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Human Resources Development

Modern organizations are increasingly recognizing the importance of developing the human resources. According to http://books. google. co. ke, “the training function now popularly referred to as human resource development coordinates the organization’s efforts to provide training and development experiences for its employees. ” Employees training can be defined as a planned attempt to facilitate employee learning of job related knowledge, skills and behaviors or helping them correct deficiencies in their performance.

In contrast development is an effort to provide employees with skills needed for both present and future jobs. Developing human resources is the next stage in the process of achieving organizational skills. In his book, Toye. J Employmeny policy ,(1995) perceives training broadly as a way to create intellectual capital. “Intellectual capital involves effective use of technology to share information with other members of the organization and understanding customers and organizational processes key to the organization’s success”.

Organization provide training for: to orient new hires to the organization or teach them how to perform in their tasks; improve on the current performance, prepare the employees for future promotions or for the coming changes in design, processes or technological advances in their present jobs. From www. online. wsj. com,”recent changes in business

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environment have made training function more important in helping organization maintain competitiveness and prepare for the future”.

The global competition have warranted the human resource development to train more and more for the organization to provide quality management and customer service training in an attempt to keep up with rising consumer expectations and more so the emergence of new technological advances required in training. Today, training should be tailored to fit organization’s strategy and structures.

An example of training strategy for organizational success is evident in the recent emphasis on continuous learning in organization’s so as the employees can clearly understand the entire work system including relationship between jobs, work units and the organization. A learning organization is one whose employees are continuously attempting to learn new ideas and apply it to improve products and the entire service quality.

Training is seen as a pivotal role in implementing organization’s wide culture of changes efforts such as adopting a total quality management, developing commitments to customers. All employees should be provided with systematic orientation when they first join the organization orientation introduces new employees to the organization’s and their new tasks, managers, co-workers so that they can become contributors towards the organization’s success. Human resource development according to (humanresourcces. about.

com) is “the framework for helping the employees develops their personnel and organizational skills, knowledge and abilities towards accomplishment of organizational goals as employees”. It not only covers those activities which improve job performance but also those which bring about growth of personality. Cole G. A ,Management Theory and Practice (1996) views human resource as a “long-term educational process which keeps on evolving as new technological advances arise; human resource development refers to a philosophical and theoretical educational process.

It includes such opportunities as employee training, employee career development, performance management and development succession planning, key employee identification and organizational development. The focus of all aspects of human resource development is on developing the most superior workforce so that the organization and individual employees can accomplish their work goals and service to customers Human resource development is also the integrated use of training, organizational development and career development efforts to improve individual, groups and organization effectiveness.

Human resource development helps to: develop key competitiveness that enable individuals in organization to perform current and future jobs through planned learning activities; also it helps to manage various work groups within organization, motivation issues and manage changes in the organization. More so, human resource development ensures a match between an individual and the organization’s needs. Strategic human resource development according to Cole G.

A , Management Theory and Practice (1996) is a term describing an “integrated approach to the development of the human resources strategies which will enable the organization to achieve its goals. “ It is an approach to making decisions on the intentions and plans of the organization concerning the employment relationship and the organization’s training, development of performance management, employees’ relations, strategies recruitment, policies and practices”.

Strategic human resource development combines an awareness of the complexities of change management, desire to rescue the concept of human resource development from mundane existence in the depths of training programs, focuses on organization’s design, innovation total quality management and the management of change and who is affected by the changes.

Strategic human resource development aims at generating strategic capability by ensuring that the organization has skilled, committed and well motivated employees; it also aims at providing a direction in a turbulent working environment that the organization operates in; to integrate the business needs of the organization and the collective needs of employees and to improve/achieve competitive advantage through human resource management and eventual integrate the business needs of the organization and collective needs of the employees.

Career development are,(humanresources. about. com) “activities and processes for mutual career planning and management between the employees and the organization changes in organization (including downsizing, restructuring and outsourcing) are resulting in more empowerment for employees”. Human resource’s role in career planning and development according to G. A. Cole, Management Theory and Practice, (1996) is the processes by which management determines how an organization should move from its current position to its desired manpower position.

It is the process of determining manpower requirements in order to carry out the integrated plan of the organization. The process of manpower planning goes hand in hand with the strategic development (organization’s decision about what it wants to accomplish in terms of competitive edge in service development. Human resource development’s role in career planning and development involves estimating future manpower requirements (demand forecast).

It is done either in terms of mathematical projections; making an inventory of present manpower resources and accessing the extent to which these resources are employed to optimum; it also involves anticipating the manpower problems by projecting present resources into the future and comparing them with the forecast of requirements to determine their adequacy both quantitatively and qualitatively.

Planning as depicted by Miner. J. B,Organization Behaviour ,Motivation and Leadership is “the necessary programs of requirements involving training, development, promotion and motivation to ensure that future manpower requirements are adequately take care of at all times”.

Some of the roles of human resource in career planning and development are: to ensure an organization can be able to meet its objectives; to ensure that the organization has the right people with right qualification; ensure that work does not stop because people have left due to the retirement, transfers, sickness, that is, to plan for any eventualities; to determine and identify areas of personal surplus and shortages; to identify the nature of current workforce in relation to its changing needs for example technological advances and to be able to develop a well trained and flexible workforce which is necessary so as to be able to adapt to the uncertain and the changing work environment.


1. http:// books. google. co. ke 2. Employment Policy ,by John Toye (1995) 3. www. online. wsj. com 4. humanresourcces. about. com 5. Cole G. A Management Theory and Practice (1996) 6. Organization Behavior, Motivation and Leadership, John B. Miner.

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