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HSV 4800 Final Exam Review

Given the amount of detail in laws and regulations at both the state and federal levels, the health care industry is, at the very least, a quasi-regulated industry.
In recent decades government and insurers have exerted control over much of health care’s money supply
The pace of technological change in health care has slowed considerably over the recent decade
Managed care organizations have brought pressure to bear on hospitals and physicians to reduce the length of hospital stays
A formal agreement between separately owned and controlled facilities to officially coordinate and share certain activities is most appropriately referred to as
an affiliation
Which of the following is not true concerning regulation of the health care industry?
The regulation of health care has little actual impact on a health care organization’s day to day activities
The apparent principal driving force behind the growth of health maintenance organizations (HMOs) has been:
driven principally by dollars- the desire of payers to stem excessive cost increases or reduce costs overall
The goal of organizational survival is so fundamental that it underpins all other goals of an organization. Threats to organizational survival may include what?
lack of strong leadership, competition, failure to recognize and accept organizational survival as a legitimate organizational purpose
The administration of an acute care hospital invites the owner of local comprehensive rehabilitation facility to serve as a voting member on the hospital’s areawide planning commission. In this way the hospital is “sharing” its power by absorbing new leadership. This is an example of:
formal co-optation
An acute care hospital has declared a three year moratorium on building due to uncertainty about economic and demographic shifts in it local area. This is an example of:
The owners of an independent rehabilitation center have made the decision to add new specialty service for sports-related injuries to its existing range of services. This is an example of:
goal expansion
All of the following are characteristics of the youth stage in the organizational life cycle except:
resistance to change
All of the following are characteristics of middle age phase in the organizational life cycle except:
frequent innovative decision making

(routine, predictable procedures
Blend of formal and informal communication patterns,
management authority derived primarily from formal position)

All of the following are characteristics of the old age phase of the life cycle except:
goal expansion efforts

(primary efforts geared to organizational survival,
staff reduction initiative, increasing hostility by employees toward the management team)

The restructuring of healthcare organizations through mergers and affiliations are efforts aimed at adaptation and survival. Amongst other things, the belief is that an increase in size will give the healthcare organization greater clout in negotiations with managed care providers and improve efficiencies as the result of centralized administrative practices.
According to the video clip, “Managing Change in a Large Organization”, organizations can only survive in a highly competitive environment if they have the resilience to effectively deal with change, whether coming from within the company or from the outside.
A legislative mandate, such as the Patient Self Determination Act, is an example of what?
a healthcare trend that demonstrates a concern about patient wishes and the rights of patients to facilitate their own health care decisions
Select the demographic patterns of the overall population that would have a direct impact on healthcare organizations.
increase in the number of older persons, the rise in autism, the increase in childhood obesity
Health care costs have been driven up by what?
government programs that include Medicaid and Medicare and the overexpansion of the hospital system, changes in medical practice and the increase in medical specialties, and advances in technology and pharmaceuticals
One example of changes in information technology are the HIPPA regulations which require the adoption of standard protocols for electronic transactions
Information technology has a major impact on health care delivery. Rather than the historical methods of gathering and retaining information, which new methods are associated with information technology in the digital age?
data mining, informatics standards and common language, and PDAs, portable computers, e-mail
Resistance to change is an unnatural state within the individual
The requirements in the section of the Health Insurance Portability an Accountability Act (HIPPA) referred to as “Administrative Simplication”, are actually complex and the effects on organizations have been anything but simple
Involvement, often the strongest force in overcoming employee resistance to change, is sometimes not an available option
Conformance with the requirements of HIPPA has cost many organizations considerably more than the government’s estimates
There is presently a reasonable chance that HIPPA, because of its unpopularity among health care providers, will be repeated
Ordering employees to do something is probably the most effective means of ensuring acceptance of change
The implementation of the electronic health record is an example of proactive change
The American Health Information Association (AHIMA) is a national association of health information managers
Stakeholders in the implementation processes associated with the electronic health record include the National Library of Medicine
The American Health Information Association’s legislative advocacy program concerning non-discrimination based on health conditions primarily focuses on the personal health record
The Patient Self Determination Act of 1990
addresses end-of-life decisions and care related thereto, provides for the use of living wills, health care proxies, and advance directives, was made necessary in part by technological advances in life-support systems
Likely reasons for entrenched employee resistance to change are
the uneasiness created among employee when they anticipate having to change the way they do their work, and step out of their comfort zone, employees’ lack of knowledge of what is coming; that is, fear of the unknown, and lack of control or involvement in the decisions that influence the change
All of the following are characteristics of the change process associated with adjustments to Y2K except
the change involved little or no opportunity for making other system-wide improvements, such as upgrading existing computerized systems

(managers were dealing with a predicted change, the need for the change was known for several years ahead of the deadline, the change involved a combination of predictable and unpredictable aspects)

The changes associated with the Patient Self Determination Act resulted in renewed interest in, and activity by, the following committee of the patient care team
ethics review committee
The changes associated with the Patient Self Determination Act include all of the following except:
crisis approach to unanticipated change in requirements for documentation

