Human resource strategy and policies
Management can be defined as the art of creating industrial relations of any kind, between people engaged in the industry, such as relation between employers and employees, relation between individuals entering into commercial contracts, relation between investors and debtors etc, in order to maintain true cooperation of all concerned. Efficiency of management lies in not only making the employees to work, but to make them work willingly, sincerely and consciously, by employing new knowledge, new methods, new designs, new machines and novel techniques of production and by allaying mistrust and antagonism.
The Human Resources Management (HRM) purpose take account of a several activities, and the most important among them is making a decision what staffing requirements one have and whether to use autonomous contractors or take into service employees to meet these needs, appointing and training the most excellent employees, making sure that they are better performers, handling performance related problems, and ensuring that the human resources and administrational practices do the accepted thing to various set of laws.
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With increasing dependence by employers in Asia on HRM as a means of enhancing enterprise performance and competitiveness, important consequences will arise for IR and for unions What part unions can and will play in Human Resources Management (HRM) and whether Industrial Relations(IR) and Human Resources Management (HRM) will manoeuvre as parallel systems, if so what their relevant functions will be, or become incorporated, more than ever since the characteristic between Industrial Relations(IR) and Human Resources Management (HRM) is becoming indistinct, are some of the concerns which will have to be deal with.
Human Resources Management (HRM) assumes attitudes, values and practices relating to management and organisational membership. (Dollard, 89) A fundamental supposition of Human Resources Management (HRM) approaches is that the whole staff of the organisation including both the management and the workers, equally contribute to the common purpose, share the common objective and have full attention in progress of the organization.
The Human Resources Management (HRM) policies and ideals undergo constant changes due to influence of some basic factors such as domestic and international competition, changes in the social structure and developments in technology etc. The increasing significance of competitive advantage and of the growing presence of multinationals has resulted in noticeable changes in Human Resources Management (HRM) ideologies.
Globalization has led employers to push for implementation of fewer directives of industrial relations, less standardization of the employment affiliations, and a greater focus on the workplace as the centre of gravity of Human Resources Management. Of the three popular models in Human Resources Management, the global Human Resource Management model has the utmost coverage in international point of view due to worldwide growth approaches, degree of delegation, organization’s dimension and requirement for deportee reimbursement etc.
Due to steady Industrialization and accelerating competition in market, today organizations have to face tough time to survive. These conditions also affect human resource (HR) strategy and policies up to a great extent. Such an environment gives rise to organizational conflicts. Such as conflict of power verses moral values, which include raising standards of production along with humanizing the workplace, Managerial prerogatives with ownership policies such as system, reliability, hierarchy, uniformity etc conflict with sensitivity, responsiveness, interactive ness, novelty and sub optimization.
(Dollard, 89-90) In this competition organizations are gradually loosing their ethnic values and morals. Today competence of an individual or a corporate is judged by his or her ability to cope up with constant fundamental changes in the organizational structure. All over the world, organizations aligning new products engineering teams around ‘pit crew’ model. Cross functional teams to design, manufacturing sales and service engineer’s work along with the workers, who at some point of time have stake in the product.
This ensures manufacturing and sales people having their say all through the design process and building up the manufacturing capability early on that is currant engineering. The goals are simple, such as speed, equality and competitive price. Commodities have become international for most industries and the impact of engineering is significant. In many organizations, the learning curve in engineering has become an unaffordable luxury. (Fletcher, 188) Competitive pressures mandate finding ways to reduce the total time required to introduce new products in the market.
Competition along with more complex production and distribution environments requires identifying and reducing necessary costs, such as costs associated with development, manufacturing, distribution and service. Working conditions in some industries are very hazardous. The precipitation areas in industries have caustic vapours these cause skin problems. In some industries people work in fluoride environment. Continuous exposure to fluoride leads to a disease Fluoric in which bones and teeth are effected.
In all these less attention is paid towards the interests of their workers, hence the relation between the management and the workers get seriously damage. Such circumstances account for greater need for application of Human Resources Management (HRM) in organizations. The Human Resources Management (HRM) practices or policies emphasize the need for consensus and harmony in the relation between the employees and the management of a company for enhancement in production capacity and augmentation in overall output of the company.
It suggests for provision of more comfortable and comparatively better working conditions to the employees in order to enhance their working capacity. Individuals are to be trained and socialized by the organization, so that they can comprehend team culture and easily adopt it. As unitary ideology is basically a new human resource management technique, it emphasizes on providing full respect to the employees in the organizations, and appropriate appreciation for their integrity band dignity.
The Human Resources Management (HRM) practices or policies provide that the management should integrate hard and soft, social and technical decisions and activities within the company. Non conforming employees however can not be easily accommodated using unitary approach. The individuals whose ideas do not integrate with ideas of other employees and who concentrate separately more on their self interests are the ones due to whom unitary ideology could not succeed to the required extent.
