The restructuring of healthcare organizations through mergers and affiliations are efforts aimed at adaptation and survival. Amongst other things, the belief is that an increase in size will give the healthcare organization greater clout in negotiations with managed care providers and improve efficiencies as the result of centralized administrative practices.
A legislative mandate, such as the Patient Self Determination Act, is an example of what?
A healthcare trend that demonstrates a concern about patient wishes and the rights of patients to facilitate their own health care decisions.
Select the demographic patterns of the overall population that would have a direct impact on healthcare organizations.
Increase in the number of older persons
The rise in autism
The increase in childhood obesity
All of the above
Health care costs have been driven up by what?
government programs that include Medicaid and Medicare and the overexpansion of the hospital system
changes in medical practice and the increase in medical specialties
advances in technology and pharmaceuticals
all of the above have contributed to the increase in health care costs
One example of changes in information technology are the HIPAA and HITECH regulations which require the adoption of standard protocols for electronic transactions.
Information technology has a major impact on health care delivery. Rather than the historical methods of gathering and retaining information, which new methods are associated with information technology in the digital age?
informatics standards and common language
PDAs, portable computers, e-mail
all of the above
According to the TED Talk, “Healthcare Should Be a Team Sport” (a link in this week’s module), what is predicted for the future of healthcare?
Care will be able to be delivered at home.
Smart phones and other electronic devices will be able to support diagnostic devices that were previously only available in medical settings.
Care will be customized for the individual.
All of the above.
Regulation of the healthcare industry exists principally in the form of self-regulation.
In recent decades, government and insurers have exerted control over much of health care’s money supply.
Corporate mergers and the formation of healthcare systems have invariably resulted in widespread reductions in healthcare costs.
Managed care organizations have brought pressure to bear on hospitals and physicians to reduce the length of hospital stays.
A formal agreement between separately owned and controlled facilities to officially coordinate and share certain activities is most appropriately referred to as _________.
The apparent principal driving force behind the growth of health maintenance organizations (HMOs) has been ________.
the desire of payers to stem excessive cost increases or reduce costs overall
Two acute care hospitals officially merge. As a result of this merger, all of the following statements are true, EXCEPT:
each hospital retains its ownership and control over its original organization
Trends relating to practitioners and caregivers include which of the following:
Licensed, non-physician practitioners such as nurse practitioners, physician assistants, etc. augment the care of physicians.
Family members are often times the caregivers, especially as inpatient hospital care is decreased.
New job categories have been created to support the management of healthcare, such as certified medical coders.
All of the above.
The eVisit is characterized by what?
A patient and provider communication by means of technology instead of face-to-face.
Why did the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 have a significant impact on healthcare?
Half of the federal budget was protected from budget reductions, leaving drastic cuts in Medicare.
Payment for health care primarily comes from a variety of sources, EXCEPT which one of the following.
Donations from the top 1% of wage earners
Deliberate fraud and abuse in healthcare reimbursement includes which of the following two examples? (Check the two that apply.)
Billing for a patient service that was not provided.
Upcoding a charge to a higher reimbursement level than the service actually required – such as charging a complex patient visit for a low intensity patient.
The role of a healthcare manager includes which of the following functions?
Planning, decision making, organizing, staffing
The requirements in the section of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) referred to as “Administrative Simplication”, are actually complex and the effects on organizations have been anything but simple.
Involvement, often the strongest force in overcoming employee resistance to change, is sometimes not an available option.
Conformance with the requirements of HIPAA has cost many organizations considerably more than the government’s estimates.
Ordering employees to do something is probably the most effective means of ensuring acceptance of change.
The American Health Information Association (AHIMA) is a national association of health information managers.
The American Health Information Association’s legislative advocacy program concerning non-discrimination based on health conditions primarily focuses on the personal health record.
The Patient Self Determination Act of 1990:
addresses end-of-life decisions and care related thereto.
provides for the use of living wills, health care proxies, and advance directives.
was made necessary in part by technological advances in life-support systems.
all of the above.
Likely reasons for entrenched employee resistance to change are:
the uneasiness created among employee when they anticipate having to change the way they do their work, and step out of their comfort zone.
employees’ lack of knowledge of what is coming; that is, fear of the unknown.
lack of control or involement in the decisions that influence the change.
all the above can affect an employees reaction to change.
The changes associated with the Patient Self Determination Act resulted in renewed interest in, and activity by, the following committee of the patient care team:
ethics review committee
Match the situation to the preferred management style.
Tell employees what to do
Urgent – An outbreak of a contagious disease creates unplanned for conditions in a local hospital
Match the situation to the preferred management style.