(rapid routinization through update of existing documentation processes, patient and family outreach and education program offerings, rapid routinization through update of existing admissions processes)

Tell employees what to do
urgent- an outbreak of a contagious disease creates unplanned for conditions in a local hospital
Involve employee in the decision
planning- a new manager wants to implement a scheduling change for nursing staff
convince the employees by explaining why and how the change can be good overall
edict from top management- the Board of the hospital has decided to merge operations with another local hospital and reorganize employees
According to the Powerpoint this week (3), what should managers do to contribute to the organizations survival?
managers must continually notice changes in the environment and organization, assess the change and manage change

managers can’t know it all. managers must count on and listen more to their employees

managers must create worker-centered teams, self-organizing and self-designing teams, and promote an organization where everyone is involved

To comply with the HIPPAA’s Privacy Rule, organizations are required to
publish policies and procedures regarding privacy, train employees, monitor compliance with requirements, maintain documented proof that requirements are fulfilled
After reviewing the Powerpoint this week (3), match the characteristics of an organization to whether it represents the “New” or “Old” paradigm of organizational management
Old: Imposed goals, top down decision making
People must fit the job rather than jobs to fit people

New: Flatter, decentralized operations with more opportunity for interactions with people at the top
Acceptance of the need for constant change, strong employee involvement

Directing and controlling together comprise the first-line manager’s role; other functions, specifically planning, lie completely with top management
The human relations approach to management is concerned primarily with the standardization of processes and only secondarily concerned about the worker
It can be necessary for managers to modify their management or leadership style if it is inconsistent with the organization’s authority structure or culture
Only the human resources department need be concerned with the implementation details of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)
The systems model is made up of four basic components: inputs, throughputs or processes, outputs, and feedback
The function of the manager which involves developing the organizational chart, job descriptions, and statements of work flow is
A manager develops standardized, uniform work methods for clerical staff to facilitate efficiency. This reflects the management approach associated with
scientific management
In the systems approach to management practices, the requirements of an external accrediting board such as JACHO (Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations) are classified as
inputs for a healthcare organization
In the classification of organizations by Prime Beneficiary, a labor union is classified as
mutual benefit organization
In the classification of organizations by Authority Structure, the authority pattern associated with members of a professional association such as AHIMA is
As outlined in the class PowerPoint (4), select the three key functions of management
1. staffing-recruiting, selecting, training, developing people to do the organization’s work
2. organizing-deciding the activities needed to reach objective
3. planning-selecting and deciding how to achieve future courses of action for organization
The system cycles from disorder to order as it continually adjusts to the changing environment
open system
The flow of information stays within the system
closed system
The system is in a constant state of flux
open system
No input is received and there is no change in the components of the system
closed system
What does it mean when we say that there is a “scientific nature” to management?
there is a codified body of knowledge consisting of theories and principles that can be studied much like any science
A non-profit healthcare organization can be classified as a typical service organization, however a for-profit healthcare institution is more appropriately classified as a business organization
Sometimes a professional practitioner assumes the role of manager over their unit as the practice grows. Othertimes, a practitioner who develops their own independent practice assumes the role of manager for their own enterprise
As described in the PowerPoint slides (4), an IRS 501 (c) (3) designation means that an organization is what?
tax exempt
As described in the PowerPoint (4), a for-profit generally makes money for the benefit of private owners or stockholders, whereas a non-profit makes money for the benefit to the mission of the organization
As described in the PowerPoint (4), when it comes to making money, only for-profits want to make a profit. Non-profits want to avoid making a profit
A good manager will ignore the web of relationships in an organization, and give little attention to the needs and interests of individuals and groups in the organization
Which characteristic of effective plans gives the employees team immediate motivational feedback
precise plans
Typical philosophical premises in health care planning include all of the following except
requirements for reimbursement practices

(the American Hospital Association’s guidelines of patient rights, codes of ethics of professional associations, values of society concerning privacy and equal access

The usual sequence in developing plans is
mission, objectives, policies, procedures
Functional objectives typically include all of the following except
motivational statements

(priorities, accuracy standards, specific service to be provided)

Policies are intended to be
overall guides and therefore the language used in policy statements is broad
The process of determining long-term objectives for the organization, along with the strategies to accomplish these objectives is termed
strategic planning
The following wording is associated with which type of plan:

Transcription of reports will be done within the following time frame: “To process discharge summaries within eight hours of receipt of dictated report”; “To process operative reports within four hours of receipt dictation”; “Emergency and priority requests on a stat basis”.

