Human Resources management
Circles are formed of employees working together in an operation who meet at intervals to iscuss problems of quality and to devise solutions for improvements. Quality circles have an autonomous character, are usually small, and are led by a supervisor or a senior worker. Employees who participate in quality circles usually receive training in formal problem-solving methods-?such as brain-storming, parent analysis, and cause-and-effect diagrams-?and are then encouraged to apply these methods either to specific or general company problems.
After completing an analysis, they often present their findings to management and then handle implementation of approved solutions. Parent analysis, by the way. Is named after the Italian economist, Floored Parent, who observed that 20 percent of Italians received 80 percent of the income-? thus the principle that most results are determined by a few causes. The quality circle movement, along with total quality control, while embraced In a major way In the asses, has largely disappeared or undergone significant transformations for reasons discussed below.
BACKGROUND Quality circles were originally associated with Japanese management and manufacturing techniques. The introduction of quality circles in Japan in the postwar years was inspired by the lectures of W. Edwards Deeming (1900-?1993), a statistician for the U. S.
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He suggested redesigning production processes to account more fully for quality control, and continuously educating all employees In a firm-?from the top down-?Len quality control techniques and statistical intro technologies. Quality circles were the means by which this continuous education was to take place for production workers. The principles of Demise’s quality circles simply moved quality control to an earlier position in the production process. Rather than relying upon post-production inspections to catch errors and defects, quality circles attempted to prevent defects from occurring in the first place. U to product defects were minimized. Demise’s idea that improving quality could increase productivity led to the development in Japan of the Total Quality Control ETC) concept, in which quality and productivity are viewed as two sides of a coin. ETC also required that a manufacturer’s suppliers make use of quality circles. Quality circles in Japan were part of a system of relatively cooperative labor- management relations, involving company unions and lifetime employment guarantees for many full-time permanent employees.
Consistent with this decentralized, enterprise-oriented system, quality circles provided a means by which production workers were encouraged to participate in company matters and by which management could benefit from production workers’ intimate knowledge of the production process. In 1980 alone, changes resulting from employee suggestions resulted in savings of $10 billion for Japanese firms and bonuses of $4 billion for Japanese employees. In the early asses, the U. S.
National Labor Relations Board (NELL) made several important rulings regarding the legality of certain forms of quality circles. These rulings were based on the 1935 Wagner Act, which prohibited company unions and management-dominated labor organizations. One NELL ruling found quality programs unlawful that were established by the firm, that featured agendas dominated by the firm, and addressed the conditions of employment within he firm. Another ruling held that a company’s labor-management committees were in effect labor organizations used to bypass negotiations with a labor union.
As a result of these rulings, a number of employer representatives expressed their concern that quality circles, as well as other kinds of labor-management cooperation programs, would be hindered. However, the NELL stated that these rulings were not general indictments against quality circles and labor-management cooperation programs, but were aimed specifically at the practices of the companies in question. SILVER BULLETS AND MARKSMANSHIP In the mid-asses, quality circles are almost universally consigned to the dustbin of management techniques.
James Zimmerman and Jamie Weiss, writing in Quality, summed the matter up as follows: “Quality and productivity initiatives have come and gone during the past few decades. The list of ‘already ranks’ includes quality circles, statistical process control, total quality management, Baldrics protocol diagnostics, enterprise wide resource planning and lean manufacturing. Most have been sound in theory but inconsistent in implementation, not always delivering on their promises over the long run.
Mildewed Marketing Review said the same thing in similar words: “Management fads should be the curse of the business world-?as inevitably as night follows day, the next fad follows the last. Nothing more typifies the disastrous nature of this following so-called excellence than the example of quality circles. They rose to faddish heights in the late ass presenting the so-called secret of Japanese companies and how American companies such as Lockheed used them to their advantage.
Amid all the new consultancies and management articles, everyone ignored the fact Lockheed had abandoned them in 1978 and less than 12% of the original companies still used them. ” Harvey Robbins and Michael Finley, writing in their book, Why The New Teams Don’t Work, put it most bluntly: “Now, we know what happened to quality circles nationwide-?they failed, because they had no power and formed 625 quality circles but then, within 18 months, had abandoned all but 620 of them.