Involve employees in the decision
Planning -A new manager wants to implement a scheduling change for nursing staff
Match the situation to the preferred management style.
Convince the employees by explaining why and how the change can be good overall.
Edict from Top Management – The Board of the hospital has decided to merge operations with another local hospital and reorganize employees
According to the PowerPoint this week, what should managers do to contribute to the organizations survival?
Managers must continually notice changes in the environment and organization, assess this change and manage change.
Managers can’t know it all. Managers must count on and listen more to their employees.
Managers must create worker-centered teams, self-organizing and self-designing teams, and promote an organization where everyone is involved.
All the above.
To comply with the HIPAAs’s Privacy Rule, organizations are required to:
Publish policies and procedures regarding privacy, train employees, monitor compliance with requirements, maintain documented proof that requirements are fulfilled
Acceptance of the need for constant change, strong employee involvement
People must fit the jobs rather than jobs to fit people
Flatter, decentralized operations with more opportunity for interactions with people at the top
Imposed goals, top down decision making
Resistance to change is an unnatural state within the individual.
Providing employees with clear, specific orders is probably the most effective means of ensuring acceptance of change.
The implementation of the electronic health record is an example of proactive change.
Implementation of changes within an organization in response to the electronic health record initiatives is the primary responsibility of the American Health Information Association.
In addition to encouraging acceptance of a necessary change affecting their jobs, involvement of employees in changing methods and practices is valuable because ____________,
it can empower employees with a sense of ownership of the change
Managers, as visible leaders of their organizatioins, must assume the function of change agents.
The Privacy Official in an organization is the person who is designated to oversee workplace safety.
Directing and controlling together comprise the first-line manager’s role; other functions, specifically planning, lie completely with top management.
The human relations approach to management is concerned primarily with the standardization of processses and only secondarily concerned about the worker.
It can be necessary for managers to modify their management or leadership style if it is inconsistent with the organization’s authority structure or culture.
Only the human resources department need be concerned with the implementation details of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA).
The function of the manager which involves developing the organizational chart, job descriptions, and statements of work flow is:
A manager develops standardized, uniform work methods for clerical staff to facilitate efficiency. This reflects the management approach associated with:
In the systems approach to management practices, the requirements of an external accrediting board such as JACHO (Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations) are classified as:
inputs for a healthcare organization
As outlined in the class PowerPoint, select the three key functions of management. (Check off three boxes.)
Staffing-recruiting, selecting, training, developing people to do the organization’s work.
Organizing-deciding the activities needed to reach objective.
Planning-selecting and deciding how to achieve future courses of action for organization.
The system is in a constant state of flux.
No input is received and there is no change in the components of the system.
The system cycles from disorder to order as it continually adjusts to the changing environment.
The flow of information stays within the system.
What does it mean when we say that there is a “scientific nature” to management? (Choose the best answer.)
there is a codified body of knowledge consisting of theories and principles that can be studied much like any science
As described in the powerpoint slides, an IRS 501 (c) (3) designation means that an organization is what?
As described in the powerpoint, a for-profit generally makes money for the benefit of private owners or stockholders, whereas a non-profit makes money for the benefit of the mission of the organization.
As described in the powerpoint, when it comes to making money, only for-profits want to make a profit. Non-profits want to avoid making a profit.
In the systems approach to management practices, the requirements of a state licensure board for healthcare practitioners are classified as _________________.
In the classification of organizations by authority structure, the authority pattern associated with members of a professional association such as AHIMA is ___________.
In the clientele network model, the community-based physician’s relationship to the acute care hospital is that of a(n) ______________.
The goal of organizational survival is so fundamental that it underpins all other goals of an organization. Threats to organizational survival may include what?
lack of strong leadership
failure to recognize and accept organizational survival as a legitimate organizagtional purpose
all the above
An acute care hospital has declared a three year moratorium on building due to uncertainty about economic and demographic shifts in its local area. This is an example of:
The owners of an independent rehabilitation center have made the decision to add new specialty service for sports-related injuries to its existing range of services. This is an example of:
All the following are characteristics of the old age phase of the life cycle except:
primary efforts geared to organizational survival
goal expansion efforts
staff reduction initiative
increasing hostility by employees toward the management team.
Which is not a leadership characteristic?
physical features that look like a leader
According to the class lesson (powerpoints) how does management and leadership differ?
Management is primarily responsible for the day to day activities of running a business or organization; leadership is primarily responsible for planning for the future of the organization
Management attends to the details and the operational tasks; leadership attends to the big picture and provides the vision for the organization
Management and leadership are both important responsibilities in an organization
All of the above are true.