functional objective
The following wording is associated with which type of plan: “All occupational therapy personnel will be licensed and registered. Recent graduate or therapists from foreign countries may treat patients but they must be supervised by a licensed and certified occupational therapist who countersigns their patient care plans and progress notes.”
In the decision making process, critical, non-programmed, root decisions are made by
top level management
In the decision making process, top level management usually defer to department heads when the decisions relate to specific areas of technical expertise
Incremental decisions do not usually involve in-depth evaluation of goals, policies or underlying philosophy
In the decision making approach of satisficing, more than one alternative solution may be acceptable as long as it satisfies the minimal criteria
When a manager needs to make decisions in continuous, real-time circumstances needing rapid response, the most effective decision tool is usually
OODA loop
When a manager is making a decision which involves both known and unknown elements, the most effective decision tool is usually
decision tree
When evaluating a decision’s importance, what should be considered?
the resources and time being committed, the degree of risk, and the impact on humans
According to the class PowerPoint (5), what is a mission statement?
a clear statement of an organization’s purpose
According to the class PowerPoint (5), what is a vision statement?
a statement of the desired future of an organization
Which statement best describes the characteristics of rules?
rules guide behavior but unlike policies, rules allow no discretion; rules specify a required course of action
Community Hospital exists to serve the community by providing affordable and readily available evaluations and treatment of the health needs of residents
mission statement
New Horizons Nursing Home values the safety of all residents and will strive to meet all OSHA safety standards, and state and federal safety regulations
policy statement
Food removed from the cafeteria must be in covered containers
Planning is the most fundamental management function; it logically precedes all other management functions
Intensive planning for a major initiative such as the implementation of an organization-wide electronic health record over a four-year period is an example of what type of planning
project planning
Telecommuting may not be appropriate for an employee who copes only marginally with the absence of traditional supervision
It is necessary to use temporary help services as sparingly as possible because they always represent excess cost
Contract management of a service may involve the provision of management only or the entire service including all involved employees
The practice of having an employee report to two different managers is referred to as
split reporting
The right of individuals to exercise a limited form of authority over the specialized functions for which they are responsible, regardless of who exercises line authority, is termed
functional authority
An occupational therapy group providing home care services based on catchment area (location) is an example of departmentation by
When organizing by departments, certain activities do not merit a grouping in a separate department. Typically the department that most often uses or needs the services absorbs them. This “most use” criterion in organizational patterns is associated with
orphan activities
An acute care hospital has received a major grant for a five year research project in the neighborhood health care services. The continuance of the research project after the five years is uncertain. The most likely pattern of organization for the research project is
temporary departmentation
Which item would not be included in a job desctiption
employee benefits
An organizational chart will be the only source of information a new employee needs to determine communication patterns
Which of the following outlines the duties, responsibilities, education/training, skills and abilities necessary to perform a job?
job description
This organizational chart is an example of what?

(blue chart)

master chart depicting the organization
When you have both a chief executive officer and a chief of medical staff, you will typically experience two lines of authority in the health care organization
A credentialed practitioner may find himself or herself in a position of “consultant” for a health care organization. In this situation the practitioner will typically be an independent contractor if their services are needed over a period of time
It is always ideal to have a large span of management
Which statement is not a step of the organizing process for a healthcare organization?
completing financial statements and medical records audits

(identification of goals and determination of the organizational structure needed to reach the goals, monitor the internal and external environment for changes to that the organizational structure can be adjusted, development of the organizational chart, job descriptions, and work flow)

A pyramid-shaped organization tends to result from the development of a heirarchy
Health care institution are characterized by a ___ ____ form of organization because of the traditional relationship of the medical staff to the administrative staff
dual pyramid
According to the class PowerPoint (6), what are the limitations of an organizational chart?
It only shows “formal relationships” and tells nothing of the pattern of human (social) relationships; it shows nothing about the managerial style adopted (eg autocratic or democratic); it very quickly becomes out-of-date
A matrix organization is used to predominantly to provide a flexible and adoptable organizational structure for projects in research or product development
The minimum hiring requirements of a job should include which of the following elements?
minimum educational requirements, experience, specific knowledge required and physical effort required
As described on page 205, as part of a quality control program, the work is inspected in the basic phases of the work rather than at later steps in the process. This characteristic of adequate controls is termed
The Six Sigma approach is total quality management is characterized by
statistical analysis of variations is performance measures
Using and external professional association’s benchmarking measures in a quality control program for your own organization is an example of
external benchmarks
The usual term for a visual control chart for plotting scheduling and progress is
Gantt chart
In order to depict the chronological flow of work, a manager would usually develop a
flow chart
In order to identify trends in workflow, a manager would usually develop a
run chart
In order to identify cause and effect relationships in workflow, a manager would usually develop a
Ishikawa diagram
In order to determine priorities by comparing factors and to facilitate sorting the few critical elements from the less urgent in workflow analysis usually develop a
Pareto chart
In order to show the relationship between two variables or factors in workflow analysis, a manager would usually develop a
One example of an area is critical interest in health care organizations and therefore the focus of performance improvement programs is what
patient safety
It is a term arising within health care, involves examination of records to identify errors that represent departure from some dictated standard, providing information so that these certain kinds of errors can be reduced or eliminated. It is also a retrospective process
quality assurance
It is the oldest of these terms, arising largely out of manufacturing. It focuses on finding errors and defects, rejecting defective work, and providing feedback with which to change processes so fewer defects are produced. It is a retrospective process, looking back after the mistakes have been made
quality control
It is a comparison of one’s own activity or results with the level of activity or results of another department or organization
When considering the participants in a quality improvement process, it is often the line managers who are involved in routine quality control initiatives since they are usually involved in day-to-day opoerations
If you were a nursing home administrator and your nursing home was losing money which activities, processes, actions, etc. would you want to make sure you controlled?
control personnel wages, track new referrals, and control supply costs
Examples of objectives are what?
To improve patient level of functioning through bi-weekly occupational therapy
Examples of measurement tools (items used to measure patient outcomes or patient performance) are what?
Depression Inventory

