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IB ch.5

Switzerland exports cheese and chocolate because one of its factor endowments is lots of rich agricultural land.
false
Porter’s diamond can be used to explain the importance of the environment and natural resources.
true
Porter’s diamond model suggests that Switzerland should not be competitively successful.
false
Porter suggests that adverse conditions can motivate innovation, which may lead to the development of a competitive advantage.
true
With globally networked transportation, location does not matter as a basic factor condition.
false
Because Austria sided with the West in the Cold War, it became a favored location for offices of international firms servicing eastern European operations.
false
Geographical proximity is rarely a major reason for trade.
false
Mountains tend to impede trade, whereas flat areas tend to facilitate trade relationships.
true
Mountain barriers found in the area of the Pakistan-Afghanistan border impede travel and separate populations.
true
Switzerland, China, and Colombia are nations that present topographic challenges to marketers because their markets are divided by mountain ranges.
true
Every coast between 20 and 30 degrees of the equator (north or south) is dry.
true
Bodies of water, much like deserts and mountains, also serve as barriers to trade.
false
Climate differences explain differences in human and economic development because the less temperate climates limit mental powers.
false
Nonrenewable energy sources include coal, fossil fuels, and ocean thermal energy conversion.
false
Through 2035, fossil fuels are expected to remain the world’s dominant energy source.
true
China and India combined are using more marketed energy than is the United States, and this trend is projected to increase.
true
Heavy oil is oil weighted down with an extra carbon molecule, and it can be gasified using the Fischer-Tropsch process.
false
Saudi Arabia and Canada have the largest proven oil reserves.
true
The largest portion of proven oil reserves can be categorized as being at the highest level of investment risk.
true
Nuclear power is a leading contributor to the French energy grid.
true
Because it is a high polluter, coal is on the decline as an energy source.
false
Biomass is a category of renewable energy fuels based on their heavy weight.
false
Sustainable approaches in business usually involve trade-offs such as lower profits compensated by reduced marketing costs and improved image/reputation.
false
Limits, interdependence, and equity are characteristics of sustainable business practices.
true
The stakeholder model for environmentally sustainable business has failed because we don’t have an accounting system to measure the present costs of environmental irresponsibility.
false
Compassion has nothing to do with sustainable business. Business is business
false
Coal and nuclear power are both in decline as energy sources
false
Stakeholder theory suggests that balancing competing tensions in a business is impossible and that recognizing this early in the process is helpful.
false
Triple-bottom-line accounting is an example of sustainability with economic, social, and environmental accountability.
true
Interface, the manufacturer of Flor, is an example of a petroleum-based business that has developed a sustainable model.
true
Environmental sustainability is about maintaining the environment, and it is both local and global.
true
Environmentally sustainable businesses need to consider the economic and ecological systems in which they function, but not the social.
false
Sustainable business practices have three characteristics: limits, interdependence, and equity.
true
The relationships among ecological, social, and economic systems in sustainable environments need to be:

A. discreet.

B. renewable.

C. positive.

D. interdependent.

interdependent
The stakeholder model requires businesses to think about:

A. the stakeholders’ interest in profitability.

B. the network of tensions caused by competing demands.

C. strategy in light of sustainability.

D. the frequency of social issues faced by the stakeholders.

the network of tensions caused by competing demands
Stakeholder theory pushes managers to be clear about how they want to do business, so it encourages:

A. recognition of and transparency with values and underlying principles.

B. discussion of profit center margins.

C. strategy development from the top down.

D. B and C.

recognition of and transparency with values and underlying principles
Interface, the producer of Flor carpeting, has a solid record in sustainable business practice and:

A. makes impressive contributions to sustainable development in developing economies.

B. is committed to triple-bottom-line accounting.

C. spins its products from petroleum.

D. sources its raw materials from recycled plastic bottles.

spins its products from petroleum
Patagonia recognizes that doing business following the traditional approach, focusing on quarterly earnings, is not complete because this does not focus on:

A. the negative impact of the business.

B. the cost of environmental sustainability.

C. consumer needs for green merchandise.

D. triple-bottom-line (3BL) accounting.

the negative impact of the business
Chouinard, the founder of Patagonia, observed that:

A. triple-bottom-line accounting is the way to build sustainability.

B. compassion is the first step in sustainability.

C. our approach to fossil fuel consumption is clearly unsustainable.

D. no business can be done on a dead planet.

no business can be done on a dead planet
Physical barriers that have led to the development of separate languages in the same country are known as:

A. political and cultural patterns.

B. topographical barriers.

C. linguistic tariffs.

D. differentiating borders.

topographical barriers
With factor conditions, Porter’s diamond model distinguishes between basic factors, those a country inherits, and

A. imported factors, those it brings in from abroad.

B. demand conditions, the aggregate demand in the economy.

C. climate conditions, the basic influence on business options in the specific location.

D. advanced factors, those a country can mold: labor and infrastructure.

advanced factors. those a country can mold: labor and infastructure
Swiss exports are concentrated, high-density products that minimize the need for importing bulky materials because:

A. mountain ranges increase transport costs into and out of Switzerland and limit local resources.

B. the Swiss love of chocolate and watches influenced the export patterns.

C. high-density exports encounter lower tariffs.

D. B and C.

mountain ranges increase transport costs into and out of Switzerland and limit local resources
Geographical proximity contributes to:

A. knowledge of the country by its neighbors.

B. lower freight costs.

C. the likelihood of trade relationships.

D. all of the above.

all of the above
Topography, including mountains, deserts, plains, and bodies of water, greatly influences:

A. political relationships.

B. the physical distribution of products and services.

C. the local approach to education and health services.

D. local attitudes toward industrially developed economies.

the physical distribution of products and services
Nations whose mountains divide them into smaller regional areas include:

A. the United States, Mexico, and Canada.

B. Switzerland, Afghanistan, China, and Colombia.

C. Luxembourg, France, and Romania.

D. Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.

Switzerland, Afghanistan, china and colombia
One example of the effect of topography is:

A. isolated language groups, which require special marketing adjustments.

B. regional metals markets.

C. a unified China.

D. equal distribution of populations.

isolated language groups, which require special marketing adjustments
A good example of the relationship between water supply and population concentration is:

A. eastern Europe

B. China

C. Australia

D. Japan

australia
In more dense populations, international managers can expect:

A. increased political discord.

B. markets that respond well to word-of-mouth promotion.

C. contrasting topographical features.

D. lower marketing and distribution costs.

lower marketing and distribution costs
Densely populated areas coincide with:

A. rivers, lakes, and seacoasts.

B. inland waterways.

C. rich mineral reserves and rare earth deposits.

D. low levels of environmental awareness.

rivers, lakes, and seacoasts
Climate influences:

A. intelligence and energy levels, per the North-South divide.

B. what people can do, physically and economically.

C. levels of emotional well-being.

D. adjustment and motivation.

what people can do, physically and economically
World Bank studies have shown that underdevelopment is often due to:

A. factors such as parasites and viruses that are a part of tropical climates and expand unchecked because of the lack of winter temperatures.

B. mental slowness in people of the climates around the equator.

C. socialist political regimes.

D. lack of government investment in education.

factors such as parasites and viruses that are a part of tropical climates and expand unchecked because of the lack of winter temperatures
Petroleum, a relatively cheap nonrenewable energy source, is:

A. in abundant supply but is not environmentally clean.

B. being increasingly depleted and is expected to run out in another 50 years, but in the meantime, improved retrieval techniques are being developed.

C. clean, cheap, and available, but most of the reserves are located in countries whose leadership is critical of the industrialized world.

D. expected to run out in another 10 years and needs to be replaced with renewable energy sources quickly.

being increasingly depleted and is expected to run out in another 50 years, but in the meantime, improved retrieval techniques are being developed.
The top four countries in proven reserves are:

A. China, Japan, Singapore, and Malaysia.

B. Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, the United States, and Mexico.

C. Qatar, Libya, Nigeria, and Venezuela.

D. Saudi Arabia, Canada, Iran, and Iraq.

saudia arabia, Canada, iran, iraq
Heavy oil is:

A. a group of unconventional oil sources such as oil sands, shale, coal, and natural gas, all of which via processing can yield oil.

B. a rich oil found in deposits in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait whose molecular weight is heavier than normal oil.