A leader worthy of his/her followers typically has “value added” characteristics. Which of the following is NOT one of these characteristics?
gracious interpersonal style
calm, orderly work habits
ethical and respectful
over-reacting and ready to give orders
Leadership today in the knowledge society is less about “controlling” people, and more about “inspiring” people to choose to contribute their knowledge.
As the Clinical Supervisor for the unit, you have discovered that one of your new clinicians is not making accurate and timely documentation in the medical record. She has been on the clinical team for about a month and she has a positive attitude about her new job. You don’t really know why she has not been making accurate and timely documentation.
Using the Situational Leadership Style, as the Clinical Supervisor you should do what?
talk to her and spell out what the expectations are for her performance, and supervise her work more closely for awhile
What characterizes the servant leader?
puts other people’s priority needs first, serves others and emphasizes/supports
What are the four situational leadership styles described in the powerpoint?
directing, coaching, supporting, delegating
What is the laissez-faire leadership style?
an approach where the manager acts as a consultant and the employees receive little or no supervision
What is the participative leadership style?
an approach where the manager involves the employees in decision-making
Functional authority is the authority given to staff members over specific activities because they have specialized knowledge and competence.
When the CEO of a healthcare organization wants to disseminated to all employees a new requirement to get flu shots, it is better to give the order verbally.
The manager of a physical therapy professional staff is trying to determine summer vacation schedules. Which style should the manger use in this scenario?
allow the therapists to have input to the vacation schedule
For activities such as safety routines, it is acceptable to use a bureacratic leadership style; policies and procedures must be followed.
The capacity to obtain compliance from another without relying on formal actions, rules, or force is termed _________________.
The right to command or exact compliance in an organization is termed _______________.
All of the following styles of leadership are related, EXCEPT:
The usual style of leadership among professional practitioners is ____________.
Participative leadership style is the opposite of ______________.
A manager should typically delegate responsibility for hiring, disciplinary action, and termination of employees.
Although there are some “natural leaders”, the majority of leaders have carefully cultivated their ability to be a successful leader.
Typical philosophical premises in health care planning include all of the following except:
requirements for reimbursement practices
The usual sequence in developing plans is:
mission, objectives, policies, procedures
Functional objectives typically include all of the following except:
Policies are intended to be:
overall guides and therefore the language used in policy statements is broad.
The following wording is associated with which type of plan: “All occupational therapy personnel will be licensed and registered. Recent graduate or therapists from foreign countries may treat patients but they must be supervised by a licensed and certified occupational therapist who countersigns their patient care plans and progress notes. “
In the decision making process, critical, non-programmed, root decisions are made by:
top level management
In the decision making process, top level management usually defer to department heads when the decisions relate to specific areas of technical expertise.
Incremental decisions do not usually involve in-depth evaluation of goals, policies or underlying philosophy.
In the decision making approach of satisficing, more than one alternative solution may be acceptable as long as it satisfies the minimal criteria.
When a manager needs to make decisions in continuous, real-time circumstances needing rapid response, the most effective decision tool is usually:
When a manager is making a decision which involves both known and unknown elements, the most effective decision tool is usually:
When evaluating a decision’s importance, what should be considered?
the resources and time being committed, the degree of risk, and the impact on humans
According to the class Powerpoint, what is a mission statement?
a clear statement of an organization’s purpose
According to the class Powerpoint, what is a vision statement?
a statement of the desired future of an organization
Which statement best describes the characteristics of rules?
rules guide behavior but unlike policies, rules allow no discretion; rules specify a required course of action
Community Hospital exists to serve the community by providing affordable and readily available evaluations and treatment of the health needs of residents.
Food removed from the cafteria must be in covered containers.
New Horizons Nursing Home values the safety of all residents and will strive to meet all OSHA safety standards, and state and federal safety regulations.
Intensive planning for a major initiative such as the implementation of an organization-wide electronic health record over a four-year period is an example of what type of planning?
“To process discharge summaries within eight hours of receipt of dictated report” is an example of which type of plan?
Certain electronic health record products must meet the USDHHS requirements for healthcare information technology. This is an example of _____________.
the strategic or limiting factor in decision making
A health information manager chooses off-site commercial storage for hard copy records and eliminates the space and staffing associated with in-house storage. This is an example of root decision making.
Telecommuting may not be appropriate for an employee who copes only marginally with the absence of traditional supervision.
It is necessary to use temporary help services as sparingly as possible because they always represent excess cost.
Contract management of a service may involve the provision of management only or the entire service including all involved employees.