Quality of Life Assessment

To improve patient quality of life through weekly participation in senior day activities

Examples of indicators of patient or client performance are what?
The rating or scores obtained from measurement tools

Global Assessment Scale of Functioning

An outcome measurement system measures what?
Patient or client performance/outcomes

The actual scores obtained on assessments

Health and human service organizations must be ready to demonstrate the outcomes of their practice or services if they want to receive funding. What does this statement mean?
Health and human service organizations need to provide evidence that they are helping people recover/get better/ achieve their desired goal as a result of receiving services, if they want to receive funding
The common driving force in today’s performance improvement programs is a crucial ingredient that is essential to the success of any performance improvement program. What is it?
top management commitment
In milestone budgeting, the budget periods are divided into equal cycles throughout the project (e.g. three month periods).
The best type of maintenance and repair plan for a department having a mix of new and older equipment is the fee-for-service plan
The budget category which cannot be cut or reduced is
computer software licensing agreements
Given the following standards, calculate the number of full time equivalent employees (FTE’s) needed: one FTE=40 hours/ week per employee at 8 hours per day.

One employee takes 30 minutes to assemble one medical chart. A total of 40 charts are needed per day to be assembled. How many FTEs (people) are needed to assemble these charts in an 8 hour day?

The standard classification of expenditures and other budget transactions is called
the Uniform Code of Accounts
The approach to budgeting in which the financial database of the immediate past year is increased by some given percentage for the coming year is termed
incremental budgeting
Which of the following is an example of a capital expense?
purchasing a new building
Direct expenses include all of the following except
equipment depreciation

(wages and salaries, educational travel and seminars, equipment purchases)

In reviewing budget variances for the current budget year, a manager would give special attention to a line item that is over budget for the review period as well as overbudget for the year
What are budgets used for?
controlling, planning, stating in fiscal terms what the organization intends to accomplish
Which expense is typically the largest category of expense in the budget of a health care organization
cost of personnel
The external “full” financial audit of a health care organization is typically conducted monthly
Which of the following statements are true about budgets?
1. budgets are prepared annually
2. budgets are a roadmap for the healthcare practice
3. budgets are prepared by projecting revenue and expense based on past experience
The best prediction of future business volume for your healthcare practice is what?
The past or current business volume of your practice
In healthcare business, the money received during the month is most likely payment for services provided when?
services provided one to three months prior
The costs of travel is typically the largest category of expense in the budget of a health care organization
Consumable items in a budget are those things needed for the day-to-day work and are typically listed under the category of supplies. For example, file folders for medical records and latex gloves for examination rooms would be examples of consumable supplies
A doctor’s wages costs a practice $100 per hour, and the doctor can perform 1 established patient office visit procedure of moderate complexity in 20 minutes.

The Medicare reimbursement for this procedure is $50. Does the practice cover the cost of the doctor’s wages for the office visit?

Yes, because the doctor costs $33.33 for 20 minutes and Medicare will reimburse $50 for the visit
A strategic plan usually lays out the desired outcomes for a long period of time, e.g., several years
The initial strategic plan is usually completed after the organization has moved out of the youth stage of the life cycle and well into the middle age phase of the life cycle
A SWOT analysis is associated with
strategic plan
Licensure and accrediting agencies are given access to the annual reports if they request these documents
When a full time employee plans to open his own private practice on weekends, while continuing as a week day employee with his regular employer, he is free to do so without consulting the full time employer
Articles of incorporation and the related bylaws for an independent business would typically include all of the following except:
a listing of the fees charged for services

(legal name of the corporation, provision for distribution of assets when the business is dissolved, frequency of required meetings of the executive board)