C. oil extracted from biomass that is reprocessed.

a group of unconventional oil sources such as oil sands, shale, coal, and natural gas, all of which via processing can yield oil.
As an energy source, nuclear power:

A. is growing significantly, especially in developing countries.

B. has been growing as the price of oil climbs and cleaner energy sources (nonpolluting) are sought.

C. has been exploited by France, which has one of the lowest greenhouse gas emissions in the industrialized world.

D. all of the above.

all of the above
Coal pollutes heavily:

A. so its use has declined markedly in the past 15 years.

B. yet its consumption has increased and is projected to continue on this trend, especially in China and India.

C. and contributes to greenhouse gas emissions, especially in China, India, and the United States.

D. B and C.

two of A,B,C
Renewable energy sources:

A. will replace fossil fuels, due to price, depletion, or carbon emissions.

B. are growing at greater rates than the nonrenewables in the United States and Europe.

C. A and B.

D. are all available everywhere.

two of A, B, and C
The area with the greatest capacities in renewables as of 2010 is:

A. the United States.

B. European Union.

C. India.

D. Japan.

European union
Nonfuel minerals:

A. include chrome, manganese, platinum, and arsenic, all necessary for modern living.

B. are mostly sourced through imports in the United States.

C. frequently originate in China.

D. all of the above.

all of the above
Environmental sustainability is both local and global because:

A. environmental conditions do not recognize national borders.

B. governments are not prepared to address environmental issues beyond the UN.

C. business has become global, so sustainability must follow the trend.

D. all of the above.

environmental conditions do not recognize national boarders
The three characteristics of evolving sustainable business practices are:

A. local, global, and improving quality of life.

B. environmental sustainability, quality-of-life sustainability, and triple-bottom-line accounting.

C. limits, interdependence, and equity.

D. none of the above.

limits, interdependence, and equity
Sam Palmisano, CEO of IBM, has described a new way of doing business that goes to equity of distribution by observing that:

A. profit sharing will need to increase.

B. stakeholder theory provides a way forward, combining local and global.

C. IBM would end its colonial company model and move on to an integrated model with high levels of trust among stakeholders.

D. A and B.

IBM would end its colonial company model and move on to an integrated model with high levels of trust among stakeholders
Stakeholder theory is an understanding of how business works that:

A. takes into account culture and environmentalism.

B. rejects the importance of the bottom line.

C. emphasizes planning.

D. takes into account all identifiable interest holders.

takes into account all identifiable interest holders
A way to measure a company’s success in sustainable business practices is:

A. to examine the return on investment.

B. triple-bottom-line accounting.

C. to monitor the company in a social context.

D. to review the marketing materials.

triple-bottom-line accounting
A specific example of a sustainable business is Patagonia, as evidenced in its:

A. Footprint Chronicles program that addresses the trade-offs global sourcing creates and evaluates the impact of sourcing decisions.

B. ecosystem model of sustainability that relies on the synergies between financial, environmental, and social elements.

C. product lines and credit policies.

D. A and B.

two of A, B, and C
Porter’s diamond is a model that offers an explanation of:

A. differing levels of success among the national players in world markets.

B. endowment factor differentials.

C. the impact of climate on development.

D. macro-level FDI.

differing levels of success among the national players in world markets
Proximity is a factor in explaining:

A. a nation’s political system.

B. the number of a nation’s political and trade relationships.

C. language patterns.

D. demand conditions.

the number of a nation’s political and trade relationships
Climate is probably the most important element of the physical forces, as it sets the limits on:

A. annual rainfall, and thus water supply.

B. population growth patterns.

C. what people can do physically and economically.

D. expected FDI.

what people can do physically and economically
The main transportation artery of Europe is the:

A. Venice canal system.

B. Danube-Dresden waterway.

C. Lake Constantine system.

D. Rhine waterway.

Rhine waterway
Bodies of water that provide inexpensive access to interior markets are known as:

A. inland waterways

B. seaway outlets.

C. river systems.

D. inland oceans.

inland waterways
Every continent has inland waterways that provide inexpensive access to interior markets except:

A. Russia.

B. North Africa.

C. Australia.

D. North America.

australia
The North-South divide uses climatic differences to explain:

A. population differences.

B. trade patterns.

C. differences in human development.

D. cultural differences.

differences in human development
Studies conducted by the World Bank indicate that tropical climates allow for:

A. the unimpeded reproduction and growth of weeds, viruses, birds, insects, and parasites.

B. lack of the need to provide heat and shelter that is present in northern climates.

C. unparalleled trade.

D. cultivation of citrus and four crops per year.

the unimpeded reproduction and growth of weeds , viruses, birds, insects, and parasites
Natural resources are:

A. anything that is alive in the natural world.

B. anything provided by nature on which people depend.

C. any raw material that becomes a component in a manufactured good.

D. anything that is used for food or fuel.

anything provided by nature on which people depend
The marketed energy use has been dominated since 1980 by:

A. renewable energy sources.

B. nuclear energy and coal.

C. nonrenewable energy sources.

D. solar and wind power.

nonrenewable energy sources
The International Energy Agency 2010 report observes that an energy revolution underway may well lead to:

A. a 27 percent drop in oil usage.

B. North America becoming the center of alternative energy research.

C. Africa and the Middle East increasingly relying on fossil fuels.

D. Europe relying increasingly on nuclear.
The revolution is slow but underway, according to the IEA.

a 27 percent drop in oil usage
Unconventional sources of petroleum such as oil sands and shale are often grouped together and referred to as:

A. nonrenewable hopes.

B. new sources.

C. peak sources.

D. heavy oil.

heavy oil
This material, when heated to 500°C, will yield 25 liters or more per ton of input:

A. shale.

B. biomass.

C. natural gas.

D. light petroleum.

shale
The largest portion of the world’s proven oil reserves is located in:

A. low-risk areas.

B. high-risk areas.

C. climate-challenging areas.

D. developed nations’ oil fields.

high-risk areas
This government commercialized the German Fischer-Tropsch process in order to obtain oil from coal through a catalyzed chemical reaction:

A. Israel.

B. the Sudan.

C. South Africa.

D. Germany.

south africa
Instead of declining, this nonrenewable energy source, because of its lack of pollution and the rising price of oil, has seen significant growth:

A. wind power.

B. nuclear power.

C. geothermal power.

D. petroleum.

nuclear power
Although it pollutes heavily, this energy source is on the rise everywhere, especially in China:

A. natural gas.

B. coal.

C. nuclear.

D. diesel.

coal
This is the only industrialized country that has not ratified the Kyoto Protocol, a UN convention on climate change:

A. China.

B. France.

C. Russia.

D. the United States.

the United States
This is the cleanest of the nonrenewable fuel sources, and it has become a substitute for oil as oil prices increase:

A. natural gas.

B. diesel.

C. nuclear.

D. kerosene.

natural gas
Wind power is sourced:

A. on land only.

B. on land and sea.

C. where altitudes permit.

D. in the Swiss Alps.

on land and sea
According to the text, the fastest-growing renewable energy source is:

A. solar PV.

B. nuclear power.

C. wind power.

D. biomass.

solar PV
This group of resources, which includes chrome and manganese, is used in many technology applications, and the United States imports many of these resources 100 percent:

A. rare earths.

B. nonfuel minerals.

C. rare minerals.

D. mineral gems.

nonfuel minerals
China’s vast and mountainous terrain leads to:

A. many languages and dialects.

B. political unity, as in Switzerland.

C. economic disparities.

D. population disparities.

many language and dialects
Deserts and tropical forests seem opposites, but they have this trait in common:

A. they are good vacation spots, and thus an economic stimulator.

B. they have small populations on their edges.

C. they separate markets, increasing transportation costs.

D. they are hospitable to insects.

the separate markets, increasing transportation costs
Porter in his diamond model distinguishes two types of factor conditions:

A. positive and negative factors.

B. contributing and disaggregating factors.

C. advanced and basic factors.

D. foreign and domestic factors.

advanced and basic factors
Rare earths are a group of elements used in:

A. jewelry.

B. technology applications.

C. farming.

D. solar applications.

technology and applications
Which country controls the export market of rare earths?

A. Brazil

B. Russia

C. the United States

D. China

china
Why are rare earths a concern in industrialized economies?

A. Although they are relatively common, they do not occur in concentrated form often.

B. They are very rare.

C. They are used in the smelting process.

D. They are not a concern, except for political reasons.

although they are relatively common, they do not occur in concentrated form often
Europe follows the precautionary principle approach to environmental health and safety. This means:

A. everyone takes precautions and is always on the watch for environmental issues.

B. once a product is thought to be harmful, it is investigated immediately.

C. manufacturers of new products need to prove the product is safe.

D. consumers regularly review product safety regulations.

manufacturers of new products need to prove the product is safe
Sustainable business models:

A. incorporate a more socialist political approach to the marketplace.

B. have as a goal to ensure that the marketplace exists for future generations.

C. regard environmentalism as more important than profit.

D. A and C.

have as a goal to ensure that the marketplace exists for future generations

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