The right of individuals to exercise a limited form of authority over the specialized functions for which they are responsible, regardless of who exercises line authority, is termed:
An occupational therapy group providing home care services based on catchment area (location) is an example of departmentation by:
When organizing by departments, certain activities do not merit a grouping in a separate department. Typically the department that most often uses or needs the services absorbs them. This “most use” criterion in organizational patterns is associated with:
An acute care hospital has received a major grant for a five year research project in neighborhood health care services. The continuance of the research project after the five years is uncertain. The most likely pattern of organization for the research project is:
Which item would not be included in a job description?
An organizational chart will be the only source of information a new employee needs to determine communication patterns.
When you have both a chief executive officer and a chief of medical staff, you will typically experience two lines of authority in the health care organization.
A credentialed practitioner may find himself or herself in a position of “consultant” for a health care organization. In this situation the practitioner will typically be an independent contractor if their services are needed over a period of time.
It is always ideal to have a large span of management.
Which statement is not a step of the organizing process for a healthcare organization.
completing financial statements and medical records audits
A pyramid-shaped organization tends to result from the development of a hierarchy.
Health care institutions are characterized by a ____ _______ form of organization because of the traditional relationship of the medical staff to the administrative staff.
According to the class Powerpoint, what are the limitations of an organizational chart?
It only shows ‘formal relationships’ and tells nothing of the pattern of human (social) relationships; it shows nothing about the managerial style adopted (eg autocratic or democratic); It very quickly becomes out-of-date.
A matrix organization is used predominantly to provide a flexible and adaptable organizational structure for projects in research or product development.
The minimum hiring requirements of a job should include which of the following elements?
minimum educational requirements, experience, specific knowledge required and physical effort required
The practice of having an employee report to two different managers is referred to as __________.
An ad hoc committee and a task force differ from each other in that one is a temporary arrangement and the other is essentially permanent.
It is an essential requirement of any committee that its members never attempt to exercise line authority over others.
An advantage of committee activity is that the stimulation of shared thinking may lead to a better decision than might be reached by an individual.
A committee can never totally take the place of individual managers who accept specific responsibilities and exhibit leadership.
When a committee is created, it is best to leave its purpose and function, as well as its scope of activity, vague until the committee is familiar with working together.
A sometimes-encountered disadvantage of committees is the occasional committee that continues to exist and to meet long after its basic charge has been fulfilled and it has outlived its usefulness.
For most standing committees in a health care organization, meeting minutes or other records of proceedings are optional, created or not according to the chairperson’s preference.
A “team” is ordinarily seen as less formal or less structured than a “committee,” although it is possible for each to exist for a specific purpose..
There is always the chance that a team composed of mostly rank-and-file employees could be considered an illegal labor organization.
Some important and highly disruptive effects on teams occur because most rewards and compensation systems focus on individual effort rather than on team performance
Minutes serve as the permanent factual record of a committee meeting.
What advantages are there for an organization to have effective committees?
a committee can share the burden of decisions
a committee can counterbalance the authority of an executive director
a committee can coordinate the activities of decentralized units
all of the answers above
What are committee disadvantages and limitations?
committee deliberations can be slow
committees can be costly
committee absenteeism can be a problem
all of the above
The person who is responsible for preparing the agenda for a meeting and guiding the deliberations is the?
What should a manager avoid when using employee teams?
giving employees the opportunity to deal with terms and conditions of employment, such as wages, hours and benefits
The joint committee structure is often used for decision making and monitoring because of the dual management structure in healthcare organizations (medical/clinical personnel versus the business/administrative personnel).
A group of people in an organization who function collectively in an organized basis to perform some administrative activity is called a committee.
What can be said about the value of using employee teams to solve organizational problems?
it makes sense to get opinions about employees’ needs and desires when making changes and solving problems within an organization
no one knows a job better than the employee who does it every day
it makes sense to look for ways to make the fullest possible use of employee input so that employees can “own” their jobs
all the above
Typical standing committees in health care organizations include those responsible for dealing with credentials, infection control, patient care policies, patient medical records, and quality assurance.
Managers may themselves be the chairperson of committees.
The best type of maintenance and repair plan for a department having a mix of new and older equipment is the fee-for-service plan.
The budget category which cannot be cut or reduced is:
computer software licensing agreements
Given the following standards, calculate the number of full time equivalent employees (FTE’s) needed: one FTE = 40 hours/week per employee at 8 hours per day.
One employee takes 30 minutes to assemble one medical chart. A total of 40 charts are needed per day to be assembled. How many FTEs (people) are needed to assemble these charts in an 8 hour day?
The standard classification of expenditures and other budget transactions is called:
the Uniform Code of Accounts
The approach to budgeting in which the financial database of the immediate past year is increased by some given percentage for the coming year is termed:
Which of the following is an example of a capital expense?
purchasing a new building
Direct expenses include all of the following except:
equipment depreciationwages and salaries
educational travel and seminars
In reviewing budget variances for the current budget year, a manager would give special attention to a line item that is over budget for the review period as well as overbudget for the year.