A due diligence report is carried out when one organization plans to merge with or acquire another organization. It includes obtaining complete background information about the target organization’s assets and liabilities
An IRS 501 (c) (3) designation means that an organization is what?
Tax exempt
A for-profit generally makes money for the benefit of private owners or stockholders, whereas a non-profit makes money for the benefit of the mission of the organization
An occupational therapist had been working for five years in a rehabilitation unit of a local hospital. The therapist was developing a specialty for treating individuals with neuromuscular disorders, traumatic brain injury, and stroke. The therapist decided to leave the hospital job, start a business on her own, and named it Rehabilitation Works. The therapist decided to rent space in an existing clinical facility before purchasing a building. What is the most likely business structure for Rehabilitation Works?
sole proprietorship
If you are operating a homeless shelter, where will you probably get MOST of your revenue from to cover your expenses?
Child Day Care funding
private pay
Senior day care for veterans funding
government contract
Occupational Therapy in outpatient setting funding
commercial insurance, Medicaid, Medicare
Physician office visit funding
commercial insurance, Medicaid, Medicare
According to the PowerPoint (10), what is a business model?
a plan to make money
WMU has implemented a hiring freeze; however the University has hired a new President who has new ideas for WMU, WMU has strong allied health programs that are ranked among the best nationally. The State of Michigan’s economy however, still presents a major future challenge to WMU and the new President.

Complete a SWOT analysis for WMU.

Strength: WMU has strong allied health programs that are ranked among the best nationally

Weakness: The enrollment at WMU is down and the funding from tuition is reduced

Opportunity: the University is talking about opening a new Medical School

Threat: The State of Michigan’s economy however, still presents a major future challenge and threaten’s WMU’s future

In a healthcare business, the money received during the month is most likely from services provided when?
during previous months, possibly 60 to 90 days ago
Figuring out who will pay for a service is not always easy. There are different reimbursement structures depending on the type of service provided. What ONE reimbursement structure noted below, would NOT be a likely method of payment for OT services at an outpatient clinic
exchange of services

(payment by an insurance contract, private payment by patient, contract payment by a local or state entity)

Insofar as it can be done, all conflict should be resolved at as low an organizational level as possible
Some of the patterns of accommodation to organizational life that are functional for the organization can be dysfunctional for the individual employee
The prospect of negative sanctions is the most effective means of ensuring employee compliance and performance
The development of an employee’s sense of identification with the organization is good for the organization but rarely is it good for the individual
Which of the following practices is NOT consistent with the Appreciative Inquiry approach to motivation and conflict reduction
collective bargaining contract renewal secessions begins with a review of the past two years’ grievances against management

(consultant report contains both positive and negative findings, employee evaluation session begins with emphasis on worker’s positive performance, risk management review committee prepares a study on patient safety in terms of care given without mishap

The art of motivating is built on the recognition of human need. In motivating, the manager seeks to
increase the employee’s will to work
A collective bargaining agreement (union contract) specifies that management may implement work rules. This part of the contract is referred to as
management rights clause
Management refuses to provide a designated bulletin board for union activity notices. This is a violation of
union activity clause
Routine management tools for guiding employee behavior and fostering their integration in the organization include
the employee handbook, policy and procedure manual, and employee training
A union and management agree to settle their issues and enter into a new labor union contract through binding arbitration in order to avoid a strike. This is an example of the conflict strategy of
limitation of conflict
Conflict within the work organization is
an inevitable component of cooperative action; that is, can always be expected
It is essential for every health care organization to have work rules and personnel policies because
they are needed to guide employee behavior and provide the basis for consistent treatment of employees
According to the research of clinical psychologist Frederick Herzberg, as outlined in the PowerPoint (11), the factors that are the top source of job dissatisfaction are what?
company policies and administration, poor relationship with supervisor, work conditions, dissatisfaction with salary
According to the research of clinical psychologist Frederick Herzberg, as outlined in the PowerPoint (11), the factors that really motivate an employee more than other factors and are generally the top source of job satisfaction are what?
Achievement, recognition, responsibility
What strategy works best when approaching conflict resolution?
depersonalize the situation and leave your emotions out of the deliberations
Work rules are primarily meant to serve the following functions in an organization
create order, help unify the organization, make behavior routine, ensure compliance
According to the PowerPoint lecture (11), some supervisors and other managers assume that the main thing employees want out of a job is money. While money can be a motivator, it is not the only motivator, and for some people it is not the most important motivator
Although the book hardly addresses generational and cultural differences, a wise manager will consider both when actively engaging and motivating their labor force
Motivational strategies that might be utilized to influence employees include what?
1. job rotation, job enrichment, job enlargement
2. career ladders
3. incentives and bonuses, awards and honors
The true source of conflict in an organization may be too explosive to deal with openly so it remains at the hidden agenda
At present the healthcare industry is not significantly unionized
(chapter 9)
An ad hoc committee and a task force differ from each other in that one is a temporary arrangement and the other is essentially permanent
It is an essential requirement of any committee that its members never attempt to exercise line authority over others
An advantage of committee activity is that the stimulation of shared thinking may lead to a better decision than might be reached by an individual
A committee can never totally take the place of individual managers who accept specific responsibilities and exhibit leadership
When a committee is created, it is best to leave its purpose and function, as well as its scope of activity, vague until the committee is familiar with working together
A sometimes-encountered disadvantage of committees is the occasional committee that continues to exist and to meet long after its basic charge has been fulfilled and it has outlived its usefulness
For most standing committees in a health care organization, meeting minutes or other records of proceedings are optional, created or not according to the chairperson’s preference.
A “team” is ordinarily seen as less formal or less structured than a “committee”, although it is possible for each to exist for a specific purpose
There is always the chance that a team composed of mostly rank-and-file employees could be considered an illegal labor organization
Some important and highly disruptive effects on teams occur because most rewards and compensation systems focus on individual effort rather than on team performance
Minutes serve as the permanent factual record of a committee meeting
What disadvantages are there for an organization to have effective committees?
1. a committee can share the burden of decisions
2. a committee can counterbalance the authority of an executive director
3. a committee can coordinate the activities of decentralized units
What are committee disadvantages and limitations?
1. committee deliberations can be slow
2. committees can be costly
3. committee absenteeism can be a problem
The person who is responsible for preparing the agenda for a meeting and guiding the deliberations is the?
What should a manager avoid when using employee teams?
giving employees the opportunity to deal with terms and conditions of employment, such as wages, hours and benefits
The joint committee structure is often used for decision making and monitoring because of the dual management structure in healthcare organizations (medical/clinical personnel versus the business/administrative personnel)
A group of people in an organization who function collectively in an organized basis to perform some administrative activity is called a committee
What can be said about the value of using employee teams to solve organizational problems?
1. it makes sense to get opinions about employees’ needs and desires when making changes and solving problems within an organization
2. No one knows a job better than the employee who does it every day
3. it make sense to look for ways to make the fullest possible use of employee input so that employees can “own” their jobs
Typical standing committees in health care organizations include those responsible for dealing with credentials, infection control, patient care policies, patient medical records, and quality assurance
Managers may themselves be the chairperson of committees
The use of teams is one way for management to demonstrate that it values the input of employees and wants their participation
Employee training and staff development are helpful overall but have little effect in changing behavior to meet the needs of the organization
It is difficult to detect certain forms of e-mail abuse by employees because an individual’s e-mail is private
The Stark Law is federal legislation that makes it illegal for physicians to refer Medicare or Medicaid patients to other providers in which they hold a financial interest
According to strait forward interpretation of most organizations’ codes of conduct, which of the following does not constitute an ethical violation
using one’s own cell phone to place personal calls at one’s work station during lunch hour