Japanese industry obviously embraced and applied quality circles (the idea of an American thinker) and ICQ has contributed to Japanese current dominance in many sectors, notably in automobiles. If ICQ became a fad in the U. S. And failed to liver, implementation was certainly one important reason-?as Zimmerman and Weiss pointed out. U. S. Adapters of ICQ may have seen the practice as a silver bullet and did not bother shooting straight.
The reason why a succession of other no doubt sensible management techniques have also, seemingly, failed to get traction may be due to a tendency by modern management to embrace mechanical recipes for success without bothering to understand and to internalize them fully and to absorb their spirit. REQUIREMENTS FOR SUCCESS The problems of adaptation, which have caused quality circles to be abandoned, are dad plain by a look at the conditions two experts think are necessary for the success of quality circles.
Ron Bass and J. Never Wright, in their book Quality Beyond Six Sigma (another quality management technique) specified seven conditions for successful implementation of quality circles “Quality circles have been tried in the USA and Europe, often with poor results,” Bass and Wright say. “From our combined first-hand experience of quality circles in Australia, the I-J and Europe, South America, Africa, Asia and India, we believe that quality circles will work if [these] rules are applied. Any experienced manager, interpolating the rules shown above and the typical management environments in which he or she works or has worked in the past will be able to discern quite readily why ICQ has not taken a firm hold in the U. S. Environment. As for the small business owner, he or she may actually be in a very good position to try this approach if it feels natural. An obviously important element of success, confirmed by Bass and Wright, is that ICQ must be practiced in an environment of trust and empowerment. 3. What are the benefits of an MOB Programmer? Explain. The main benefits of MOB are as follows: 1) Improved Planning:
MOB involves participative decision-making which makes objectives explicit and plans more realistic. It focuses attention on goals in key result areas. MOB forces managers to think in terms of results rather than activities. It encourages people to set specific pleasurable goals instead of depending on hunches or guesswork. An integrated hierarchy of objectives is created throughout the organization. Precise performance objectives and measures indicating goal accomplishment are laid down. There is a time bound programmer. 2) Coordination: MOB helps to clarify the structure and goals of the organization.
Harmony of objectives enables individuals at various levels to have a common direction. Every individual knows clearly his role in the organization, his area of operation and the results expected of him. Interlinking of corporate, unit and individual objectives helps in the decentralization of authority and fixation of responsibility. MOB result in clarification of organizational roles and structure. It promotes and integrated view of Commitment: Participation of subordinates in goal setting and performance reviews tend to improve their commitment to performance.
The corporate goals are converted into arsenal goals at all levels to integrate the individual with the organization Timely feedback on performance creates a feeling of accomplishment Job enrichment and sense of achievement help to improve Job satisfaction and morale. Improved communication and sense of involvement provides psychological satisfaction and stimulates them for hard work Conversion of organizational goals into personal goals helps to integrate the individual with the organization. MOB ensures performance by converting objective needs into personal goals and by providing freedom to subordinates. 4.
Accurate Appraisals: MOB replaces trait based appraisal by performance based appraisal. Quantitative targets for every individual enable him to evaluate his own performance. Performance under MOB is innovative and future oriented. It is positive, more objective and participative. Emphasis is on Job requirements rather than on personality. MOB is not a scapegoat approach rather it involves constructive criticism to assess why operations have failed or lagged behind and suggests remedial actions like organizational restructuring, better communication systems, more effective incentives to motivate executives, etc.
MOB provides an objective criterion for evaluation of actual performance. “Indeed one of the major contributions of MOB is that it enables us to substitute management by self-control, for management by domination. “control becomes more effective due to verifiable standards of per performance. Subordinates know in advance how they will be evaluated. 5. Executive Development: The MOB strategy is a kind of self-discipline whereby shortcomings and development needs are easily identified. It stresses upon a long term perspective and self- development.
MOB releases potential by providing opportunities for learning, innovate ion and creativity. It encourages initiative and growth by stretching capabilities of executives. MOB makes possible a high degree of self- control by individual managers and increases decentralization of authority. 6. Organizational change and MOB provides a frame work for planned changes. It enables managers to initiate and manage change. It helps to identify short-comings in organizational structure and processes. In this way, MOB improves the capacity of the organization to cope with its changing environment.
