Human Resource Management essay Essay
Human Resource Management can be used to align the organizational goal with its objectives and develop its employees accordingly. It also helps to provide direction to the employees, as in our case teachers.
In this article we have focused on how Human Resource Management can be used to increase the effectiveness of teachers in a broader scenario and have further narrowed it down to the education sector of Pakistan.
Further we have identified the challenges faced by the teachers in the private and government institutions and the steps taken by the Higher Education Commission to increase the effectiveness of teachers by providing training courses and sending teachers abroad for Ph.D. degrees.
It is important to mention here that the education sector of Pakistan still has a long way to go and needs long term commitment by the government to develop the future of this country.
Contribution of HRM to increase effectiveness of teachers: The role of training and development in the education sector of Pakistan
Human Resource Management is a branch of an organization which recruits and develops personnel to promote the organization goals. Human Resource Management includes recruiting, training, and employee retention. The objective of the human resource management is to develop an organizational
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“In the educational arena, the selection of an effective school administrator is crucial in maintaining a nurturing and supportive environment for teachers. Recruitment provides an opportunity to select from a pool of qualified applicants. Human Resource Management is responsible for designing a plan for employee retention. The objective of Human Resource Management is to help an organization meet strategic goals by attracting and maintaining employees, and also to manage them effectively. The ultimate goal of Human Resource Management is ensuring that the organization attract and retain qualified employees who are committed to the vision.” (Author, Jennifer Butcher, Author, William Allan Kritsonis, PhD, Human Resource Management: Managerial Efficacy in Recruiting and Retaining Teachers – National Implications, The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research Summer 2007, Retrieved May 17,2008, From http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_Descriptor=%22Administrative+Principles%22&_pageLabel=RecordDetails&objectId=0900019b80176971&accno=ED497357&_nfls=false)
Educational institutions are complex organizations which need administration to train and retain high quality teachers in order to give the organization a direction and track their satisfaction as it directly contributes to the quality of the learning environment. It is the responsibility of Human Resource Management to recruit and train quality teachers who provide knowledge, motivate children to learn and have acceptable morals. Hence HRM management can help them use their talent and expertise to contribute towards the overall goals of the organization.
Professional development is one of the areas which should be the priority of Human Resource Management to help teachers stay updated regarding their field of expertise and also help them strengthen their weak areas to effectively meet the needs of their students. One way to train teachers is through Professional learning communities.
“Professional learning communities can be very beneficial in this regard for new teachers. Schools that operate as a professional learning community engage the entire group of professionals in coming together for learning within a supportive, self-created community. Participants can network, test ideas, challenge their inferences, and process information with each other. Professional learning communities reduce teacher isolation and increase commitment to the mission of the school. Teachers share responsibility for the development of students’ success. The communities also create more satisfaction, higher morale, and lower rated of absenteeism among teachers.” (Berlinger-Gustafson, 2004).
Another domain to increase the effectiveness of teachers is through performance evaluation and feedback in order to tell the teachers where they stand and how effective they have been in achieving their goals. Human Resource Management plays a very crucial role in this area as it calls for a proper performance evaluation plan where teachers are evaluated on a periodic basis against the criteria set by the administration. Two way communication between the administration and the teachers is important in this regard along with the feedback from the student to gauge the strengths and weaknesses of teachers and provide training in the necessary field. This step marks the future direction of teachers and Human Resource Management plays a very important role in effectively measuring the growth of teachers.
The role of training and development in the education sector of Pakistan
Now, after looking at the broader picture of how Human Resource Management can be used to maximize the effectiveness of teachers and help them better serve the students, we are now going to narrow down our focus to the training and development in the education sector of Pakistan.
Education is one the basic rights of all citizens .Unfortunately, there is a shortage of resources for government spending in the education sector. This deficiency has affected the quality and availability of education in Pakistan. This had resulted in many challenges in the area of teachers’ training in the education sector of Pakistan.
According to Ex-Chief Minister, Punjab Mr. Chaudhary Pervaiz Elahi “ The government was spending Rs 4 billion on incentives package of teachers and that 3.5 lakh teachers would benefit from the package. He further explained that Teachers training programme for improving their teaching skills is going on successfully and it will promote standardized education, adding that under the programme, academic training had been provided to one lakh eighty thousand teachers of public schools and 46 thousand teachers of private educational institutions.” (“Education sector strengthened in five years”, Daily Times, Wednesday, October 17, 2007, Retrieves may 17, 2008 from http://www.dailytimes.com.pk).
