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Human Values

In order for us to fully comprehend and analyze how human values influence the outcome of a given circumstance, and how they are managed, there are certain parameters that should be defined, so as to give a more detailed explanation. Such definitions will be in the following areas. What is value? What is value system? What is value conflict? Are conflicts legitimate? Furthermore, a detailed explanation will be made in an attempt to explain the different types of values under value issues which includes: Value as a belief, Value as means and ends, Value as a motivation and Value as standard.

What is value? – A value is defined as a belief that is enduring and serves as a speci...

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...fic mode of conduct, or an end state of existence which is personally preferable to an opposite or converse conduct or end state of existence. Value can also be seen as a permanent belief of a person. The individual develops such beliefs, either in his own native culture or in the cultures with which he is associated. In marketing, the advantage of using values to explain innovativeness is that this variable, by its very nature, transcends national, cultural and social boundaries.

Consequently, it acts as an excellent segmentation basis regardless of the nature of the market, whether homogeneous-domestic, cosmopolitan-domestic or international. (Naoufel Daghfous, John V. Petrof, Frank Pons. ) What is a value system? – A value system is an organization enduring of beliefs concerning preferable modes of conducts or end state of existence along a continuum of relative importance. The questions to be asked then are this, since value is a conception of something that is personally or socially preferable, to whom does this desirability apply?

Does value apply equally to oneself and others? Does competition mean double standards? Does cooperation mean single standards? Types of values Value as a belief – Value as a belief produces a patterned way of thinking, acting and eventually performance of the person or group of persons drawn to it. And such beliefs can take different dimensions which includes existential, evaluative, cognitive, affective and behavioral which leads to action. “Value as means and ends- In this regard, value can serve as a means of achieving a desired objective or end, in itself.

Such means and ends of value are of two types with their subdivisions. ” (Hassard J. 1996) Terminal values Personal Individualism Salvation Peace of mind Social Communication Peace Security Instrument Moral Conscience Fair Honesty Competence Logical Intelligence Skill The above mentioned value as means and ends are what organizations use to achieve objectives in its set-up. Value as a motivation- Motivation can be defined as that driving force that keeps a person or an organization going in order to achieve their desired objectives.

Therefore, motivation value is that enduring belief that serves a specific mode of conduct that propels an individual or an organization to its desired objectives. We have three types of motivational values; they are Adjustive, Ego and Knowledge. They are subdivide Adjustive- Adapting to group, instrument to achieving this includes obedience, temperance and responsibility. Terminal- Success, profitability and injury free environment. Ego- Needs, feelings and actions that are socially unacceptably rationalized as required. Knowledge- can be seen as the need for money, understanding and clarity.

Value as standard- When we are given our values, and it fashions out our ways of life, a standard has set in, that is our value become the yardstick by which we set our standard of living or operations in the case of an organization. The following are the various ways this standard of value affects us, it is used to rationalize our thoughts and actions {self justification} Evaluates, judges and also compares us and others, Guides in presentation of self, Predisposes particular religion and politics and gives position on social issues.

All the above mentioned points are the various areas in which value as a standard affects the individual or organization in its dealings with others. What is value conflict? -Value conflict is defined as a situation that arises when one person or a group of persons’ ideas and belief contradicts or opposes those of others or group of persons. Are conflicts legitimate and valuable? – The legibility of any conflict depends on a whole lot of factors which includes beliefs, policies {in the case of an organization} norms and values of a given society or community etc.

It becomes valuable to the group involved if it ensures their continued existence. Important skill for all effective leaders is to understand the nature of human conflict and be able to manage this conflict for the betterment of individuals, groups, organizations, communities, and societies. In this module you will discover the principles of conflict management, including how to identify the sources of conflict, how to choose a mode of conflict management, and how to conduct integrative negotiations. (www. lhup. edu/leadership/book/10. doc)

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