When an organization is managed by objectives, it becomes performance-oriented and socially-useful. Originally MOB was developed for business organizations but now it is being used by social welfare organizations also. But MOB might not be very successful in welfare organizations because of the abstract nature of the values to be measured in specific and quantified terms, general unwillingness on the part of personnel to subject their efforts to precise evaluations and lack of measuring instruments which could generate valid and reliable data. MOB has special significance in the areas of long range planning and performance appraisal. Lancing is imperative to an organization’s success. It serves as an analysis of the current and future needs of the organization, according to the Society of Human Resource Management (SHIRR). This process helps guide an organization in several areas, such as staffing, development, training. Staffing Staff, or personnel, planning is one of the most common activities conducted by HER departments, according to an article on Liabilities. Com. It typically is comprised of using the current staff size and design to predict staffing levels for the upcoming year.
HER departments may utilize a company’s strategic plan as a resource for information. For example, if an organization intends to launch a new interactive website in the following year, the HER department will budget for additional staff to build and maintain the website. Training and Development HER departments create training and employee development plans as well. This type of planning must be conducted in advance of the company’s needs in order to prepare for them, both from financial and resource perspectives. Training for new employees and product urologist may be included.
Teaching current employees new skills is considered an aspect of development. Organizations benefit from having determined and consistent training programs. Career Development Career development is imperative in order to prepare an organization for upcoming retirements, as well as to retain long-term employees. Companies need to have a strategic plan on how they intend to replace their management with qualified leaders. This means that current employees should have career road maps and plans that incorporate both short-term and long-term goals.
For example, if an organization is grooming a top, young salesperson for the management track in five years, training should begin now. This may include time management courses, classes on how to coach others and a mentor program. Downsizing When companies foresee an upcoming need to downsize, it’s in their best interest to have their HER departments plan for it in advance to ensure that the process is smooth and orderly, and complies with all legal requirements. This type of planning also may prevent loss of knowledge and resources.
Some companies begin the downsizing process by eliminating non-essential personnel. Others lay off administrative staff, but keep money-generating positions. Organizations may be hit by lawsuits and high unemployment costs if downsizing is not strategically planned. 5. What makes Career Planning a success? Explain. 6. Explain the various functions of Human Resources Management. Introduction An efficiently run human resources department can provide your organization with structure and the ability to meet business needs through managing your company’s most valuable resources its employees.
There are several HER disciplines, or areas, but HER practitioners in each discipline may perform more than one of the more than six essential functions. In small businesses without a dedicated HER department, it’s possible to achieve the same level of efficiency and workforce management through outsourcing HER functions or Joining a professional employer organization. Recruitment The success of recruiters and employment specialists generally is measured by the who work in-house as opposed to companies that provide recruiting and staffing services play a key role in developing the employer’s workforce.
They advertise Job postings, source candidates, screen applicants, conduct preliminary interviews and coordinate hiring efforts with managers responsible for making the final selection of candidates. Safety Workplace safety is an important factor. Under the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, employers have an obligation to provide a safe working environment for employees. One of the main functions of HER is to support workplace safety training and maintain federally mandated logs for workplace injury and fatality reporting.
In addition, HER safety and risk specialists often work closely with HER benefits specialists to manage the company’s workers compensation issues. Employee Relations In a unionized work environment, the employee and labor relations functions of HER may be combined and handled by one specialist or be entirely separate functions engaged by two HER specialists with specific expertise in each area. Employee relations is the HER discipline concerned with strengthening the employer-employee relationship through measuring Job satisfaction, employee engagement and resolving workplace conflict.
Labor relations functions may include developing management response to union organizing campaigns, negotiating collective bargaining agreements and rendering interpretations of labor union contract issues. Compensation and Benefits Like employee and labor relations, the compensation and benefits functions of HER fete can be handled by one HER specialist with dual expertise. On the compensation side, the HER functions include setting compensation structures and evaluating competitive pay practices.
A com and benefits specialist also may negotiate group health coverage rates with insurers and coordinate activities with the retirement savings fund administrator. Payroll can be a component of the compensation and benefits section of HER; however, in many cases, employers outsource such administrative functions as payroll. Compliance Compliance with labor and employment laws is a critical HER function. Noncompliance an result in workplace complaints based on unfair employment practices, unsafe working conditions and general dissatisfaction with working conditions that can affect productivity and ultimately, profitability.
HER staff must be aware of federal and state employment laws such as Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, the Fair Labor Standards Act, the National Labor Relations Act and many other rules and regulations. Training and Development Employers must provide employees with the tools necessary for their success which, in many cases, means giving new employees extensive orientation training to help hem transition into a new organizational culture. Many HER departments also provide leadership training and professional development.