The quality of education provided to the students is among the poorest in Pakistan. This is due the poor quality of teachers training in government institutions coupled with lack of certified teacher training programs and monitoring programs.
Teacher training and development programs play a pivotal role and ensure that modern teaching methods which have a greater emphasis on critical thinking are adopted and effectively integrated throughout the educational framework.
Teachers who are seeking employment are trained in three ways:
· Government Colleges and Elementary Education (CGETs)
· Distance education program offered by the Allama Iqbal Open University
· Teacher training courses administered in high schools.
According to an article on the challenges faced by teachers in Pakistan “Training for government school teachers is the responsibility of Federal government Curriculum wing. The graduates of these institutions are taught a similar curriculum, and receive the Primary Teaching Certificate (PTC) at the end of a course that lasts one year.” (“The challenge of teacher training in Pakistan”, retrieved May 18, 2008, from http://www.yespakistan.com/education/teacher_training.asp)
“About 12,000 teachers are trained in the 76 GCETs every year, and close to 8,000 are trained through the distance learning program. In some provinces, crash courses have also been arranged to reduce the backlog of teachers who are not trained for their jobs. In terms of the country’s private schools, a number of the major ones have their own teacher training program.” (“The challenge of teacher training in Pakistan”, retrieved May 18, 2008, from http://www.yespakistan.com/education/teacher_training.asp)
“Although the PTC course is for only one year, in reality is usually much shorter. An additional problem is that the curriculum for pre-service training is overloaded. In general, the courses do not significantly improve a teacher’s knowledge of a particular subject matter or teaching skills.” (“The challenge of teacher training in Pakistan”, retrieved May 18, 2008, from http://www.yespakistan.com/education/teacher_training.asp)
“A study conducted in the province of NWFP found that entrants had poor proficiency in math and science. Even more disturbingly, there was little difference in teachers’ performance after completing the course. It is clear then that pre-service training of teachers in Pakistan is sorely lacking at a time when education for a nation in a globalized world is more important than ever before.” (“The challenge of teacher training in Pakistan”, retrieved May 18, 2008, from http://www.yespakistan.com/education/teacher_training.asp)
“Every province has an Education Extension Center responsible that is in charge of in-service education. The aim is to provide one in-service training session to each teacher at least once every five years. But these sessions are fewer than the number of teachers as indicated by a study of in-service refresher courses in Punjab. This study found that the courses reached a nominal number of teachers. For instance, in 1988, 16 refresher courses were offered to only 4,400 teachers, out of a total teaching corps of nearly 180,000.” (“The challenge of teacher training in Pakistan”, retrieved May 18, 2008, from http://www.yespakistan.com/education/teacher_training.asp)
“Some institutions have taken it upon themselves to try to fill the gap. A leading institute specializing in the training of private school teachers is the Ali Institute of Education (AIE), which was founded in 1992. This organization imparts teacher education for primary school teachers in both the public and private sectors. So far, 205 teachers have benefited from pre-service training. There are 104 teachers currently enrolled in the program. About 95 percent of the trainees are female, with most of them coming from lower-middle income backgrounds. About half of them receive financial aid from the institute.” (“The challenge of teacher training in Pakistan”, retrieved May 18, 2008, from http://www.yespakistan.com/education/teacher_training.asp)
“One in-service training experiment is the Field-Based Teacher Training Program, which was started in the Northern areas of Pakistan in 1984. In essence, this is an unusual way of teaching the PTC syllabus. It trains teachers to give up some of the unproductive, traditional practices which are prevalent in rural primary schools.” (“The challenge of teacher training in Pakistan”, retrieved May 18, 2008, from http://www.yespakistan.com/education/teacher_training.asp)
“This program adopts a new approach in teaching, which shifts the emphasis from the teacher to the student as the center of the teaching-learning process. The most distinctive feature of this program is the practice.” (“The challenge of teacher training in Pakistan”, retrieved May 18, 2008, from http://www.yespakistan.com/education/teacher_training.asp)
“While these and other initiatives are welcome, it is clear that the quantity and quality of teacher training program in Pakistan must improve in order for the next generation of Pakistanis to be better educated and better citizens than previous ones.” (“The challenge of teacher training in Pakistan”, retrieved May 18, 2008, from http://www.yespakistan.com/education/teacher_training.asp)
