)
Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978
Pregnancy is a disability and that pregnant employees have other medical conditions. (p.100)
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
Prohibits employers from discriminating against individuals with physical and mental disabilities and the chronically ill. (p.100)
Reasonable Accommodation
An attempt by employers to adjust, without undue hardship, the working conditions or schedules of employees with disabilities or religious preferences. (p.101)
Americans with Disabilities Act Amendments Act
Broadened the definition of what constitutes a disability. (p.102)
Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008
Employers are prohibited from requesting, requiring, or purchasing the genetic information of workers or their family members. (p.102)
Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployments Rights Act of 1994 (USERRA)
People who enter the military for a total of 5 years can return to their private-sector jobs without risk of loss of seniority or benefits. (p.103)
Veterans Benefits Improvement Act
Requires employers to provide a notice of rights, benefits, obligations of both employers and employees under USERRA. (p.103)
Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1973
Requiring private employers with federal contracts over $2,500 to take action to hire individuals with a mental or physical disability. (p.104)
Disabled Individual
Any person who (1) has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of the person’s major life activities, (2) has a record of such impairment, or (3) is regarded as having such an impairment. (p.104)
Executive Order 11246
Prohibits discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin in all employment activities. (p.104)
Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell Repeal Act of 2010
Implemented to end the ban on gay, lesbian, or bisexual persons opening serving in the US military. (p.104)
Fair Employment Practices
State and local laws governing equal employment opportunity that are often more comprehensive than federal laws and apply to small employers. (p.105)
Sexual Harassment
Unwelcome advances requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of sexual nature in the working environment. (p.105)
Quid Pro Quo Harassment
Submission to or rejection of sexual conduct is used as a basis of employment decisions. (p.105)
Hostile Environment
can occur when unwelcome sexual conduct has the purpose or effect of unreasonably interfering with job performance or creating an intimidating, hostile, offensive working environment. (p.105)
Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA)
All employers covered by the law are prohibited from knowingly hiring or retaining unauthorized aliens on the job. Employers with 4 or more employee are prohibited from discriminating in hiring or termination decisions on the basis or national origin or citizenship. (p.107)
Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures
The procedural document published in the federal register to help employers comply with federal regulations against discriminatory actions. (p.110)
Adverse Impact
A concept that refers to the rejections of a significantly higher percentage of a protected class for employment, placement, or promotion when compared with the successful, non protected class. (p.111)
Four-Fifths Rule
A rule of thumb followed by the EEOC in determining adverse impact for use in enforcement proceedings. (p.111)
Disparate Treatment
A situation in which protected class members receive unequal treatment or are evaluated by different standards. (p.112)
Workforce Utilization Analysis
A process of classifying protected-class members by number and by the type of job they hold within the organization. (p.112)
Charge Form
A discrimination complaint filed with the EEOC by employees or job applicants. (p.113)
Affirmative Action
A policy that goes beyond equal employment opportunity by requiring organizations to comply with the law and correct any past discriminatory practices by increasing the numbers or minorities and women in specific positions. (p.116)
Chief Diversity Officer
A top executives responsible for implementing a firm’s diversity efforts. (p.117)
Reverse Discrimination
The act of giving preference to members of protected classes to the extent that unprotected individuals believe they are suffering discrimination. (p.117)
Job Analysis
The process of obtaining information about jobs by determining their duties, tasks or activities. (p.132)
Job Description
A statement of the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of a job to be performed. (p.132)
Job Specifics
A statement of the specific knowledge, skills, and abilities, of a person who is to perform a job needs. (p.133)
Subject Matter Experts
A panel of job experts .(p.134)
Functional Job Analysis
A job analysis approach that utilizes an inventory of the various types of work activities that can constitute any job. (p.137)
Position Analysis Questionnaire
A questionnaire identifying approximately 200 different tasks that, by means of 5-point scale; seeks to determine the degree to which different tasks are involved in performing a job. (p.137)
Critical Incident Method
A job analysis method by which important job tasks are identified for job success. (p.138)
Task Inventory Analysis
An organization-specific list of tasks and their description used as a basis to identify components of jobs. (p.139)
Parts of a job description
The jobs title and location; a job identification section; a job duties section. (p.139)
Job specification