What are budgets used for?
stating in fiscal terms what the organization intends to accompllish
all of the above
Which expense is typically the largest category of expense in the budget of a health care organiation?
cost of personnel
The external “full” financial audit of a health care organization is typically conducted monthly.
Which of the following statements are true about budgets?
Budgets are prepared annually.
Budgets are a roadmap for the healthcare practice.
Budgets are prepared by projecting revenue and expense based on past experience.
Budgets are always accurate in their predictions.
Answer 1, 2, and 3 are correct.
The best prediction of future business volume for your healthcare practice is what?
the past or current business volume of your practice
In a healthcare business, the money received during the month is most likely payment for services provided when?
services provided one to three months prior
The cost of travel is typically the largest category of expense in the budget of a health care organization.
Consumable items in a budget are those things needed for the day-to-day work and are typically listed under the category of supplies. For example, file folders for medical records and latex gloves for examination rooms would be examples of consumable supplies.
A doctor’s wages costs a practice $100 per hour, and the doctor can perform 1 established patient office visit procedure of moderate complexity in 20 minutes.
The Medicare reimbursement for this procedure is $50.
Does the practice cover the cost of the doctor’s wages for the office visit?
Yes, because the doctor costs $33.33 for 20 minutes and Medicare will reimburse $50 for the visit.
The following are the most significant sources of revenue for healthcare organizations EXCEPT _____?
Co-pays and deductibles from patients
Employee training and staff development are helpful overall but have little effect in changing behavior to meet the needs of the organization.
It is difficult to detect certain forms of e-mail abuse by employees because an individual’s e-mail is private.
The Stark Law is federal legislation that makes it illegal for physicians to refer Medicare or Medicaid patients to other providers in which they hold a financial interest.
According to straightforward interpretation of most organizations’ codes of conduct, which of the following does not constitute an ethical violation:
using one’s own cell phone to place personal calls at one’s work station during lunch hour.
Which of the following is ordinarily not covered during a general orientation to the organization?
How to file claims under the organization’s health insurance program.
An adequate training objective includes all of the following except:
The training method in which an employee is given job assignments in a variety of work assignments in a planned sequence is termed:
job rotation approach
A healthcare professional is guided by a professional Code of Conduct or Ethics. What is a Code of Conduct or Ethics?
a set of expectations for professional behavior
A PA who does not report a colleague who is impaired (under the influence of something such as alcohol) while at work is demonstrating what?
committing a breach of ethics
Your supervisor tells you to do something that doesn’t sound quite ethical. What should you do?
Ask your supervisor’s supervisor or other member of senior management.
A healthcare professional must work within their Scope of Practice for their profession. What is a Scope of Practice?
defines the clinical practice parameters of the profession such as the type of services or procedures, actions, and processes that are permitted for the licensed individual
An OT who practices family counseling for parents of children with autism is doing what?
working outside of her scope of practice
A healthcare professional must also follow the Standards of Practice for their profession. What are Standards of Practice?
the accepted evidence-based clinical procedures and treatment approaches for the profession
According to the class lesson, what governs the actions of a healthcare professional while performing their work?
a professional code of conduct and licensing/certification laws and regulations
According to the class Powerpoint lesson, what governs an organization’s actions?
policies and procedures, licenses and accreditation standards
Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan requires that a group therapy session be held for 50 minutes in order to billed, but the group members were not working together well and I ended the group in 30 minutes. Can I bill for the group?
Can I accept a large sum of money or a gift as a “thank you” from a client’s family member for taking extra special care of a client in a rehabilitation program?
No, tips for giving preferential treatment to a client are unethical.
Which of the following is an example of healthcare fraud?
Billing for services not furnished
Which one of the following is not an example of healthcare fraud?
filing claims for patients never seen
submitting charges that don’t exist
submitting charges after ninety days
providing false information about a patient or healthcare provider
Under this legislation, a company is prohibited from discharging, demoting, suspending, threatening, harassing or discriminating against any employee because of lawful acts done by the employee on behalf of the employer or because the employee testifies or assists in an investigation of the employer.
Whistleblower’s Protection Act
Insofar as it can be done, all conflict should be resolved at as low an organizational level as possible.
Some of the patterns of accommodation to organizational life that are functional for the organization can be dysfunctional for the individual employee.
The prospect of negative sanctions is the most effective means of ensuring employee compliance and performance.
The development of an employee’s sense of identification with the organization is good for the organization but rarely is it good for the individual.