(taking orders for one’s home-based food container business at the office during the workday, photocopying a recipe booklet on the office copier, selling one’s children’s fund-raising candy bars at work)

Which of the following is ordinarily not covered during a general orientation to the organization?
How to file a claims under the organization’s health insurance program

(the administrative structure of the organization, the customary timing and frequency of performance evaluations, the organization’s expectations concerning attendance)

An adequate training objective includes all of the following except
error penalty

(level of mastery or acceptable performance level, time limit for reaching level of mastery, performance standard)

The training method in which an employee is given job assignments in a variety of work assignments in a planned sequence is termed
job rotation approach
A healthcare professional is guided by a professional Code of Conduct or Ethics. What is a Code of Conduct or Ethics?
a set of expectations for professional behavior
A PA who does not report a colleague who is impaired (under the influence of something such as alcohol) while at work is demonstrating what?
committing a breach of ethics
Your supervisor tells you to do something that doesn’t sound quite ethical. What should you do?
Ask your supervisor’s supervisor or other member of senior management
A healthcare professional must work within their Scope of Practice for their profession. What is a Scope of Practice?
defines the clinical practice parameters of the profession such as the type of services or procedures, actions, and processes that are permitted for the licensed individual
An OT who practices family counseling for parents of children with autism is doing what?
working outside of her scope of practice
A healthcare professional must also follow the Standards of Practice for their profession. What are Standards of Practice?
the accepted evidence-based clinical procedures and treatment approaches for the profession
According to the class lesson, what governs the actions of a healthcare professional while performing their work?
a professional code of conduct and licensing/certification laws and regulations
According to the class PowerPoint lesson (12), what governs an organization’s actions?
policies and procedures, licenses and accreditation standards
Michigan requires that a group therapy session be held for 50 minutes, but the group members were not working together well and I ended the group in 30 minutes. Can I bill for the group?
Can I acce[t a large sum of money or a gift as a “thank you” from client’s family member for taking extra special care of a client in a rehabilitation program?
No, tips for giving preferential treatment to a client are unethical
Which of the following is an example of healthcare fraud?
billing for services not furnished
Which of the following is not an example of healthcare fraud?
submitting charges after ninety days

(filing claims for patients never seen, submitting charges that don’t exist, providing false information about a patient or healthcare provider)

Under this legislation, a company is prohibited from discharging, demoting, suspending, threatening, harassing or discriminating against any employee because of lawful acts done by the employee on behalf of the employer or because the employee testifies or assists in an investigation of the employer
Whistleblower’s Protection Act
To avoid conflict of interest as a manager of a department with the authority to hire or recommend for hire, you must not employ relatives
The capacity to obtain compliance from another without relying on formal actions, rules or force is termed
The right to command or exact compliance in an organization is termed
All of the following terms for styles of leadership are related except