1. the skills required to perform the job. 2. the physical demands the job places on the employee doing it. (p.142)
Job Design
An outgrowth of job analysis that improves jobs through technological and human considerations in order to enhance organization efficiency and employee job satisfaction. (p.143)
Industrial Engineering
A field of study concerned with analyzing work methods and establishing time standards. (p.143)
Ergonomics
The process of studying and designing equipment and systems that are easy and efficient to use. (p.144)
Job enrichment
Enhancing a job by adding more meaningful tasks and duties to make the work more rewarding and satisfying. (p.145)
Job Characteristics Model
A job design theory that purports that three psychological states (experiencing meaningfulness of the work responsibilities performed, responsibility for work outcomes, and knowledge of the results of the work performed) of a jobholder result in improved work performance, internal motivation, and lower absenteeism and turnover. (p.145)
Skill Variety
The degree to which a job entails a variety of different activities, which demand the use of a number of different skills and talents by the jobholder. (p.145)
Task Identity
The degree to which a job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work, that is, doing a job from beginning to end with a visible outcome. (p.145)
Task Significance
The degree to which the job has a substantial impact on the lives to work of other people, whether in the immediate organization or in the eternal environment. (p.145)
Autonomy
The degree to which the job provides substantial freedom and independence. (p.145)
Feedback
The degree to which carrying out the work activities required by the job results in the individual being given direct and clear info about the effectiveness of his or her performance. (p.145)
Job enlargement
The process of faffing a greater variety of tasks to a job. (p.146)
Job rotation
The process whereby employees rotate in and out of different jobs. (p.146)
Employee Empowerment
Granting employees power to initiate change, thereby encouraging them to take charge of what they do. (p.147)
Job Crafting
A naturally occurring phenomenon whereby employees mold their tasks to fit their individual strengths, passions, and motives better. (p.148)
Employee Engagement
A situation in which workers are enthusiastic and immersed in their work to the degree that it improved the performance of their companies. (p.148)
Employee Team
A group of employees working thither toward a common purpose in which members have complementary skills, members’ work is mutually dependent, and the group has description over task performed (p.149)
Synergy
Occurs when the interaction and outcome of the team members is greater than the sum if their individual efforts. (p.149)
Dejobbing
refers to a process of structuring organizations not around jobs but around projects that are constantly changing. (p.150)
Virtual Teams
Teams that utilize telecommunications technology to link team members who are geographically dispersed – often worldwide across cultures and across time zones. (p.151)
Flextime
Flextime working hours that permit employees the option of choosing daily starting and quitting times, provided that they work a set number of hours per day of week. (p.153)
Job Sharing
An arrangement whereby two part-time employees perform a job that otherwise would be held by one full-time employee (p.156)
Telecommuting
Use of personal computers, networks, and other communications technology to do work in the home that is traditionally done in the workplace. (p.156)
Internal labor markets
Labor markets in which workers are hired into entry-level jobs and higher-level jobs are filled from within. (p.167)
Elements of Recruitment Strategy
Brand, Focus, Location, Method, Timing, Decision (p.167)
Recruiting Process Outsourcing
The practice of outsourcing an organization’s recruiting function to an outside firm. (p.170)
Branding
A company’s efforts to help existing and prospective workers understand why it is a desirable place to work. (p.171)
Passive Job Seekers
People who are not looking for jobs but could be persuaded to the new ones given the right opportunity. (p.175)
Mobile Recruiting
The process of recruiting candidates via their mobile devices. (p.176)
Virtual Job Fair
Job fairs conducted online. (p.176)
Nepotism
A preference for hiring relatives of current employees. (p.177)
Recruiting
The process of keeping track of and maintaining relationships with former employees to see if they would e willing to return to the firm. (p.178)
Independent Contractors
Workers who are self-employed and do project work on a contract basis for different organizations. (p.181)
Employee Leasing
The process of dismissing employees who are then hired by a leasing company (which handles all HR-related activities) and contracting with that company to lease back the employees. (p.182)
Nine-Box Grid
a comparative diagram that includes appraisal and assessment data to allow managers to easily see an employees actual and potential performance. (p.184)
Realistic Job Preview
Informing applicants about all aspects of the job, including both its desirable and undesirable facets. (p.185)
Employee Profiles
A profile of a worker developed by studying an organization’s top performers to recruit similar types of people. (p.185)
Time-To-Fill
A metric that refers to the number of days from when a job opening is approved to the date the person is chosen for the job. (p.186)
Quality-To-Fill
a metric that measures how well new hires have gotten “up to speed”, are performing, and their retention levels.