(Kar, 145) In a company there exist employees with varying degrees of commitment, loyalty and willingness to serve with their all or hold back some of themselves from assimilation into the unitary culture. The Human Resources Management (HRM) hypothesis endeavours for team approach or a little friendly group approach within an organization . In a company various employees might have various line of thinking over a single matter, which according to them is the right way to follow.
Integrating all these employees into a single team may result in problems like distrust, conflicts etc. Before the advent of The Human Resources Management (HRM) ideology pluralist perspective was followed by the managements of the companies. On arrival of The Human Resources Management (HRM) ideology existing organizational norms and universal directions have been criticized. The business approach of the companies is corporate in nature. Company’s interest always lies in large programs of production and in give and take of large amounts of money.
In this race companies generally pay less attention towards the interests of their workers, which causes dissatisfaction among them and thus give rise to revolts and strikes. The unitary also tend to reduce conflicts of interests which arise generally in employee-employer and manager-stuff situations. Technological positive voices take for granted that, from a technical point of view, the Information Technology potentials for Human Resources Management (HRM) are never ending: in principal all Human Resources Management (HRM) processes can be shored up by Information Technology.
E-HRM is the somewhat new expression for this Information Technology backed up Human Resources Management (HRM) system, more than ever through the utilization of web technology. Christensen’s (1997) analysis of disorderly technology is harmonized by an analysis of precise human resource issues associated with disruptive technology. Pertinent transforms were brought about in the field of human resources due to innovation of contemporary technologies, such as, change in job propose, organizational design, conscription, selection, and assignment, rewards, training and improvement, and organizational transform and expansion.
These unambiguous human resource functions have been premeditated cautiously in order to amplify the probability that disruptive technology will be developed and/or put into operation. Human resource systems also considerably influence disruptive technology. These effects come about through recognizing disruptive technology as an organizational objective, encouraging the growth and operation of disruptive technology, gratifying employees for performance associated to disruptive technology, and endowing with an organizational atmosphere that makes possible progress of disruptive technology.
Both the anticipated and unplanned effects of unambiguous human resource policies must be taken into consideration. Also, organizations must be ready to recognize the development of unproductive new technologies if they desire to encourage the invention of new technologies, some of which may result in disruptive technologies. (Dollard, 90-91) Changes in the social structure environment of the organizations influence Human Resources Management (HRM) trends.
Industrial relations and human resource management techniques in countries, sub-regions and regions, have been influenced by a range of circumstances and actors such as political philosophies, economic urgencies, the role of the State in determining the direction of economic and social development, the influence of unions and the business community, as well as the legacies of colonial governments.
The resent changes in economic and social circumstances have brought about certain changes in Human Resources Management (HRM) and have resulted in alteration of certain provisions in the structure, such as, Staffing policies should be formulated by organizations to unify the efforts of the employees, as well as to inspire and motivate them in their jobs. All the objectives and decisions of the organization should be properly discussed and communicated with the staff.
To promote and secure loyalty and commitment from the stuff, well designed reward systems should be implemented in organizations. Line managers should be appointed to take possession of their teams and staffing responsibilities and not forward the related problems to the personnel department, which do not interact with the workers and remain unaware of their problems. Technical and legal advice and administrative support regarding stuffing policies should be provided to the line managers by forming special personnel support service comities in the organization.
(Dollard, 92) Special personnel support service comities in the organization must concentrate on providing support to line managers in solving the problems like conflicts between management of the organization and the staff groups. In the point of view of the Human Resources Management (HRM) system the root of these problems arise from lack of information, incompetent presentation of management’s policies. It is also enhanced by unhealthy, marginal factions – agent’s provocateurs and staffs whose attitudes and intentions are against the organization.
Thus systematic attention should be given while recruiting staff and should be confirmed that their personality and personal orientation match with culture and environment of the organization. It is essential that through proper training, communications, conferencing and team activities that individuals become incorporated in company norms and get habituated with ways of doing things in that company. According to McGregor’s Theory Y, personal objectives of each and every person employed in the company should be considered, discussed with other employees and incorporated with the organizations needs.
An important element in the unitary (new Human Resources Management) organization is Job planning and performance review. IT creates a supportive and developmental atmosphere in the organization. To “empower” the Staff in pursuit of their goals proper training and development support opportunities should be provided to them by the company. (King, 126) The emphasis should be on good relationships and sound terms and conditions of employment between employees and the organization with consent of both the parties.
Determining the work-pay relationship with the method of Collective bargaining is too back dated and should be removed from the organizations. It is required by the organization to reveal its gratitude and recognition of their efforts of its employees. Individuals and groups of employees should be rewarded properly for their particular contributions in the organization. The package rewards may include both tangible and intangible rewards. Working in a renowned and progressive company, which can be pride of an employee can be a significant reward element.
The participation of the whole staff in the process decisions making in the workplace can boost up the interests of the employees. This authorize the employees in their duties and give emphasis to team work, creativity, innovation, and discretion in solving problems, improvement in quality of production etc. As the purpose of any organization is to thrive and be persistent in its endeavours, every employee of the organization must appreciate it, realize the competitive nature of the business, try to solve problem and take possession of their contribution to presentation and quality, which is totally focused on customer service.