(authoritarian, boss-centered)

Participative leadership style is the opposite of
autocratic authority
Which is not a leadership characteristic?
physical features that look like a leader

(desire to make a difference, clear sense of values and ethics, conviction and passion for a cause)

According to the class lesson (PowerPoints) (13) how does management and leadership differ?
1. management is primarily responsible for the day to day activities of running a business or organization; leadership is primarily responsible for planning for the future of the organization

2. management attends to the details and the operational tasks; leadership attends to the big picture and provides the vision for the organization

3. management and leadership are both important responsibilities in an organization

The primary objective of disciplinary action is punishment
How does disciplinary action progress?
counseling, oral warning, written warning, suspension
A leader worthy of his/ her followers is typically “value added” characteristics. Which of the following is not one of these characteristics?
over-reacting and ready to give orders

(gracious interpersonal style, calm orderly work habits, ethical and respectful)

Leadership today in the knowledge society is less about “controlling people, and more about “inspiring” people to choose to contribute their knowledge
As the Clinical Supervisor for the unit, you have discovered that one of your new clinicians is not making accurate and timely documentation in the medical record. She has been on the clinical team for about a month and she has a positive attitude about her new job. You don’t know why she has not been making accurate and timely documentation.

Using the Situational Leadership Style, as the Clinical Supervisor you should do what?

talk to her and spell out what the expectations are for her performance, and supervise her work more closely for a while
The new concept of management replaces the traditional hierarchy, command and control model of management with what?
many leaders in the organization, and self-managed, self-organized teams

(top down management, more detailed job descriptions and strict work rules, quality assurance programs, employee satisfaction surveys….not the correct answers)

What characterizes the servant leader?
puts other people’s priority needs first, serves others and emphasizes/ supports
What are the four situational leadership styles?
directing, coaching, supporting, delegating
What is the laissez-faire leadership style?
an approach where the manager acts as a consultant and the employees receive little or no supervision
What is the participative leadership style?
an approach where the manager involves the employees in decision-making
Functional authority is the authority given to staff members over specific activities because they have specialized knowledge and competence
When the CEO of the healthcare organization wants to disseminated to all employees a new requirement to get flu shots, it is better to give the order verbally
The manager of a physical therapy professional staff is trying to determine summer vacation schedules. Which style should the manager use in this scenario?`
allow the therapists to have input to the vacation schedule
For activities such as safety routines, it is acceptable to use a bureaucratic leadership style; policies and procedures must be followed
The manager who is paternalistic treats employees like
So-called “sexual harassment” is not limited to the workplace; it can still occur off-premises and after hours
Human resources is not the ultimate decision maker of whether an individual is discharged
Human resource’s involvement with the performance appraisal system is limited to the distribution of forms and the filing of completed evaluations
For human resources to be of maximum assistance to the departments, it may be necessary for the managers to take the initiative to challenge human resources
Which of the following activities is least likely to be found in the majority of present-day human resource departments?
strategic planning

(compensation, recruitment, employee relations)

When human resources finds it necessary to recommend against a department manager who wishes to fire a particular employee, it is usually because
there is no documentation trail showing hat procedures have been followed
Which of the following outlines the duties, responsibilities, education/training, skills and abilities necessary to perform a job?
job description
Which of the following should be included in an employee’s performance evaluation?
an assessment of the employee’s achievements during the year
During an interview it is acceptable to ask a candidate whether or not they have a disability
Which one is an acceptable interview question?
Are there specific times you cannot work?

(Are you pregnant or do you plan to have a child? Are you HIV positive? Have you ever filed a disability claim?)

Select the two topics below that are NOT among the “top 10 topics” to avoid during an interview
essential functions of the job and hours of work

(children, origin of name, previous lawsuits, age)

Questions that prompt discussion
good question
Questions that require a candidate to give an example
good question
Leading questions where the answer is obvious
bad question
Questions about personal information such as family
bad question
Questions that require only a one word answer
bad question
The “new” way of managing employee performance is to have ongoing performance conversations, and continual feedback
One way communication, largely focused on the employee’s deficiencies
old style
Largely focused on the employee’s achievements
new style
Two way communication focused on setting goals and future performance
new style
Annual one time event, focused on past performance
old style
Human Resources typically does none of the actual work of the health care organization; rather it facilitates the work of the organization by engaging in acquiring, maintaining, and retaining employees so that the objectives of the organization may be fulfilled
The wage and hour laws spell out who is to be paid for what and how. They specify who can be exempt and nonexempt. Exempt literally means exempt from having to pay minimum wage
Human Resources is today’s more all-encompassing title for what most organizations once called “personnel”
What federal law spells out who is to be paid for what and how, as well as who must be considered nonexempt
Fair Labor Standards Act
When writing a business letter it is recommended to ignore the advice to eliminate unneeded words. Instead of avoiding words, you should make the same important statement two or three times using extra words to ensure it is understood
One significant problem affecting interpersonal communication is the tendency of most people to believe they are better communicators than they really are
The potentially strongest means of communication in business is the formal letter
Electronic mail (e-mail) is an efficient means of communication because, unlike formal letter writing, editing and rewriting are unnecessary
One of the principal advantages of face-to-face communication is that the recipient of the message is exposed to nonverbal as well as verbal elements
Empathy in communication is the ability to project on’e personality onto others and think and feel as they do
The first need to be considered when it is proposed to hold a meeting is what persons of what qualifications should attend
The most serious drawback posed by a written letter, and the principal reason for keeping formal letter writing to a bare minimum is to avoid contributing to the overflow of paperwork experienced in health care
It can often be shown that the fastest means of communication within the work organization operates outside of the organization’s formal communication channels
Distrust of various individuals within the chain of command can impede both upward ad downward communication
As a communication process, listening presents unique problems largely because
1. listening is a passive process, while the other communication processes (speaking, writing, reading) are all active