According to the statistics of Higher Education Commission of Pakistan “the present quality of higher education is very poor. No university in Pakistan comes under the top 500 in world ranking. The steps need to be taken to improve quality of education include are mentioned below. ” (“Higher Education Commission, Pakistan, Retrieved May 18, 2008 from http://www.hec.gov.pk/main/msg_chairman.htm)
“Faculty Development: At present out of approximately 7000 faculty members in our universities, only approximately 1700 have Ph.D. degrees. Each of the 60 public sector universities need to have at least 300 to 400 Ph.D. level faculty members (at least 15 to 20 per department) before it can be regarded as a genuine university. For this purpose an additional 15,000 to 20,000 persons will need to be sent for Ph.D. level training to suitable foreign institutions in fields of national priority over the next five years in order to develop a cadre of highly qualified bright young men and women who are able to carry out teaching and research in universities but also act as consultants to industry.” (“Higher Education Commission, Pakistan, Retrieved May 18, 2008 from http://www.hec.gov.pk/main/msg_chairman.htm)
“The Pakistan Educational Research Network (PERN) will be expanded and its performance further improved so that the materials available on the internet can be readily accessed, and faculty resources can be shared through video-conferencing.” (“Higher Education Commission, Pakistan, Retrieved May 18, 2008 from http://www.hec.gov.pk/main/msg_chairman.htm)
“In order to transform Pakistan from an agriculture-based economy to a knowledge economy, specific projects and programs have been identified as national priority programs, by experts after careful consideration of sectorial opportunities, strengths and weaknesses. The human resource development effort will be tailored to meet the human resource requirements of these programs. These include transition of agriculture sector to high value-added agricultural produce, information technology, biotechnology, engineering sciences, pharmaceuticals, material sciences, basic sciences, social sciences, economics, finance and other disciplines. The curricula have already been modified in consultation with subject experts and the private sector to make them relevant to market demands and the needs of the society as well as emerging international opportunities. The establishment of technology parks, business incubators and funding of joint projects with industry should transform the universities into creative and vibrant institutions where new ideas are born and transformed into commercial products and processes.” (“Higher Education Commission, Pakistan, Retrieved May 18, 2008 from http://www.hec.gov.pk/main/msg_chairman.htm)
“It is high time that Pakistan starts investing massively into its real wealth, its youth. The visionary decisions reached by the Chancellor’s Committee to increase allocations in respect of development and recurring budgets for the higher education sector by 50% each year (till they reach 1% of GNP for the higher education sector) must be strictly adhered to, if Pakistan is to follow the path of Japan and Korea and develop into a knowledge economy.” (“Higher Education Commission, Pakistan, Retrieved May 18, 2008 from http://www.hec.gov.pk/main/msg_chairman.htm)
In addition The Higher Education Commission, Pakistan (HEC) intends to obtain an off-the-shelf ERP solution to be customized and implemented, for its Financial, Payroll, Human Resource Management, Procurement & Assets Management, and Project Management systems.
Pakistan is faced with various challenges in the area of teacher training. It lacks adequate training programs. The ones which are already in place are plagued with outdated curriculum which adds no value to the skill base of the teachers.
In order to increase the effectiveness of training in the education sector of Pakistan commitment from the government and institutions is vital along with a proper Human Resource Management System proposed by the HEC.
Berlinger-Gustafson, C. (2004). Building professional learning communities. Retrieved
March 19, 2007, from http://www.teachinflorida.com/teachertoolkit/PLC.htm
Author, Jennifer Butcher, Author, William Allan Kritsonis, PhD, Human Resource Management: Managerial Efficacy in Recruiting and Retaining Teachers – National Implications, The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research Summer 2007, Retrieved May 17,2008, From http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_Descriptor=%22Administrative+Principles%22&_pageLabel=RecordDetails&objectId=0900019b80176971&accno=ED497357&_nfls=false
“Education sector strengthened in five years”, Daily Times, Wednesday, October 17, 2007, Retrieves may 17, 2008, from http://www.dailytimes.com.pk
“Higher Education Commission, Pakistan, Retrieved May 18, 2008 from http://www.hec.gov.pk/main/msg_chairman.htm
“The challenge of teacher training in Pakistan”, retrieved May 18, 2008, from http://www.yespakistan.com/education/teacher_training.asp)