(Border, 227-228) Managers must be efficient and intelligent. Let us take the example of Peters and Waterman, who in “In Search of Excellence” thought of “being visible” and “management by walkabout”. The dexterity and expertise of managers should support the endeavours of the Staffs. Staffs should feel that they are guided by the managers in perusing their duties. By sound management techniques the ambitions of participative leadership and the human relations school can be achieved.
According to the assumptions of the new Human Resources Management (HRM) approach, organizations should have the capacity to influence their members as well as bind them together in a composite unit, as a family or a community. Few guidelines prescribed by this contemporary approach are: Management should have recognition towards the efforts of the workers, and have co-operative attitudes towards them. The emphasis should be on working together as a team to achieve the ultimate purpose. TO pursue this goal management should compromise and understand the purposes and values of the employees.
Disagreement and unconcealed divergences between management and employees, disruptive behaviour and even strike action of the employees and such problems in an organization can be alleviated using the Human Resources Management (HRM) system policies. This approach is helpful in curing unnecessary, deviant damage of the organization. The staff of a suffering organization should be made to realize that stoppages and obstructions are meaningless. (Lamb, 243-244) The benefits of lingering useless momentary disagreements and conflicts disturb the environment of the organization.
Misinterpretation and Passions that procreate conflict are indeed enhanced by detrimental, marginal splinter groups and provocateurs. The Human Resources Management (HRM) system portrays management as a perfect guardian of the employees, having the paramount interests in well being of the staff, at heart. Decisions are taken with consent of the employees Of course misunderstandings and incongruity may arise from time to time but these are not helped by marginal splinter groups and provocateurs who distort the efforts of management.
Effectiveness of the management can be judged by its capacity to bind the workers and at a time keep them satisfied, to fulfil a greater cause of success of the business. Efficient and participative managements can keep the employees satisfied and interested in progress of the company. With good will, rationality and sensitive communication the organizations can keep trade unions away and survive securely. Because of poor and irrational practices of the managements and lack of communication between the employees and the management, workers unite against the managements to form trade union, which can fight for their causes and interests.
In the modern Human Resources Management (HRM) system it is assumed that the organizations should be team flavoured performance oriented, managerially led and very competitive. Along with all these qualities the organizations should have humanitarian working environment. Organizations should have flexible working conditions. Business process should be improvement oriented, employees should be efficient and milt skilled so that they can tackle the increasing pressure and new challenges in work as required in today’s organizational infrastructure.
If a trade union is exists in an organization, its function is to create a link between the employees and the management. It can create an environment in which communications can be held between groups of employees and the organization. (Lamb, 245) Some critics feel that scientific methods are not applicable in the art of management, which mainly concerns human beings, such as Human Resources Management (HRM). According to them efforts to manage industry scientifically has worsened the relation between the employers and the employees.
Their point of view is that though in Human Resources Management (HRM) framework though workers get absorbed into a comparatively more employee friendly group oriented associative work culture, but still the feeling of individuality remains in them. This is a reason behind their half hearted contribution in the progress of the organization. But it is not so. In fact, using of practices or policies of scientific methods of management like Human Resources Management (HRM), need trained mind which is used to unbiased observation and is not amenable to hasty conclusions and untenable theories.
Human Resources Management (HRM) instruct the managers to be detached an impartial. The development of industrial relations so as to make a company productive is an evolutionary process and depends on the initiative, constructive thinking and discipline on the part of all engaged in the industry. The form of relationship between the employee and the management with which the unitary ideology is concerned is about hundred years old issue. (Berkowitz, 189) It can be concluded with that healthy relations between the management and the employees only can bring prosperity to the company.
Thus the Human Resources Management (HRM) system is not simply about trade unions and industrial relations between managements and employees. In fact it is a definition which portrays the projection and maintenance of understanding, togetherness, and essential values and ethics as accepted by both the management and the workers of the companies. Thus it is basically a managerial frame of reference which does not easily bring itself together with companies or social positions which are distinctively more politically influenced.
Instead of all drawbacks in Human Resources Management (HRM) ideologies of management, it has numerous facilities. Thus this approach could always be followed by the companies for finding solutions of their management-employee problems.
References: Berkowitz, L; Management and Man. (New Haven and London: Yale University Press. 2006) pp 189 Border, S; Human Resource: Fire of the Mind (Delhi: National Book Trust; 2006) pp 227-228 Dollard, John; Modern Policies of Management: A look into Tomorrow.
(New Haven and London: Yale University Press. 2006) pp 89-92 Fletcher, R; Beliefs and Knowledge: Believing and Knowing. (Mangalore: Howard & Price. 2006) pp 188 Kar, P; History of Human Resource and related applications (Kolkata: Dasgupta & Chatterjee 2005) pp 145 King, H; Fiscal Fitness Today (Chennai: HBT & Brooks Ltd. 2005) pp 126 Lamb, Davis; Cult to Culture: The Development of Civilization on the Strategic Strata. (Delhi: National Book Trust. 2004) pp 243-245.