Human Resource Planning
Traditionally, Human Resource Planning has been used by organizations to ensure that they have the right number and the right kinds of people, doing things at the right places and at the right time. The result of having this kind of manpower should bring maximum long-run benefits to both the organization and the individuals. Under past conditions of relative environmental certainty and stability, human resource planning focused on the short term and was dictated largely by line management concerns.
However, increasing environmental instability, demographic shifts, changes in technology, and heightened international competition are now changing the need for and the nature of human resource planning in leading organizations. HRP has become more complex, particularly at these present times of increasingly turbulent business environments, which increases the tensions between the greater need for planning and the greater difficulties of prediction. Thus for most organizations, Planning is increasingly the product of the interaction between line management and planners.
In addition, organizations are realizing that in order to adequately address human resource concerns, they must develop long-term as well as short-term solutions. As human resource planners involve themselves in more programs to serve the needs of the business, and even influence the direction of the business, they face new and increased responsibilities and challenges. Contemporary human resource planning occurs within the broad context of organizational and strategic business planning. It involves forecasting the organization’s future human resource needs and planning and how those needs will be met.
It includes establishing objectives and then developing and implementing programs. These programs are staffing, appraising, compensating, and training to ensure that people are available with the appropriate characteristics and skills when and where the organization needs them. It also involves developing and implementing programs to improve employee performance or to increase employee satisfaction and involvement in order to boost organizational productivity, quality, or innovation. Many organizations cite their people as their primary source of competitive advantage.
Successful companies continuously identify and adopt innovative human resource management policies and practices to sustain that advantage. More importantly, they structure work and design training, performance management, pay, and reward policies to help members of the organization succeed in achieving desired organizational outcomes. Finally, human resource planning includes gathering data that can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of such ongoing programs. Business companies realize that human resources are part of the strategic business planning process.
This process focuses on aligning human resource policies to support the accomplishment of the Company’s mission, vision, goals and strategies. There is a need to integrate and link business and human resource plans as one. Thus human resource and line managers should work jointly to develop business plans and determine human resource needs, analyze the work force profile in terms of future business strategies, review emerging human resource issues, and develop programs to address the issues and support the business plans.
Human resource planning and business planning strategies is a two-way process that must be developed to support the achievement of an organization’s objectives. A common mistake is the development of workplace skill plans, which are not linked, to any strategic goals or objectives or which have no affirmative action components. According to O’Brien(1984), “human resources represent a major competitive advantage” (p. 7) thus, in any organization, human resource planning hand in hand with business planning is the key to an effective organizational strategy that will result in increasing profit.
WORKS CITED O’Brien, R. (1984 May 3). Planning With People. Bulletin to Management. pp. 2-7. Porter, M. E. (1985). Competitive Advantage. New York:Free Press. p. 73. Vijayaragavan, K. , & Singh, Y. P. (1992). Pay administration in agricultural departments. Indian Journal of Extension Education, 28, 60-64. Walker, J. W. (1980). Human Resource Planning. New York:McGraw-Hill. pp. 39-40. Werther, W. B. , Jr. , & Davis, K. (1982). Personnel management and human resources. Tokyo: McGraw-Hill International Book Company.