Which of the following practices is NOT consistent with the Appreciative Inquiry approach to motivation and conflict reduction:
consultant report contains both positive and negative findings
employee evaluation session begins with emphasis on worker’s positive performance.
collective bargaining contract renewal sessions begins with a review of the past two years’ grievances against management
risk management review committee prepares a study on patient safety in terms of care given without mishap.
The art of motivating is built on the recognition of human need. In motivating, the manager seeks to:
increase the employee’s will to work
A collective bargaining agreement (union contract) specifies that management may implement work rules. This part of the contract is referred to as:
management rights clause
Management refuses to provide a designated bulletin board for union activity notices. This is a violation of:
union activity clause
Routine management tools for guiding employee behavior and fostering their integration in the organization include:
the employee handbook
policy and procedure manual
all of the above work to foster an employee’s integration into the organization
Conflict within the work organization is:
an inevitable component of cooperative action; that is, can always be expected.
It is essential for every health care organization to have work rules and personnel policies because:
they are needed to guide employee behavior and provide the basis for consistent treatment of employees.
According to the research of clinical psychologist Frederick Herzberg, as outlined in the Powerpoint, the factors that are the top source of job dissatisfaction are what?
Company Policies and Administration, Poor Relationship with Supervisor, Work Conditions, Dissatisfaction With Salary
According to the research of clinical psychologist Frederick Herzberg, as outlined in the Powerpoint, the factors that really motivate an employee more than other factors and are generally the top source of job satisfaction are what?
Achievement, Recognition, Responsibillity
What strategy works best when approaching conflict resolution?
depersonalize the situation and leave your emotions out of the deliberations
Work rules are primarily meant to serve the following functions in an organization:
create order, help unify the organization, make behavior routine, ensure compliance
According to the Powerpoint lecture, some supervisors and other managers assume that the main thing employees want out of a job is money. While money can be a motivator, it is not the only motivator, and for some people it is not the most important motivator.
Although the book hardly addresses generational and cultural differences, a wise manager will consider both when actively engaging and motivating their labor force.
Motivational strategies that might be utilized to influence employees include what?
job rotation, job enrichment, job enlargement
incentives and bonuses, awards and honors
all the above
The true source of conflict in an organization may be too explosive to deal with openly so it remains as the hidden agenda.
Employee problems of performance are different than problems of conduct (such as violation of rules). Problems of performance should be dealth with by ____________?
counseling and retraining
When writing a business letter it is recommended to ignore the advice to eliminate unneeded words. Instead of avoiding unneeded words you should make the same important statement two or three times using extra words to ensure it is understood.
One significant problem affecting interpersonal communication is the tendency of most people to believe they are better communicators than they really are.
The potentially strongest means of communication in business is the formal letter.
Electronic mail (e-mail) is an efficient means of communication because, unlike formal letter writing, editing and rewriting are unnecessary.
One of the principal advantages of face-to-face communication is that the recipient of the message is exposed to nonverbal as well as verbal elements.
Empathy in communication is the ability to project one’s personality onto others and think and feel as they do.
The first need to be considered when it is proposed to hold a meeting is what persons of what qualifications should attend.
The most serious drawback posed by a written letter, and the principal reason for keeping formal letter writing to a bare minimum is to avoid contributing to the overflow of paperwork experienced in health care.
It can often be shown that the fastest means of communication within the work organization operates outside of the organization’s formal communication channels.
Distrust of various individuals within the chain of command can impede both upward and downward communication.
As a communication process, listening presents unique problems largely because:
Listening is a passive process, while the other communication processes (speaking, writing, reading) are all active.
There is a strong tendency among many people to equate listening with simply hearing.
Rather than listening, some people are thinking of what they will say next.
All of the above.
Information flows downward in an organization better than it flows upward in part because:
Management controls most of the means of communication within the organization
The telephone will remain important in business communication because:
It provides the opportunity for immediate feedback and response.
Which of the following is not one of the principal components of communication?
Feedback is an essential part of all modes of communication because:
It is needed to ensure that the intended message was received.
According to the class lesson, what should a manager in a healthcare practice do to be more effective and to keep ongoing lines of communication open with staff?
Keep their office door open and allowing people to communicate with them as needed.
Stroll around and speaking casually with people, getting to know something about them.
Give staff their attention when meeting with them, rather than answering the phone during conversations and continuing to work on other things when meeting with staff.
All of the above are true.
According to the class lesson, a manager can overcome obstacles to effective communication by learning to listen actively to what people are saying. People who actively listen usually do what?
Spend less time talking, ask questions, and paraphrase to confirm understanding
The single factor of size can influence the quality and kinds of communication employed within an organization.
The strongest means of communication for the healthcare manager is email.
