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Human Resources Management Chapters 1-5

Human Resource Management
the policies, practices, and systems that influence employees’ behavior, attitudes, and performance
human capital
an organization’s employees, described in terms of their training, experience, judgement, intelligence, relationships, and insight
high-performance work system
an organization in which technology, organizational structure, people, and processes work together seamlessly to give an organization an advantage in the competitive environment
human resources
-are valuable
-are rare
-cannot be imitated
-have no good substitutes
job analysis
the process of getting detailed information about jobs
job design
the process of defining the way work will be performed and the tasks that a given job requires
recruitment
the process through which the organization seeks applicants for potential employment
selection
the process by which the organization attempts to identify applicants with the necessary knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics that will help the organization achieve its goals
training
a planned effort to enable employees to learn job-related knowledge, skills, and behavior
development
the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and behaviors that improve an employee’s ability to meet changes in job requirements and in customer demands
performance management
the process of ensuring that employees’ activities and outputs match the organization’s goals
workforce analytics
the use of quantitative tools and scientific methods to analyze data from human resource databases and other sources to make evidence-based decisions that support business goals
human resource planning
identifying the numbers and types of employees the organization will require to meet its objectives
talent management
a systematic, planned effort to attract, retain, develop, and motivate highly skilled employees and managers
evidence-based HR
collecting and using data to show that human resource practices have a positive influence on the company’s bottom line or key stakeholders
sustainability
an organization’s ability to profit without depleting its resources, including employees, natural resources, and the support of the surrounding community
stakeholders
the parties with an interest in the company’s success (typically, shareholders, the community, customers, and employees)
internal labor force
an organization’s workers (its employees and the people who have contracts to work at the organization)
external labor market
individuals who are actively seeking employment
knowledge workers
employees whose main contribution to the organization is specialized knowledge, such as knowledge of customers, a process, or a profession
employee empowerment
giving employees responsibility and authority to make decisions regarding all aspects of product development or customer service
teamwork
the assignment of work to groups of employees with various skills who interact to assemble a product or provide a service
total quality management (tqm)
a companywide effort to continually improve the ways people, machines, and systems accomplish work
reengineering
a complete review of the organization’s critical work process to make them more efficient and able to deliver higher quality
outsourcing in ch. 2
the practice of having another company (a vendor, third-party provider, or consultant) provide services
offshoring
moving operations from the country where a company is headquartered to a country where pay rates are lower but the necessary skills are available
expatriates
employees who take assignments in other countries
human resource information system (HRIS)
a computer system used to acquire, store, manipulate, analyze, distribute, and retrieve information related to an organization’s human resources
electronic human resource management (e-HRM)
the processing and transmission of digitized HR information, especially using computer networking and the Internet
self-service
system in which employees have online access to information about HR issues and go online to enroll themselves in programs and provide feedback through surveys
psychological contract
a description of what an employee expects to contribute in an employment relationship and what the employer will provide the employee in exchange for those contributions
alternative work arrangements
methods of staffing other than the traditional hiring of full time employees (for example, use of independent contractors, on call workers, temporary workers, and contract company workers)
Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO)
the condition in which all individuals have an equal chance for employment, regardless of their race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin
equal employment opportunity commission (EEOC)
agency of the department of justice charged with enforcing Title VII of the civil rights act of 1964 and other anti-discrimination laws
affirmative action
an organization’s active effort to find opportunities to hire or promote people in a particular group
disability
under the americans with disabilities act, a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities, a record of having such an impairment, or being regarded as having such an impairment
EEO-1 report
the EEOC’s employer information report, which counts employees sorted by job category, sex, ethnicity, and race
uniform guidelines on employee selection procedures
guidelines issued by the EEOC and other agencies to identify how an organization should develop and administer its system for selecting employees so as not to violate anti-discrimination laws
office of federal contract compliance programs (OFCCP)
the agency responsible for enforcing the executive orders that cover companies doing business with the federal government
disparate treatment