2. there is a strong tendency among many people to equate listening with simply hearing

3. rather than listening, some people are thinking of what they will say next

Information flows downward in an organization better than it flows upward in part because
management controls most of the means of communication within the organization
The telephone will remain important in business communication because
it provides the opportunity for immediate feedback and response
Which of the following is not one of the principal components of communication?

(initiation, feedback, transmission)

Feedback is an essential part of all modes of communication because
it is needed to ensure that the intended message was received
According to the class lesson (15) (ch 14), what should a manager in a healthcare practice do to be more effective and to keep ongoing lines of communication open with staff
1. keep their office door open and allowing people to communicate with them as needed

2. stroll around and speaking casually with people, getting to know something about them

3. give staff their attention when meeting with them, rather than answering the phone during conversations and continuing to work on other things when meeting with staff

According to the class lesson (15) (ch14), a manager can overcome obstacles to effective communication by learning to listen actively to what people are saying. People who actively listen usually do what?
spend less time talking, ask questions, and paraphrase to confirm understanding
The single factor of size can influence the quality and kinds of communication employed within an organization
The strongest means of communication for the healthcare manager is email
Select the one item that is not a personal tool to be applied in promoting interpersonal communication

(authenticity, empathy, disclosure)

It is best for a manager to remain acutely aware of the grapevine in an organization and the bits and pieces of information it carries
An individual’s excellent performance as a specialist in a given occupation is a reliable indicator of that person’s knowledge and ability in matters of management (such as budgeting, planning, communicating, etc.)
The manager who experiences difficulties with some of the requirements of management will often place emphasis on his or her technical or non-managerial duties
Though well educated, the high-skill professional usually resists independent action and avoids the exercise of discretion and judgement
Only professionals- never nonprofessionals- should be managed utilizing a Theory Y approach to leadership
Situational leadership is fully as valid when managing professional as when managing nonprofessionals
The manager of professionals is fortunate in that professional employees rarely if ever exhibit any appreciable resistance to change
Although professionals often lay claim to special needs, rarely if ever is it appropriate to have different personnel policies for them than for nonprofessionals
The professional who is asked to step up into management within the profession
is in effect being asked to take on a second occupation
The ego barrier to a professional’s success as a manager often resides in
1. a tendency to consider management as a lesser calling than the profession and thus less important

2. the inability to recognize management as an occupation in its own right

3. a tendency to regard one’s own profession as more important than most of the others in the health care organization

High-skill professionals can be difficult to manage because
they are often self-sufficient and accustomed to determining how they do their work
The higher the professional level of a group of employees, the greater the likelihood that the manager must
emphasize consultative or participative approaches to management
The manager of professionals accrues most of his or her employee acceptance through
the fair and impartial practice of leadership
Management is not accepted by many as an occupation in its own right
The “surely-I-can-do-it” attitude toward management is often encountered in some well educated technical and professional employees; they see management and its structure as something lesser-and thus easier- than their own specialties, and they assume a “transference of expertise”
Much of the attitude about management is also owing to the fact of management practices and techniques comprise but a minor part of a specialist’s education. A professional earning a four-year degree may find that the entire curriculum included only one or two courses in management
Although it is well known that the best clinicians do not necessarily make the best managers, work organizations will continue to promote the most knowledgeable clinicians into management where, ultimately, some succeed and some fail
Some professionals who take on the management of departments never completely adapt to the dual role of professional and manager, and develop an appropriate balance between the two sides of the role
The Theory Y about people assumes that people are NOT naturally passive and resistant to organizational needs
In the end, one important factor that characterizes or defines a leader is acceptance of the leader by the followers. Most of this acceptance must be earned.
Two hats of a professional who assumes a management position are
specialist and manager
What conditions may give rise to credibility problems in a given work group?
1. when the manager is not of the same profession

2. when the employees see their manager as a nonprofessional

3. when the manager is thought to be on a lower professional level than the employee

Every worker has a valuable role in methods improvement, but in all probability the professional knows the work far better than the manager because they do the work every day

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