Select the one item that is not a personal tool to be applied in promoting interpersonal communication.
A strategic plan usually lays out the desired outcomes for a long period of time, e.g., several years.
The initial strategic plan is usually completed after the organization has moved out of the youth stage of the life cycle and well into the middle age phase of the life cycle.
A SWOT analysis is associated with
Licensure and accrediting agencies are given access to the annual reports if they request these documents.
When a full time employee plans to open his own private practice on weekends, while continuing as a week day employee with his regular employer, he is free to do so without consulting the full time employer.
Articles of incorporation and the related bylaws for an independent business would typically include all of the following except:
a listing of the fees charged for services
A due diligence report is carried out when one organization plans to merge with or acquire another organization. It includes obtaining complete background information about the target organization’s assets and liabilities.
An IRS 501 (c) (3) designation means that an organization is what?
A for-profit generally makes money for the benefit of private owners or stockholders, whereas a non-profit makes money for the benefit of the mission of the organization.
An occupational therapist had been working for five years in a rehabilitation unit of a local hospital. The therapist was developing a specialty for treating individuals with neuromuscular disorders, traumatic brain injury, and stroke. The therapist decided to leave the hospital job, start a business on her own, and name it Rehabilitation Works. The therapist decided to rent space in an existing clinical facility before purchasing a building. What is the most likely business structure for Rehabilitation Works?
If you are operating a homeless shelter, where will you probably get MOST of your revenue from to cover your expenses?
Match the service description to the MOST COMMON funding sources.
Senior Day Care for Veterans
Match the service description to the MOST COMMON funding sources.
Child Day Care
Match the service description to the MOST COMMON funding sources.
Occupational Therapy in Outpatient Setting
Commercial Insurance, Medicaid, Medicare
Match the service description to the MOST COMMON funding sources.
Physican Office Visit
Commercial Insurance, Medicaid, Medicare
According to the Powerpoint, what is a business model?
A plan to make money.
WMU has strong allied health programs that are ranked among the best nationally.
The University is talking about opening a new Medical School.
The State of Michigan’s economy however, still presents a major future challenge and threatens WMU’s future.
The enrollment at WMU is down and the funding from tuition is reduced
In a healthcare business, the money received during the month is most likely from services provided when?
during previous months, possibly 60 to 90 days ago
What ONE reimbursement structure noted below, would NOT be a likely method of payment for OT services at an outpatient clinic.
exchange of services
As described on page 205, as part of a quality control program, the work is inspected in the basic phases of the work rather than at later steps in the process. This characteristic of adequate controls is termed:
The Six Sigma approach to total quality management is characterized by:
statistical analysis of variations in performance measures
Using an external professional association’s benchmarking measures in a quality control program for your own organization is an example of:
The usual term for a visual control chart for plotting scheduling and progress is:
In order to depict the chronological flow of work, a manager would usually develop a:
In order to identify trends in workflow, a manager would usually develop a:
In order to identify cause and effect relationships in workflow, a manager would usually develop a:
In order to determine priorities by comparing factors and to facilitate sorting the few critical elements from the less urgent in workflow analysis, a manager would usually develop a:
In order to show the relationship between two variables or factors in workflow analysis, a manager would usually develop a:
One example of an area that is of critical interest in heatlh care organizations and therefore the focus of performance improvement programs is what?
It is a term arising within health care, involves examination of records to identify errors that represent departure from some dictated standard, providing information so that these certain kinds of errors can be reduced or eliminated. It is also a retrospective process.
It is a comparison of one’s own activity or results with the level of activity or results of another department or organization.
It is the oldest of these terms, arising largely out of manufacturing. It focuses on finding errors and defects, rejecting defective work, and providing feedback with which to change processes so fewer defects are produced. It is a retrospective process, looking back after the mistakes have been made.
When considering the participants in a quality improvement process, it is often the line managers who are involved in routine quality control initiatives since they are usually involved in day-to-day operations.
If you were a nursing home administrator and your nursing home was losing money which activities, processes, actions, etc. would you want to make sure you controlled?
control personnel wages, track new referrals, and control supply costs
Examples of objectives are what?
To improve patient quality of life through weekly participation in senior day activities.
To improve patient level of functioning through bi-weekly occupational therapy.
An outcome measurement system measures what?
Patient or client performance/outcomes
Examples of indicators of patient or client performance are what?
The actual scores obtained on assessments
The rating or scores obtained from measurement tools
Examples of measurement tools (items used to measure patient outcomes or patient performance) are what?
Global Assessment Scale of Functioning
Quality of Life Assessment
Health and human service organizations must be ready to demonstrate the outcomes of their practice or services if they want to receive funding. What does this statement mean?