differing treatment of individuals, where the differences are based on the individuals’ race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, or disability status
bona fide occupational qualification (BFQQ)
a necessary (not merely preferred) qualification for performing a job
disparate impact
a condition in which employment practices are seemingly neutral yet disproportionately exclude a protected group from employment opportunities
four-fifths rule
rule of thumb that finds evidence of potential discrimination if an organization’s hiring rate for a minority group is less than four-fifths the hiring rate for the majority group
reasonable accommodation
an employer’s obligation to do something to enable an otherwise qualified person to perform a job
sexual harassment
unwelcome sexual advances as defined by the EEOC
occupational safety and health act (OSH act)
u.s. law authorizing the federal government to establish and enforce occupational safety and health standards for all places of employment engaging in interstate commerce
occupational safety and health administration (OSHA)
labor department agency responsible for inspecting employers, applying safety and health standard, and levying fines for violation
right-to-know laws
state laws that require employers to provide information to employees about the health risks associated with exposure to substances considered hazardous
material safety data sheets (MSDSs)
forms on which chemical manufacturers and importers identify the hazard of their chemicals
job hazard analysis technique
safety promotion technique that involves breaking down a job into basic elements, then rating each element for its potential for harm or injury
technic of operations review (TOR)
method of promoting safety by determining which specific element of a job led to a past accident
work flow design
the process of analyzing the tasks necessary for the production of a product or service
job
a set of related duties
position
the set of duties (job) performed by a specific person
job description
a list of tasks, duties, and responsibilities (TDRS) that a particular job entails
TDRS
observable actions
job specification
a list of the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOS) that an individual must have to perform a particular job
position analysis questionnaire (PAQ)
a standardized job analysis questionnaire containing 194 questions about work behaviors, work conditions, and job characteristics that apply to a wide variety of jobs
fleishman job analysis system
job analysis technique that asks subject-matter experts to evaluate a job in terms of the abilities required to perform the job
competency
an area of personal capability that enables employees to perform their work successfully
industrial engineering
the study of jobs to find the simplest way to structure work in order to maximize efficiency
job enlargement
broadening the types of tasks performed in a job
job extension
enlarging jobs by combining several relatively simple jobs to form a job with a wider range of tasks
job rotation
enlarging jobs by moving employees among several different jobs
job enrichment
empowering workers by adding more decision-making authority to jobs
flextime
a scheduling policy in which full-time employees may choose starting and ending times within guidelines specified by the organization
job sharing
a work option in which two part-time employees carry out both the tasks associated with a single job
ergonomics
the study of the interface between individuals’ physiology and the characteristics of the physical work environment
forecasting
the attempts to determine the supply of and demand for the various type of human resources to predict areas within the organization where there will be labor shortages or surpluses
trend analysis
constructing and applying statistical models that predict labor demand for the next year, given relatively objective statistic from the previous year
leading indicators
objective measures that accurately predict future labor demand
transitional matrix
a chart that lists job categories held in one period and shows the proportion of employees in each of those job categories in a future period
core competency
a set of knowledge and skills that make the organization superior to competitors and create value for customers
downsizing
the planned elimination of large numbers of personnel with the goal of enhancing the organization’s competitiveness
outsourcing in ch. 5
contracting with another organization to perform a broad set of services
workforce utilization review
a comparison of the proportion of employees in protected groups with the proportion that each group represents in the relevant labor market
recruiting
any activity carried on by the organization with the primary purpose of identifying and attracting potential employees
employment at will
employment principle that if there is no specific employment contract saying otherwise, the employer or employee may end an employment relationship at any time, regardless of the cause
due-process policies
policies that formally lay out the steps an employee make take to appeal the employer’s decision to terminate that employee
job posting
the process of communicating information about a job vacancy on the company bulletin boards, in employee publications, on corporate intranets, and anywhere else in the organization that communicates with employees
direct applicants
people who apply for a vacancy without prompting from the organization
referrals
people who apply for a vacancy because someone in the organization prompted them to do so
nepotism
the practice of hiring relatives
yield ratio
a ratio that expresses the percentage of applicants who successfully move from one stage of the recruitment and selection process to the next
realistic job preview
background information about a job’s positive and negative qualities

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