Yield Ratio
The percentage of applicants from a particular source that makes it to the next stage in the selection process. (p.186)
Acceptance Rate
The percentage of applicants who accept a firm’s job after being offered them. (p.186)
Applicant Tracking Systems
A software application recruiters use to post job openings, screen resumes, and uploaded profiles, contact via email potential candidates for interviews, and track the time, costs and other metrics related to hiring people. (p.187)
Career Paths
Lines of advancement in an occupational field within an organization. (p.188)
Job Progressions
The hierarchy of jobs a new employee mite experience, ranging from a starting job to jobs that successfully require more knowledge and or skill. (p.191)
Promotion
A change of assignment to a job at a higher level in the organization. (p.191)
Transfer
Placement of an individual in another job for which the duties, responsibilities, status, and remuneration are approximately equal to those of the previous job. (p.192)
Demotion
A downward transfer that moves an individual into a lower-level job that can provide development opportunities. (p.192)
Outplacement Services
Services provided by organizations to help terminated employees find a new job. (p.192)
Mentors
Individuals who coach, advise, and encourage individuals of lesser rank (p.196)
Reverse Mentoring
A program whereby younger employees are called on to mentor older employees and executives about social medial trends, new technology, and marketplace trends. (p.196)
Career Plateau
A situation in which for either organizational or personal reasons the probability of moving up the career ladder is low. (p.197)
Sabbatical
An extended period of time in which an employee leaves an organization to pursue other activities and later returns to his or her job. (p.198)
Informational Interview
A conversation you have with someone in a career you are interested in to gather info about it. (p.216)
Job Shadowing
The process of observing someone in his or her work environment to see if the job is of interest to you. (p.216)
Entrepreneur
One who starts, organizes, manages, and assumes responsibility for a business or other enterprise. (p.217)
Selection
The process of choosing individuals who have relevant qualifications to fill existing or projected job openings. (p.224)
Reliability
The degree to which interviews, tests, and other selection procedures yield comparable data over time and alternative measures. (p.226)
Validity
The degree to which a test or section procedure measures a person’s attributes. (p.226)
Video Resumes
Short video clips that highlight applicants qualifications beyond what they can communicate on their resumes. (p.229)
Weighted Application Blank
Scored application form – application that is designed to distinguish between successful and unsuccessful employees. (p.229)
Non-Directive Interviews
An interview in which the applicant is allowed the maximum amount of freedom in determining the course of discussion, while the interviewer carefully refrains from influencing the applicants remarks. (p.232)
Structured interview
an interview in which a set of standardized questions having an established set of answers is used (p.232)
Behavioral Description Interview
An interview in which an applicant is asked questions about what he or she actually did in a given situation. (p.232)
Sequential Interview
a format in which a candidate is interviewed by multiple people, one right after the other. (p.232)
Panel interview
an interview in which a board of interviewers questions and observes a single candidate. (p.233)
Video Interviews
Interviews conducted via video conferencing or over the web. (p.233)
Computer-administered (automated) interview
interviews in which the questions are administered to applicants via computers. the interviews can be conducted at a firm’s facilities, using kiosks, online or via phone. (p.234)
Negligent Hiring
The failure of an organization to discover, via due diligence, that an employee it hired had the propensity to do harm to others. (p.237)
Preemployment test
An objective and standardized measure of a sample of behavior that is used to gauge a persons knowledge, skills, abilities, and other attributes relative to other individuals. A process by which individuals are evaluated as they participate in a series of situations that resemble what they might need to handle on the job. (p.239)
Assessment Center test
a process by which managerial candidates are evaluated at an assessment center as they participate in a series of situations that resemble what the might need to handle on the job. (p.241)
Cognitive Ability Tests
Measure mental capabilities such as general intelligence, verbal fluency, numerical ability, and reasoning ability.
Extroversion
the degree to which someone is talkative, sociable, active, aggressive, and excitable. (p242)
Agreeableness
the degree to which someone is trusting, amiable, generous, tolerant, honest, cooperative and flexible. (p.242)
Conscientiousness
the degree to which someone is dependable and organized, and perseveres in tasked. (p.242)
Neuroticism
The degree to which someone is secure, calm, independent, and autonomous. (p.243)
Criterion-Related Validity
The extent to which a selection tool predicts, or significantly correlates with, important elements of work behavior. (p.246)
Concurrent Validity
The extent to which the test scores of current employees correlate with job performance.(p.246)
Predictive Validity
The extent to which applicants’ test scores match criterion data obtained from those applicants/ employees after they have been on the job for some indefinite period. (p.246)
Cross Validation
Verifying the results obtained from a validation study by administering a test or battery test to a different sample (drawn from the same population). (p.246)
Content Validity
The extent to which a selection tool measures a theoretical construct or trait. (p.247)
Construct Validity
The extent to which a selection instrument, such as a test, adequately samples the knowledge and skills needed to perform a particular job. (p.247)
‘Can Do’ Factor
include a candidates knowledge and skills, as well as the aptitude (the potential) for acquiring new knowledge and skills. (p.248)
‘Will Do’ Factor
include the candidates motivation, interests, and other personality characteristics. (p.248)
Compensatory Model
A selection decision model in which a high score in one area can make up for a low score in another area. (251)
Multiple Cutoff Model
A selection decision model that required an applicant to achieve some minimum level of proficiency on all selection dimensions. (p.251)
Multiple Hurdle Model
A sequential strategy in which only the applicants with the highest scores at an initial test stage go on to subsequent stages. (p.251)
Selection Ratio
The numbers of applicants compare with the number of people hired. (p.252)

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