Health and human service organizations need to provide evidence that they are helping people recover/get better/achieve their desired goal as a result of receiving services, if they want to receive funding.
The common driving force in today’s performance improvement programs is a crucial ingredient that is essentail to the success of any performance improvement program. What is it?
top management commitment
So-called “sexual harassment” is not limited to the workplace; it can still occur off-premises and after hours.
Human resources is not the ultimate decision maker of whether an individual is discharged.
Human resource’s involvement with the performance appraisal system is limited to the distribution of forms and the filing of completed evaluations.
For human resources to be of maximum assistance to the departments, it may be necessary for the managers to take the initiative to challenge human resources.
Which of the following activities is least likely to be found in the majority of present-day human resource departments?
When human resources finds it necessary to recommend against a department manager who wishes to fire a particular employee, it is usually because:
there is no documentation trail showing that procedures have been followed.
Which of the following outlines the duties, responsibilities, education/training, skills and abilities necessary to perform a job?
Which one of the following should be included in an employee’s performance evaluation?
An assessment of the employee’s achievements during the year
During an interview it is acceptable to ask a candidate whether or not they have a disability.
Which one question is an acceptable interview question?
Are there specific times you cannot work?
Select the two topics below that are NOT among the “top 10 topics” to avoid during an interview.
Essential functions of the job
Hours of work
Leading questions where the answer is obvious.
Questions that require only a one word answer.
Questions about personal information such as family.
Questions that require a candidate to give an example.
Questions that prompt discussion.
The “new” way of managing employee performance is to have ongoing performance conversations, and continual feedback.
Annual one time event, focused on past performance
One way communication, largely focused on the employee’s deficiencies
Largely focused on the employee’s achievements
Two way communication focused on setting goals and future performance
Human Resources typically does none of the actual work of the health care organization; rather it facilitates the work of the organization by engaging in acquiring, maintaining, and retaining employees so that the objectives of the organizaiton may be fulfilled.
The wage and hour laws spell out who is to be paid for what and how. They specify who can be exempt and nonexempt. Exempt literally means exempt from having to pay minimum wage.
Human resources is today’s more all-encompassing title for what most organizations once called “personnel”.
An individual’s excellent performance as a specialist in a given occupation is a reliable indicator of that person’s knowledge and ability in matters of management (such as budgeting, planning, communicating, etc.).
The manager who experiences difficulties with some of the requirements of management will often place excess emphasis on his or her technical or nonmanagerial duties.
Though well educated, the high-skill professional usually resists independent action and avoids the exercise of discretion and judgment.
Only professionals-never nonprofessionals-should be managed utilizing a Theory Y approach to leadership.
Situational leadership is fully as valid when managing professional as when managing nonprofessionals.
The manager of professionals is fortunate in that professional employees rarely if ever exhibit any appreciable resistance to change.
Although professionals often lay claim to special needs, rarely if ever is it appropriate to have different personnel policies for them than for nonprofessionals.
The professional who is asked to step up into management within the profession:
Is in effect being asked to take on a second occupation.
The ego barrier to a professional’s success as a manager often resides in:
a tendency to consider management as a lesser calling than the profession and thus less important.
the inability to recognize management as an occupation in its own right.
a tendency to regard one’s own profession as more important than most of the others in the health care organization.
All of the above.
High-skill professionals can be difficult to manage because:
they are often self-sufficient and accustomed to determining how they do their work.
The higher the professional level of a group of employees, the greater the likelihood that the manager must:
emphasize consultative or participative approaches to management.
The manager of professionals accrues most of his or her employee acceptance through:
the fair and impartial practice of leadership.
Management is not accepted by many as an occupation in its own right.
The “surely-I-can-do-it” attitude toward management is often encountered in some well educated technical and professional employees; they see management and its lack of formal structure as something lesser—and thus easier—than their own specialties, and they assume a “transference of expertise.”
Much of the attitude about management is also owing to the fact of management practices and techniques comprise but a minor part of a specialist’s education. A professional earning a four-year degree may find that the entire curriculum included only one or two courses in management.
Although it is well known that the best clinicians do not necessarily make the best managers, work organizations will continue to promote the most knowledgeable clinicians into management where, ultimately, some succeed and some fail.
Some professionals who take on the management of departments never completely adapt to the dual role of professional and manager, and never develop an appropriate balance between the two sides of the role.
The Theory Y about people assumes that people are NOT naturally passive and resistant to organizational needs.
In the end, one important factor that characterizes or defines a leader is acceptance of the leader by the followers. Most of this acceptance must be earned
The two hats of a professional who assumes a management positon are:
specialist and manager